Rice Insect Biodiversity

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Information about Rice Insect Biodiversity

Published on August 16, 2008

Author: masghar

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 2: BY MUHAMMAD ASGHAR 92-ag-1261 BIODIVERSITY OF INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CROP ECOSYSTEM IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRI. ENTOMOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN Slide 3: INTRODUCTION Slide 4: Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan. Its 65.9% population directly or indirectly, depends on this sector. It accounts for 22% of GDP and provides more than 50% of jobs. It has a special role to play in growth, poverty reduction and environmental protection (Qureshi, 2007). Agriculture is at the center of the national economic policies and has been designated by the Government as the engine of national economic growth and poverty reduction. PAKISTAN AGRICULTURE Slide 5: Rice is life for more than half of the world’s population. It has shaped the cultures, diets, and economies of billions of people, especially in Asia. (Anon., 2007a). It is cultivated in more than 100 countries on every continent except for Antarctica. About 120,000 rice varieties are grown across the world. Globally, rice is the most important crop in terms of its contribution to human diets and value of production. Rice provides 27% of dietary energy supply and 20% of dietary protein intake. Rice provides 35% to 80% of the calories consumed by 3.3 billion people. RICE Slide 6: Rice, after wheat, is the second largest commodity consumed in the Pakistan. Its annual local consumption crosses 2.5 million tons. It also earns billion of rupees in foreign exchange (Malik, 2007). It accounts for 6.7% of the total value added in agriculture and 1.6% in GDP (Anon., 2007b). Punjab is the biggest producer of rice in the country and contributes 58% to the national production while the provinces of Balochistan, NWFP and Sindh to 3, 10 and 29% respectively. In Punjab’ rice-wheat zone a special area, the “Kallar Tract” where aromatic long grain Basmati rice is produced (Chaudhry, 1976: Karim and Riazuddin, 1999: Sheikh et al., 2006). Slide 7: Conventional rice production involving the modern technologies by increases dependence on broad scale growing of single varieties (monoculture), chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and mechanization etc which has resulted in increasing the yields (Conway, 2001) (loss of soil quality , environmental contamination, problems of pests and diseases and insect biodiversity loss) Slide 8: Pest control: Seeking Easy & quick solution! Extensive use of insecticide: Overestimation of the losses, Social or economical reasons and Certain other driving forces and motivations. FARM APPRAISAL Slide 9: Rice-wheat-zone (Kallar Tract): Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in peddled fields which pass through the three different ecological phases: * Aquatic, Semi Aquatic and Terrestrial dry phase * Rich insect diversity Rice Crop Ecosystem Slide 10: Insect Biodiversity of rice fields is under threat due to changing farming practices, wide spread mechanization, excessive use of chemicals and environmental degradation. Rice ecosystem has highest insect biodiversity as compared to any other crops. Such diversity in the rice field is reported to be decreasing (Halwart, 2003). Many insect species have markedly declined over recent years as a result of Agricultural Intensification (AI) (Aebischer, 1991; Feber et al., 1997; Benton et al. , 2002) AI affects soil fertility, environment and insect communities (biodiversity productivity-hypothesis) Rice yield is going towards decline at global level (Fernandez, 2005). Rice Insect Biodiversity Slide 11: The yields can be sustained by conserving the Biodiversity associated with this system. This diversity can be conserved and enhanced by modifying the agro ecosystem which largely include: Biodiversity of crops and their cultivars Better agronomic practices Abundance of insect fauna Encouraging the use of traditional knowledge-based farming practices like LIP organic farming for sustainable agriculture For conservation and protection of insect biodiversity, initiative should be taken to register the existing scenario of biodiversity at a local level, then to find out the root causes of biodiversity loss. Solution ? Slide 12: In Pakistan no attempt up till now has been made: To make an inventory of rice field insect faunal diversity. To determine the concepts and behaviors of farming communities about pest management and insect biodiversity conservation. Effects of agrochemicals and farming practices on insect diversity of rice crop. This effort in turn may stimulate new thinking on How to maximize the biodiversity conservation potential of the rice ecosystem. How the ecological role of rice fields can be communicated to policy makers and public more efficiently as it deserves. Slide 13: This project will be taken with the following objectives: 1. To know the farmer’s knowledge and perception of low input organic farming, insect pest incidence and management practices in rice crop. 2. To determine the Economic Threshold Levels (ETLs) of major Lepidopterous insect pest associated with rice crop. 3. To explore & compare the insect fauna associated with Low Input (LIP) and High Input (HIP) rice crop. 4. Cost benefit ratio of the LIP and HIP rice production. With the help of the findings of this project the innovative approaches can be developed to address the problem of sustainability. THE AIMS OF THE STUDY Slide 14: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Slide 15: 1. Farmer survey A little work has been done on how the custodian of biodiversity ‘the farmers’ that how they manage and utilize their resources to sustain and enhance them. That is why in recent years agricultural scientists have been encouraged to build their research upon farmers’ practices and knowledge (Fujisaka, 2005). Farmers are the eventual consumer of products of agricultural research. They critically assess the new technology against those of existing technologies and adopt only the former if they judged it superior to the later. Farmers’ ranking of technology is considered a simple and cost-effective mechanism for eliciting farmers preferences and these could be used as an input in research priority setting (Joshi, 2006). Slide 16: Heong and Escalada (1999) studied rice farmers’ beliefs which influence their decisions in stem borer management and analyzed that farmers’ decisions were guided by perceived benefits from insecticides which in turn were related with their perceived severity of stem borers. Farmers placed a moderate importance to protect natural enemies and their health from insecticides. Huan et al., (1999) conducted a survey of rice farmers to assess the effects of two insecticides reduction interventions used, the media campaign and Farmer Field School (FFS) to motivate the farmers not to spray in early season for leaf folder control. It was found that the two interventions, media and FFS played complementary role in significantly changing farmers’ pest management beliefs and reducing early season insecticidal spray. Slide 17: The result of survey comprising 50 randomly selected farmers by Baloch et al., (2006) revealed that information sources, extension services and credit have a role in explaining rice production. Sheikh et al., (2006) conducted a survey to assess the adoption of rice production technology in Kallar tract of Punjab and concluded that the technologies based on traditional knowledge (variety selection, land preparation, raising paddy nursery and its transplanting) were well adopted while the non-traditional technologies (use of pesticides and weedicides) were adopted partially. They suggested that, these information are valuable for researchers, extentionists and policy makers to identify the reason of low production. Slide 18: 2. ETLs of Lepidopterous Insect Pests of Rice Crop. The major insect pests include borers (Scirpophaga incertulas & Sciropophaga innotata) and Rice leaf folder the accepted terrors of rice crop throughout the rice growing tract of the Punjab (Majid et al., 1979; Panda and Shi, 1989; Sherawat et al., 2007). In the rice leaf folders complex (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenee, Marasmia patnalis, Marasmia exigua), the most common species is (C. medinalis Guenee), which causes highly visible damage symptoms, but negligible yield loss (Graf et al., 1992). Munir (1990) conducted an experiments and established correlation between borer infestation and yield of rice crop. He recommended 10% deadhearts as an ETL at 43 days after transplanting and an addition of 6% deadhearts at earing stage of crop growth. Slide 19: The studies pertaining to examine the concept of ETL by farmer communities were conducted by Bhuiyan et al., (1992) and it was concluded that IPM training and the use of ETL in decision making process about the use of insecticides was beneficial Rubia et al., (1996) estimated the losses caused by stem borers and predicted that up to 20% deadhearts at vegetative stage would reduce grain yield non- significantly but at grain filling stage it caused an almost significant yield reduction. Wang et al., (1994) determined action threshold level for rice stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas to 2-3% infested hills. Slide 20: Afzal et al., (2002) conducted a study for the evaluation and determination of ETL for chemical control of rice stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas wlk and Scirpophaga innotata wlk) and revealed that control measures should be adopted after 5.0 and before 7.5 percent level of infestation to save the loss. Anonymous (2002) determined the ETL for the chemical control of rice leaf folder (C. medinalis ) and suggested that at infestation of 2% folded leaves the control measures are more economical. Slide 21: 3. Biodiversity of Insects Associated with Rice Crop ‘‘Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.” (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2001). There are about 800 species of insects in rice fields. Of these, about 100 species attack rice and the rest are all innocent or friendly insects. Out of these 100 pest species, only 7 are major pests of rice (Anon., 2006). Slide 22: Heckman (1979) carried out a thorough survey in traditional rice fields in Thailand and found 590 species in a single filed among which 146 were of insects. In a comparison of biodiversity b/w traditional and conventional rice fields, Roger et al., (1994) found that biodiversity has decreased in rice fields since the mid- 1970s’ due to crop intensification and wide spread application of pesticides. According to Hesler et al., (1993) the difference in abundance of pest between organic and conventional rice fields was non significant. However pest damage in seedling stage appears a slightly higher in organic systems but this did not affect the final plant densities in the fields. Also population of non pest species were generally higher in organic fields notably of three predatory taxa- a giant water bug ( Belostoma flumineum ) back swimmer ( Notonecta spp.) and an adult predacious diving beetle (Thermonectus basillaris). Some studies in other crops showed that organic systems had greater diversity (Dritschilo and Wanner, 1980; Brown and Adler, 1989; Goh and Lange, 1989; Kromp, 1989 and 1990). Slide 23: Simpson et al., (1994) monitored the effects of various nitrogen fertilizers and pesticide management on algal, zooplankton and mollusk population in a wetland rice field, and found that population of mosquito and chironomid larvae increased rapidly after N application. Hu (2001) analyzed the profitability of Low Inputs Sustainable Rice Farming (LISRF). He compared the conventional farming methods to LISRF and found that LISRF farms generate 5-6 time higher net profit due to less yield loss, less costs and due to higher product prices beside improving the environment. Slide 24: Roger et al., (2007) summarized the information about behavior of pesticides and their impact on microorganisms and on non-target invertebrates in rice fields. Pesticides were found more harmful to invertebrates than to microbes. Slide 25: MATERIAL AND METHODS Slide 26: As the research project will consist of mainly three experiments: i) Rice farmer survey ii) Determination of ETLs of insects which are major threat to rice production and against which maximum pesticides are applied (Stem borers & Leaf folders) and iii) Comparison of Insect Biodiversity in LIP & HIP rice agro ecosystems. The best integration of the results of all these experiments for rice crop will provide us an excellent opportunity to improve the environment and to preserve and enhance the insect biodiversity and to gain sustainability in rice production. 1. Farmer survey Developing a Questionnaire A preliminary survey will be made by meeting with farmers in order to develop a questionnaire. So, the questionnaire with suitable information about the socio-economic conditions of the farmers, farming practices, attitude of farmers towards organic farming, their perception about insect pests and their management, the motivations which force the farmers to use insecticide irrespective of lower pest attack will be developed. Slide 27: Conducting the Interviews The survey will be conducted in co-operation with local extension and plant protection (Pest warning) officers of the respective area. All the interviews will be conducted when farmers will be available at their farm houses by following ‘triangulation’ (Patton, 1990) technique. The questionnaire will be filled and answers will be coded. The coded data will be entered in EXCEL worksheet and then will be analyzed using different statistical methods. After the completion of this experiment, we may be able to investigate the practices, followed by the farmers, those affect the insect biodiversity and we can be able to direct them to follow those practices which minimize the insect biodiversity loss. Slide 28: 2. Determination of ETLs The experiments to determine ETLs of Rice Stem Borer & Leaf folder will be conducted at farmer’s fields in traditional rice area. The experiment will be laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Nursery of Super Basmati cultivar will be sown & transplanted on recommended dates with recommended row to row and plant to plant distances, in prepared soil according to the traditional land puddling practices of the area and other recommended agronomic practices. The plot size will be 1x2 m for each treatment. All the agronomic practices and input used will be the same for all the treatments. Slide 29: To mimic the insect behavior in case of both the rice stem borers and leaf folder, the simulative injury technique will be used (Anon., 2003). It is a matter of common observation that Super Basmati completes tillering in 35-40, earing 55-60, spike formation 75-80 and ripening completes in 110-115 Days After Transplanting (DAT). The attack of leaf folders and borers starts 40,45 DAT respectively. However their attack is mainly concentrated on the crop when it is 50-60 days old. Slide 30: Rice Stem Borers (Scirpophaga innotata & Scirpophaga incertulas) Due to the attack of stem borers deadhearts are formed in early crop stages. As it is not possible to get the desired level of borer attack through chemical control so, artificial dead hearts will be produced with the help of dissecting needle. In this method the photosynthesis produce from the leaves of damaged tiller will be translocated to the other healthy tillers of the same plant. After the successful induction of deadhearts, the symptoms will be nearly same to those of natural borer attack. It will be assumed that the yield losses resulting from these injured tillers are almost the same as from the tillers damaged from the natural borer attack. Number of tillers to be injured will be calculated by using the following formula: No of tillers to be injured = Treatment (%age value) x Total tiller count) /100 The plants will be injured at 50 DAT. The experiment will consist of seven treatments including untreated check. The %age of treatment infestation will be 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and untreated control. Slide 31: Rice leaf folders (Canaphalocrosis medinalis, Marsamia sp.) Whereas in case of rice leaf folder a 10 cm area of flag leaf leaving about 4 cm from the tip will be covered with black paper pieces which will be stapled very carefully on leaves, to devoid of the leaves from chlorophyll so that they may loose their abilities of photosynthesis in the covered portion, to mimic the symptoms/result of rice leaf folder attack. Because in different age stages rice plant require different amounts of photosynthiates, so the experiment will be performed twice. In first experiment the leaves will be injured in month of August and in second during month of September. After counting total number of tillers and leaves the number of leaves to be injured artificially will be calculated by using the following formula No of leaves to be injured = Treatment (%age value) x Total leaves count) /100 Each of these experiments will consist of seven treatments including untreated checks. The %age of treatment infestation will be 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and untreated control. After harvesting, data on paddy yield, deadhearts (DH) %age and per cent infestation of the leaves will be subjected to statistical analysis to work out the economic threshold levels of stem borers and leaf folders of rice crop in existing cropping pattern, farming practices and socio-economic conditions of the rice area. The treatment means will be compared at 5% level of significance. Slide 32: 3. Comparison of Insect Biodiversity Associated with LIP & HIP Rice Crop. Selection of research sites The study will be conducted in the months of May to October for two years in the three major rice growing districts namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Sialkot (Parts of Rachna Doab). In each of these districts two sites, one with low agrochemical inputs (LIP) and other with high agrochemical inputs (HIP) will be selected. Differences between the sites In case of LIP fields the agrochemicals will be reduced to at least to 50%. Slide 33: Similarities among sites Agronomic practices - same Each plot will consists of 15 acres of Basmati Super rice. Distance b/w localities 2 km (Hesler et al, 1993). Away from roadside (at least 300m). No - Grassy land, open area, barren land, abandoned fields, water body, pond or stream, forest, fruit orchid, vegetable field, human dwelling etc at the radius of 500m. Irrigation through tube wells. Data will be taken on weekly basis from Rice nurseries and on fortnightly basis from Rice crop during the whole crop season. Sampling will be made essentially from the innermost field on three consecutive days and in one day sampling from two localities of one district will be made. Slide 34: Collection of data As rice crop fields in the same growing season passes through different physical states i.e., Aquatic, semi aquatic and dry or terrestrial phase. So, using a single collecting technique may be biased as some species may be overrepresented while other might be underestimated or even missing. So a procedure of multiple sampling techniques will be adopted by applying same sampling methods in all localities and collecting a large number of specimens by using various sampling methods i.e., Sweep nets, Light traps, Pitfall traps and Aquatic nets. Slide 35: Sweep net For flying insects a standard sweep net of 32cm diameter will be swept for 10 times, once at each step in figure of eight (Cameron et al., 1981) by moving diagonally in the central field in cross wise way, after entering at least 2 m away from the field corner net will be swept (Leitao et al., 2007). This will constitute one sample. In this way ten samples will be made from each locality. The collected insects will be killed in a potassium cyanide killing bottle and will be stored in 70% ethanol (except moths) for later sorting and identification. Light trap Light trap is one of the most powerful insect collecting tool (Bowden, 1982). Therefore, for nocturnal flying insects bucket type light traps having potassium cyanide bottle at the bottom as killing agent, equipped with 40 watts electric bulb (Yahiro and Yano, 1997) will be operated from dusk to dawn in each locality. Slide 36: Pitfall trap For the terrestrial insect fauna pitfall traps will be used. Wide mouth plastic jars (11 cm deep and 7.5 cm in diameter) will be inserted into other plastic jars permanently buried in the field bunds. Ten traps will be installed at each site at 10 m intervals in an alternating pattern along the length of levees in the selected fields. One hundred and fifty ml of 95% ethylene glycol plus 5% liquid detergent will be added to each trap. The traps will be collected on each collection day through out the growing season (Oraze et al., 1988). The contents will be filtered in the standard sieve No. 40 and stored in 70% ethyl alcohol. Aquatic net The aquatic insects will be sampled using aquatic net of 1 mm mesh, with a mouth of 20 cm diameter at the end of long handle, enabling sampling between rice plants. The net will be dragged in a Standard Net Sweep (SNS) manner consisting of two drags (back and forth) along one meter path (Lawton, 1970). Ten drags of such type will make one sample and ten samples will be taken from each locality through out the growing season. Slide 37: Preservation & Identification The collected specimens will be sorted, pinned, labeled and mounted in collection boxes or preserved in glass vials in 70% ethyl alcohol (Leitao et al., 2007) in the “Insect Biodiversity and Biosystematics Lab” Department of Agri. Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF). Naphthalene balls mounted on pins will be kept in collection boxes for the safety of collected specimens. The immature, soft-bodied and aquatic insect specimens will be put into vials containing 70% ethyl alcohol for biodiversity count and will be labeled accordingly. The collected specimens will be identified possibly up to species level with the help of available, related taxonomic material. The insects which will not be identified will be sorted as morphospecies, as recommended by Oliver and Beattie (1993). Metrological data Metrological data of maximum, minimum temp, relative humidity and rainfall will be collected from the observatory of each district and the affect of these factors on insect diversity and abundance will be calculated as numerous studies have addressed the relationship of species diversity with environmental variables (Gaston, 1996). Slide 38: Soil and water’s physical and chemical properties Data analysis As analyses of biodiversity are performed at the species level (Dirzo and Raven 2003). Insects will thus be identified to the species level and data will be recorded for statistical analysis to determine, species richness, species evenness and dominance by using various diversity indices. LITERATURE CITED : LITERATURE CITED Slide 40: Aebischer, N.J. 1991. Twenty years of monitoring invertebrates and weeds in cereal fields in Sussex. In: The Ecology of Temperate Cereal fields, L.G. Firbank, N. Crater, J.F. Darbyshire and G.R. Potts (eds.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 305-331. Afzal, M.M., M. Yasin and S.M. Sherawat. 2002. Evaluation and demonstration of ETL for chemical control of rice stem borers, Scirpophag invrtyulas wlk and Scirpophaga innotata wlk. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 4(3): 323-325. Anonymous. 2002-03.Annual Reports, Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah kaku, Punjab, Pakistan. Anonymous.2006. Low- external Input Rice Production(LIPR, 292p). Pest/weed control. Major rice insect pests, their natural enemies and economic threshold levels. http:// sleekfreak.ath.cx:81/3wdev/CD3WD/AGRIC/II24LE/B1087_3.HTM) Anonymous. 2006a.Insect and butterfly diversity.www.wwfpak.org Anonymous. 2007. Organic farming can feed the world, U-M study shows. http://www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/release/print.php?htdocs/releases/plainstory.php?id=59. Anonymous. 2007a.Pakissan.com Baloch, M.S., Hassan,G. and Zubair,M. 2006. Role of Information Sources, Extention Services and Agricultural Credit towards Rice Production in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.SARRC, J.Agric., 4: 213-220. Benton, T.G., Bryant, D.M., Cole,L. and H.Q.P. Crick. 2002. Linking agricultural practices to insect and bird populations: a historical study over three decades. J. Appl. Ecol., 39: 673-687. Bhuiyan, H., Chau, L.A. and V.J. Calilung, 1992. Use of economic threshold level a sustainable strategy to pest management. Ann. Bangl. Agric., 2(1) 25-30 (Rev. Agric. Entomol., 82(12): 11071, 1994). Bowden, J. 1982. An analysis of the factors affecting catches of insects in light traps. Bullit. Entomol. Res.72:536-556. Chaudhry, G. Q. 1976. Strategies in the control of rice pests. Proc. Of Rice Prod. Pak. pp. 59-66. Slide 41: Convention on Biological Diversity, 2001. Convention Text. Article 2: Use of Terms. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 393 rue Saint-Jacques, Suite 300 Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Conway, G.R. 2001. Doubly green revolution. In, Lee, D.R. and Barret C.B. (eds) Tradeoffs or synergies?: agricultural intensification, economic development, and the environment. CABI Pub. Wallingford,Oxon, England. 538 p. Tradeoffs or synergies?: agricultural intensification, economic development, and the environment. CABI Pub. Wallingford, Oxon, England. 538 p. Dirzo, R and P.H. Raven. 2003. Global state of biodiversity and loss. Ann.Rev.Environ.Resources. 28:137-167. Feber, R.E., Firbank, L.G., Johnson, P.J. and D.W. Macdonald. 1997. The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 64: 133-139. Fernandez, R. 2005. Global rice production continues to decline. http:www.asiarice.org/asiarice/ demosite/sections/whatsnew/ Fujisaka, S. 2005. What does’’ build research on farmer practice’’ mean? Rice crop estbablishment (beusani) in eastern India as an Illustration. Agri. Human Vales. 8(1-2):93-98. Gaston, K.J. 1996. What is biodiversity?p 1-9.In K.J Gaston(ed.) Biodiversity. A Biology of numbers and differences. Blackwell Science, Oxford UK. Graf, B., Lamb, R., Heong, k.L. and L. Fabeller. 1992. A simulation model for the population dynamics of rice leaf folders (Lepidoptera) and their interactions with rice. J.Appl. Ecol. 29:558-570. Halwart, M. 2003. Rice field fisheries and rice-based aquaculture – underestimated and undervalued resources, p. 36-47. In FAO Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service. Review of the State of World Fishery Resources: Inland Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 942, Rev. 1. Rome, FAO, 60 p. Heckman, C.W. 1979. Rice field ecology in northeastern Thailand. Dr W.Junk bv Publishers, Boston. Pp.228. Heong K.L. and M.M. Escalada.1999.Quantifying rice farmers’ pest management decisions: beliefs and subjective norms in stem borer control. Crop Protec., 18:315-322. Slide 42: Hesler, L.S.,Grigarick, A.A., Oraze, M.J. and A.T. Palrang.1993. Arthropod Fauna of Conventional and Organic Rice fields in California. J.Econ.Entomol. 86(1):149-158 HU, B(Kyudai Daigakuinnogakukenkyuin). 2001. Profitability and determinants of low input Sustainable rice farming.Sci. Bull. 55(2):245-258. Huan,N.H., Mai,V., Escalada, M.M. and K.L. Heong. 1999. Changes in farmers, pest management in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Crop Prot. 18:557-563. Joshi, G.R. 2006. Farmers’ preference for rice varities in Nepal: The role of attributes. SAARC J.Agric., 4:179-189. Karim, S. and S.Riazuddin.1999. Rice Insect Pests of Pakistan and Their Control: A lesson from past for Sustainable Future Integrated Pest Management. Pak.J.Biol.Sci., 2(2):261-276. Lawton,J.H. 1970. A population study on larvae of damsel fly Pyrrhosoma nymphula (sulzer) (Odonata: Zygoptera). Hydrobilogia. 36:33-52. Leitao, S., Pinto, P., Pereira, T. and M.F. Brito.2007.Spatial and temporal variability of macroinvertebrate communities in two farmed Mediterranean rice fields. Aquat.Ecol.41:373-386. Majid, A., M. A. Makhdoomi and I. A. Dar, 1979. Occurance and control of whitebacked planthopper in the Punjab of Pakistan. Inter. Rice Res. Newsl., 4(1): 17. Munir ,M.,1990. Some studies o correlation between borer infestation and yield in rice crop. M.Sc. Hons. Thesis, Uni.Agric., Faisalabad,Pakistan Oliver, I. and A. Beattie. 1993. A possible method for rapid assessment of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 7:562-568. Oraze, M.J., Grigarik, A.A., Lynch, J.H. and K.A. Smith. 1988. Spider fauna of flooded rice fields in northern California. J. Arachnol., 16:331-337. Panda, S. K. and N. Shi, 1989. Critical time of insecticide application in summer rice Orissa. Env. Eco., 7(4): 984-986 (Rev. Appl. Entomol., A., 81 (8): 6911, 1993). Patton, M.Q. 1990. Qualitative Evaluation and research Methods, 2nd Edition. Newbury Park:sage Publication. Slide 43: Qureshi, M.I. Agri Overview, Changing role of government in agriculture. http://www.pakissan.com/nglish/agri.overview/changing.role.of.government.in.agricultue.html Roger, P.A., Simpson, I., Oficial, R., Ardales, S. and R. Jimenez. 2007. Effect of pesticides on soil and watermicroflora and mesofauna in wetland rice fields: a summary of current knowledge andextrapolation to temperate environments. Austrail.J.Exp.Agric.34(7). Rubia, E.G., Heong, K.L., Zalucki, M., Gonzales, B., and G.A. Norton.1996. Mechanisms of compensation of rice plants to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) injury. Crop. Protec.15:335-340. Shannon, C. E. 1948. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System tech. J., 27:37-423, 623-656. Sheikh, A.D., Mahmood, M.A., Bashir, A. and M. Kashif.2006. Adoption of Rice Technological Package By The Farmers Of Irrigated Punjab. J.Agric. Res. 44(4)341-351. Sherawat. S. M., M. Inayat.,T.Ahmad and M. K. Maqsood, 2007. Determination of Economic Threshold Levels (TTL) for the Chemical control of Rice Stem Borers. J. Agric. Res., 45(1):55-59. Simpson, I.C., Roger, P.A., Oficial, R and I.F. Grant. 1994. Biol.Fertility Soils.l17(2):138-146. Wang,H.D.,Z.S.Zhang and J.A Cheng, 1994.Study of action threshold of rice yellow stem borer on successive second cropping rice. Acta phytophylacica sinica,21(3): 208. Yahiro, K. and K. Yano. 1997. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera, Caraboidea) Caught by Light Trap During Ten Years.ESAKIA.37:57-69. Slide 44: THANKS masghar_ayaz@hotmail.com

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