Rhetorical Appeals Introduction

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Information about Rhetorical Appeals Introduction

Published on March 2, 2009

Author: buiec

Source: authorstream.com

RHETORICAL APPEALS : RHETORICAL APPEALS When you read or listen to an argument, determine what type of persuasive argument is being used: Logos, Ethos, or Pathos LOGOS Appeals to logic (The Mind) : LOGOS Appeals to logic (The Mind) Uses definitions, analogies, factual data, statistics, and quotations Structure and layout Repetition of words, phrases, or ideas Uses citations from experts and authorities Denotative meanings/reasons Causes a cognitive, rational response FAVORED IN ACADEMIC SETTING ETHOS Appeals to values and ethics (Right and wrong) : ETHOS Appeals to values and ethics (Right and wrong) Language appropriate to audience and subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Asks questions of right and wrong Presents author or speaker as being reliable and respectful of audience Asks audience to make a value judgment OFTEN USED IN LAW PATHOS Appeals to emotions : PATHOS Appeals to emotions Vivid, concrete language Emotionally loaded language Emotional, personal examples Figurative language Evokes an emotional response MOST POWERFUL APPEAL Why I should have an extra hour past curfew: Identify the type of appeal : Why I should have an extra hour past curfew: Identify the type of appeal “Haven’t I always been trustworthy?” Puppy-dog eyes “Studies show that teens whose parents trust them have higher self esteem.” Slide 6: “If you don’t let me go, I won’t have any friends!” Crying “Don’t I usually fill up the tank when I borrow the car?” “You hate me!” Slide 7: Hugging “Teens whose parents trust them usually act in a trustworthy manner.” “If you let me do this, then I will have a better attitude toward chores.” “Is it right that many of my friends have a later curfew than I do?” Persuasive Techniques : Persuasive Techniques More Techniques an author uses to persuade : More Techniques an author uses to persuade Glittering generalities Bandwagon Testimonials Citing statistics (logos) Emotional or loaded words Name calling Plain folk Snob appeal Faulty cause Glittering Generalities : Glittering Generalities Words and phrases imply or suggest something- without making guarantees or promises. It sounds good but really says nothing. Listeners don’t challenge the real point because they are impressed by the lofty terms. Examples: Activist Help Freedom Commitment Humane Hard work Common sense Incentive Family Compete Initiative Pioneer Confident Legacy Duty Conflict Liberty Peace Control Moral Dream Courage Movement Passionate Crusade Opportunity Debate Bandwagon : Bandwagon Everybody else is buying this product. “Millions of people agree; [our product] really works!” –or- “[our candidate] will be the voice of the people!” You don’t want to miss out. Jump on the bandwagon by being like everyone else! Testimonials : Testimonials A celebrity endorses a product. The consumer believes “I can be just like him/her!” –or- “If it’s good enough for [Bob], it’s good enough for me!” Citing Statistics : Citing Statistics Uses numbers to prove their product is better. “1 our of 2 people agree that [our product] is better!” –or- “[Our product] is already used in over 1 million homes!” –or- “Research shows the air in our homes is 4 times more polluted!” Emotional/Loaded Words : Emotional/Loaded Words Positive words make you feel good- so, consumers buy the product. “Do you want your home smelling clean, fresh, and odor-free?” Negative words make you feel bad- this plays on your heart. “[Our product] cleans even the dirtiest bathrooms!” –or- “Are you suffering from allergens and pollutants you cannot see?” Name Calling : Name Calling Slamming the competition Selected words give a negative impression of the product, person, or group of people. “We guarantee you customer satisfaction, unlike the other guys!” Plain Folk : Plain Folk This is an appeal to the common person. “Anybody can use/benefit from [our product]!” –or- “It’s so easy to use, even a cavemen can do it.” Everyday folk use [our product] or support [our candidate]. Snob Appeal : Snob Appeal Only the elite use this! You are special! “I use this hair color because I’m worth it!” –or- “I send my kids to Flighty Magnet School because they’re worth it!” “[Our product] takes a lifetime to earn it.” Faulty Cause : Faulty Cause Promise of something it can’t deliver. “Do you want to eliminate fine lines and wrinkles? [Our product] will diminish the look of fine lines and wrinkles in less than six weeks!”

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