Published on March 9, 2014
您好！ 这是一个荣幸来到这里云南开放大 学。 Dr. Christopher Jennings Rise and Influence of Media Associate Professor of Interactive Media Production Department of Journalism and Technical Communication Department of Journalism and Technical Communication
What is meant by Influence, Evolution and to Evolve? • Influence: the capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, ext., of others… • Evolution: any process of formation or growth: development. • Evolve: To develop or achieve gradually. 2
If the Walls Could only Talk “This is no longer the work of an individual, but a collective, social affair showing the true spiritual unity, I am inclined to say, an orthodoxy, suggesting some sort of registering the development of this art by the selection and instruction of those most highly gifted.” ~Abbe Breuil, Anthropologist/ Ethnologist 3
What do these Caves Tell us about Media Evolution? • Dawn of a Storytelling Era: First indications of media as a communication and teaching/learning tool • The caves were classrooms where humans learned to communicate with images • Birth of Symbolism and Icons used to Communicate a Message 5
Dawn of the Literacy Era • Winter Counts served as important Documentation and Structure • Perspective of the entire tribe • First structured document using symbols and icons • What if this Winter Count were as Web Site Interface? 6
The murals in the six lunettes by John White Alexander (18561915) illustrate The Evolution of the Book. In historical order, the subjects begin at the south end with The Cairn, Oral Tradition, and Egyptian Hieroglyphics and continue at the north end with Picture Writing, The Manuscript Book, and The Printing Press. — Library of Congress, Washington, DC 7
The Gutenberg Parenthesis • …is a divide which occurs when cultures change from a primarily oral or hand-copied tradition to one of reliable, consistent mechanical reproduction. Once this happened, a privileged reified place was given to the concept of the complete original text “as the author intended” - rather than seeing it as an interpreted work. Prior to this transition, works evolved and changed over time, and the performative aspect was more important than the accuracy." — Dr. Thomas Pettitt 8
The Continuing Transition • Traditional methods, before movable print, of media used by trusted sources for centuries to mechanical sources that mass produce communication. • Creators of media have been copying each other since cave paintings. • The art of mixing media or sources has been evolving - despite law. • How important is media accuracy? 9
Rise of the Machines Buddhist Sutras from the Thunder Peak Pagoda (975 A.D.). The earliest example of Chinese printing in the Library of Congress, this Buddhist invocation sutra was recovered from the foundations of the Thunder Peak Pagoda (Lei-feng t'a) after it collapsed during a storm in 1924. Ch'ien Shu (929-988 AD), prince of the Kingdom of Wu-yüeh, ordered the printing of some eighty-four thousand rolls of the sutra and then had them placed in holes bored in the bricks used to build the seven-story pagoda. (Chinese Rare Book Collection, Asian Division) 10
Rise of the Machines Joseph Niepce, a French inventor, is widely known for developing photography in 1816 and capturing a single moment of time forever. Niepce created the first permanent photograph using a camera obscura (a pinhole camera) and a sheet of pewter coated with bitumen of Judea - an asphalt that when exposed to light, hardened permanently. This first photograph was captured during an eight-hour exposure, taking so much time that the sun passed overhead, illuminating both sides of the courtyard. 11
Rise of the Machines More than 50 years later, Eadweard Muybridge took a series of photographs of a horse in motion. His use of increased shutter speeds allowed cameras to capture the sequence of motion. Through the process, Muybridge was able to support the notion that all four legs of a horse may leave the ground when in full gallop during a race. 12
Rise of the Machines This sort of discovery and rise of technology intrigued the likes of Thomas Edison to shift his company to focus on developing a technology (the kinetoscope) that would create and deliver motion pictures. It would be several years (1926) before sound and vision would be combined in one media format convincingly. Although Edison and Company combined the kinetoscope and phonograph in several versions, none of these attempts resulted in motion pictures that were well synchronized with sound. However, a few fortunate people in 1891 saw the first motion picture captured and presented by Edison’s kinetoscope. Digital media has never been the same since. Edison, T. (1900) Frames from The Enchanted Drawing. The first animated film, November 16, 1900 13
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Slides 14-24 are from the video Social Media Revolution (Original) Produced in 2009 based on the book Socialnomics by Erik Qualman. 24
Before and After the “Parenthesis” • Before: printed works of knowledge were “owned” by an individual. • After: humanity is beginning to understand, once again, that knowledge is communal. • Before: printed works were seen the ultimate or primary way we received knowledge. • After: printed works continue to hold value and are not going anywhere but into threads of information. 25
Broadcasting and Networks • Broadcasting and the widespread distribution of media would not have advanced the way it did if there was not a need for it. • As people requested or even demanded information, sources were more than willing to provide the audience with what they wanted - information or in some cases misinformation. • “The Internet is just the world passing notes in a classroom.” ~ Jon Stewart 26
Post-Literacy Era • “Petabyte Age” - named after the amount of data passed through Google Servers every 72 minutes. • “Age of Recommendation” - the reputation of people, groups, schools and businesses will come from sharing, participation and collaboration. • “The Singularity” - when our intelligence will become non-biological and connected to, among other things, nano technologies. 27
Equity in Digital Evolution • “We thought that anybody that came to a concert had equity. They took part in the creation of the music.” ~ Mickey Hart, Drummer, Grateful Dead • The Internet is a concert and we’re taking part in the creation of it’s “music.” • Planetary Computer - collection of all the computers, cell phones, tablets interconnected. 28
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