RISE & FALL OF THE AMERICAN NEWSPAPER

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Published on March 13, 2014

Author: jamessergent

Source: slideshare.net

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The Rise and Fall of the American Newspaper. The history of the American Newspaper from its beginnings in the Colonial times to its declining years due to the growth and popularity of the Internet and social media.

3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 1

Prolog 2JAMES SERGENT, 8846676823/13/2014

3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 3 Who Killed the Newspaper?  At first glance it seems like an open and shut case… a no-brainer.  Technology killed the newspaper and everybody knows it.  The www.worldwideweb, Internet, Android/Smartphones, 4G Networks, & Mobile Apps were the murder weapons.  Government deregulation was the plot they hatched… the driving force behind the beginning of the end for the newspaper.  Without deregulation Wall Street fat acts like AT&T & Times/ Warner, Inc., would never have owned multiple technologies like Radio/TV, Cable/Satellite, isp’s and Wireless.  “Who Killed the Newspaper”, really lies somewhere between technology, greed and Wall Street. http://www.ehow.com/info_8416077_pros-tv-deregulation.html http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=103x232690

It Was the Best of Times it Was the… 4JAMES SERGENT, 8846676823/13/2014

EXTRA! EXTRA! EXTRA! 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 5 Hit or To Play Clip Now!

he headlines were the timeline in our history. The Newspaper entertained us, amused us and brought us world events, as they unfolded, while we slept. Splashed across the headlines of our Daily Paper. Good, bad or ugly. All made the headlines unforgettable. Two of Newspaper's biggest stars were Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons; who became the toast of Hollywood. Their unique brands of gossip journalism sold millions of newspapers. 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 6 http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-2591304216/ hopper-hedda-and-louella.html IT’S NO WONDER WHY WE LOVED OUR NEWSPAPERS. T

The Investigation 7JAMES SERGENT, 8846676823/13/2014

TIMELINE: RISE & FALL OF THE NEWSPAPER 1783 1791 1833 1844 1851 1864 1931 1933 1955 1967 1980 1980 1983 2003 2004 2008 2009 2009 First American Daily Newspaper First USPS Newspaper Rate First Syndicated (Funnies), Dick Tracy First Penny Press Newspaper Ratification of First Amendment, Freedom of the Press First Rotary Printing Press First National Syndicated Newspaper Ad Agency Newspaper Moguls Declare War on Radio First Electronic Typesetting Machines CNN, 24Hr News Radio/TV AOL, First Public ISP Facebook, Social Media Is Born Best Year For Facebook First Computers Used In Production (www...) World Wide Web Android and Smart Phones 4G Network Is Introduced Worst Year For The Newspaper 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 8 http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/printing_4.htm

The Pennsylvania Evening Post, First Daily Periodical in America. http://famousdaily.com/history/benjamin-towne-publishes-first-daily-newspaper-us.html 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 9  May, 1783, Benjamin Towne published the first daily periodical in America, the Pennsylvania Evening Post  Towne survived the War for Independence in 1775.  When the Patriots took back the city, Towne published a special “patriotic” edition of his paper and embraced the new America.

The First Amendment “Freedom of the Press” http://www.givemeliberty.org/docs/billofrights.htm 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 10  James Madison said, "A popular government without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a prologue to a farce or a tragedy“  The First Amendment, protecting the right of Free speech and guarantying “Freedom of the Press”, was ratified on December 15, 1791.

The Penny Press http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/spring04/vance/pennypress.html 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 11  1833, The Penny Press was introduced, it was the most famous for Its low price, 1¢, one penny per paper.  It became popular with the American public because other papers were about 6¢, six cents.  The low price made newspapers and the news available to the labor and lower classes who could never afford a newspaper before and many had never read the news.

The First Rotary Press http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/educator/modules/gutenberg/books/printing/ 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 12  1844, Richard Hoe invented the rotary press.  The rotary press could print up to 8,000 copies per hour.  Larger rotary presses, containing multiple machines, made printing large newspaper runs possible and more than doubled production.

First U.S. Postal Newspaper Rate Legislation to 1863 http://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/periodicals-postage-history.pdf 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 13  1863, mail was divided into classes – periodicals constituted the second class, defined as “all mailable matter exclusively in print, and regularly issued at stated periods, and sent to regular subscribers” (12 Stat. 705-707).  For the first time, distance was not a factor in determining postage rates. The net effect was a per-issue delivery cost of less than half a cent.  This opened up large scale distribution of newspapers and magazines and laid the ground work for syndication of millions of newspapers. 1863

 1896, J. Walter Thompson Co. became the largest exclusive buyer of newspaper advertising space in markets.  This financial development secured the future landscape of the American Newspaper. Nothing before or since ever symbolized the true nature of Capitalism in America.  These new revenue streams brought in tens of millions of $$$ and created the capital needed for growth. First Newspaper Advertising Agency Was Established http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/298581/J-Walter-Thompson-Co 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 14 1896

, began in 1931 and is still running today. It was the first syndicated Comic Strip or “Funnies” . Funnies added one more component to the daily newspaper’s popularity. The “Funnies” became one of newspapers most beloved staples and created such American icons as Felix the Cat, Li’l Abner, Peanuts and Garfield, to name a few. http://comics-scans.livejournal.com/130967.html 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 15 Dick Tracy The First Syndicated Comic Strip

The Press and Radio Wars 1933-1935 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2746050?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103033301997 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 16  1933-1935 describes the period in American History called the “Press Radio Wars”.  Newspapers and publishers attempted to restrict news dissemination to then young Radio media.  Two major broadcasting networks forced concessions by the publishers.  This along with the failure to attain a complete blackout of the news lead to the evitable end.

 The Electronic Phototypesetting machine, revolutionized and cut newspaper prep time by more than 50%.  A keyboard and CRT were connected to a photo compositor which exposed and output type on white photo paper.  Later, these machines were attached to Microsoft Windows 3.1 computers with many RIPs. First Electronic Phototypesetting Machine http://www.prepressure.com/prepress/history/events-1950-1959 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 17 1955

CNN, 24Hr. News Television, Radio & Internet 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 18 , Cable News Network/ 1980-2003 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cnn-launches 1980  1980, (Cable News Network), the world's first 24-hour television news network, makes its debut.  At the time of CNN's launch, TV news was dominated by three major networks, ABC, CBS and NBC.  In 1996, CNN merged with Times Warner, which merged with America Online four years later.  During the Persian Gulf War CNN immerged as the dominant News Network.  From that point forward the newspaper never recovered their reign over the world news media again.

AOL, 1st Public ISP  America Online was the 1st public isp, Internet service provider.  In 2000 AOL merged with Times Warner, Inc., the largest News and communications corporation in the world.  This was the beginning of the digital revolution and opened up, www.World Wide Web, to the common people. From this point forward people began to turn to the internet for all their social media needs. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/728314/AOL 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 19 1983

Android & Smart Phones  Almost three years after the birth of the T-Mobile G1 Network, the world's first Android/ Smartphones hit the market.  The immergence of this new technology allowed users to access the Internet where they could send/receive e-mails, catch the latest sports scores and check the weather.  The world was now… literally… in the palm of your hand reviews.cnet.com › Android Atlas 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 20

Facebook, Social Media is Born  Facebook, was started for students at Harvard College.  Facebook has grown to the largest Social Media phenomenon in History with over 900 million users per day.  Facebook users declare that they get 80% of their news, entertainment and social needs from Facebook and their related partners. http://mashable.com/2006/08/25/facebook-profile/ 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 21 2004

4G Network http://www.whatsag.com/G/Generation_History.php 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 22 2008  4G Generation Mobile standards is a series of measures that defines the demands of a network and also the standards that must be met.  The existing common standard specifies a 4G network as one that offers 100Mb|s.  4G Networks opened up the world and ushered in Androids, Smart Phones, iPad & Windows Phones which changed the landscape of American life for ever.  As networks get faster and data gets cheaper it will serve to escalate and hurry the inevitable demise of the printed Newspaper, as it continues to fade from daily life.

The Reveal 23JAMES SERGENT, 8846676823/13/2014

Worst Year For Newspapers The Best And Worst Of It For newspapers, the news went swiftly from bad to worse. 2008-2009 were the worst years on record, with a double-digit drop in advertising revenues, raising serious questions about its survival. While Facebook was named the most used social network in the world and posted a value of $41 Billion. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/06/23/newspapers-worst-year-eve_n_108603.html 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 24 Best Year for Facebook

Newspapers Join the Digital Age 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 25 2010 $0 $5 $10 $15 $20 $25 1900 1920 1960 2000 2010 Comparative Analysis Newspaper Revenues PP/Cirrc. Classified Retail Natl Advtg (Dollars are calculated in $millions) http://stateofthemedia.org/2011/newspapers-essay/data-page-6/

Newspaper, Radio, Television & Internet Audience Comparative Analysis 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 26 2010 Comparative Audience Seeking Information Media Less than 1 hr 1 to 2 hrs 2 to 4 hrs More than 4 hrs Newspapers 62.3 31.8 4.5 1.3 Radio & Televion 72.8 19.2 5.3 2.6 Internet 12.6 23.8 31.8 31.8 Table: perception of respondents with respect to the in formativeness, attention, and attitude aspects of radio, print, and internet advertisements are in %. The respondents were predominantly men (65.6%), and mainly youth (11.9% of the respondents were less than 18 years of age, and 64.2% were in the age group 18-25 years). www.newspaperadvertising.com/articles/art5.html

Works Cited, cont. 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 27 http://www.ehow.com/info_8416077_pros-tv-deregulation.html http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=103x232690 http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-2591304216/hopper-hedda-and-louella.html http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/printing_4.htm http://famousdaily.com/history/benjamin-towne-publishes-first-daily-newspaper-us.html http://www.givemeliberty.org/docs/billofrights.htm http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/spring04/vance/pennypress.html http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/educator/modules/gutenberg/books/printing/ http://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/periodicals-postage-history.pdf http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/298581/J-Walter-Thompson-Co http://comics-scans.livejournal.com/130967.html http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2746050?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103033301997 http://www.prepressure.com/prepress/history/events-1950-1959

Works Cited, cont 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 28 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cnn-launches http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/728314/AOL reviews.cnet.com › Android Atlas http://mashable.com/2006/08/25/facebook-profile/ http://www.whatsag.com/G/Generation_History.php http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/06/23/newspapers-worst-year-eve_n_108603.html http://stateofthemedia.org/2011/newspapers-essay/data-page-6/ www.newspaperadvertising.com/articles/art5.html Works Cited, cont. Works Cited, cont.

The End 3/13/2014 JAMES SERGENT, 884667682 29

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