Published on January 24, 2009
Reclaiming a Communication Focus in Risk Communication Presentation by Jason S. Wrench
Union Carbide Plant in Bhopal, India
2,000 Died Instantly 20,000 Died in the First Week 200,000+ were injured
Three Phases of Risk Communication Phase I (1975-1984) – Risk Assessment Model Phase II (1985-1994) – Risk Management Model Phase III (1994-Present Day) – Risk Communication Model
Basic Terminology Hazard: Anything that can cause morbidity (injury) or mortality (death). Risk: The probability of morbidity (loss of limb or injury) or mortality (loss of life) associated with a specific hazard.
Risk Communication The process by which an individual or group of individuals (risk communicator[s]) stimulates meaning in the minds of another individual or group individuals (receiver[s]) about the morbidity and mortality associated with a specific hazard by means of verbal, nonverbal, and mediated messages.
Wrench (2004) “Development and Validity Testing of the Risk Communicator Style Scale” + Caring/Goodwill + Trustworthiness + + Competence Source Credibility + Behavioral - + Affective + Cognitive Interaction Satisfaction + - Receiver Apprehension + Communicator Clarity + Nonverbal Immediacy Technical Democratic. Communication Variables
Four Types of Risk Communicators Risk Educators Risk Feelers + Democratic Risk Assessors Risk Avoiders - Democratic + Technical - Technical
Wrench (2007) “The Influence of Perceived Risk Knowledge on Risk Communication” + Caring/Goodwill + Trustworthiness + Competence Source Credibility + Behavioral + Affective + Cognitive Interaction Satisfaction - Receiver Apprehension + Communicator Clarity + Nonverbal Immediacy Risk Knowledge Communication Variables
Wrench, Fiore, & Charbonnette “The Impact of Crisis Communication on Levels of Acute-Traumatic Stress Disorder As a Result of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the United States” .20 .50 Canonical Correlation .28 -.76 Hyperarousal .82 -.41 Intrusion .19 -.91 Avoidance .82 .58 Crisis Knowledge .29 -.96 Receiver Apprehension Variate #2 Variate #1
Impact of Receiver Characteristics + + Locus of Control + + Psychoticism + Neuroticism Extraversion Human Temperament Receiver Characteristics Belief About Harm Risk Knowledge Technical Democratic Communication Variables
Continued - Risk Knowledge - Technical Risk Communicator Style + + Democratic Risk Communicator Style Receiver Perceptions - + - Receiver Apprehension + Responsiveness Assertiveness Sociocommunicative Orientation Belief About Harm Risk Knowledge Technical Democratic Communication Variables
Future Directions More research is needed on crisis communication in general. More receiver characteristics that could impact perceived Risk. I would like to experimentally test the effect of political affiliation on people’s perceptions of a source of risk communication. Currently Risk and Crisis Communication is fairly a theoretical, which needs to change.
More research is needed on crisis communication in general.
More receiver characteristics that could impact perceived Risk.
I would like to experimentally test the effect of political affiliation on people’s perceptions of a source of risk communication.
Currently Risk and Crisis Communication is fairly a theoretical, which needs to change.
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