Published on February 27, 2014
Contents Our approach to reward 1 Reward strategy 1 Developing a reward strategy 3 Total reward 4 Some definitions 5 Job evaluation Appendices Appendix 1 Base salary comparison analysis Appendix 2 What is the best way to select and use reward consultants? Appendix 3 Collinson Grant's approach – in summary Appendix 4 Share schemes Appendix 5 Job evaluation scheme 12
Collinson Grant Reward Our approach to reward We have defined our approach to reward in the following statement: Pressures on margins are relentless. The need to reduce costs is constant. No business can afford to take its eyes off these fundamentals. For most companies the costs of employing people are greater than for any other single resource. Effective management demands that managers strive for optimum performance at least cost. Our approach to reward is based on this essential proposition. We focus on making certain that strategies for the pay and benefits of all employees are directed at adding value and are concentrated on the bottom line. This means the design and implementation of robust systems for pay that aim to reduce costs and achieve better returns from firms’ investment in people. Some employees rightly command salaries above the norm. Excellent contributions to the business deserve exceptional pay. A sophisticated reward strategy accommodates such circumstances while retaining its purpose of achieving value for money. Margins not volumes should be the focus of directors and managers. This underpins our work on reward. All initiatives on pay and employment benefits should target costs. We support managers: to continuously strive for cost reduction to institutionalise a philosophy of improved productivity to recover the costs of pay increases as a matter of routine to measure progress continuously and openly to ensure margins are improved through more cost-effective utilisation of people. As a minimum, holding costs is an imperative in any change to systems for reward. In our experience, pay systems should be simple and easily understood, provide clear targets and encourage ingenuity and enterprise. We have found that success results from: concentrating on a small number of improvement goals stretching targets powerful incentives for excellent performance. Reward strategy Reward strategy is not a huge, complex, masterplan for the next ten years. It is regular checking that reward practices are connected to what the 1
Collinson Grant Reward organisation is trying to achieve. ‘reward strategy’. Few clients actually articulate this as The following is a quote from CIPD: ‘HR people often focus on best practice, relying on benchmarking, in the absence of any (genuine) strategic direction. But it is not enough to do what many other successful organisations are doing. Each organisation must develop a reward strategy that is right for them.’ The reward strategy is the way the organisation operates a pay and benefits system that gets employees to pursue the organisation’s objectives. For example, commission schemes apply to sales staff because it is believed this will make them sell. Theoretically, the reward strategy: is derived from and supports the business strategy generates improvements in business performance by directing employees’ effort towards organisational goals brings about and reinforces cultural and behavioural change is integrated with the rest of HR policy and practice keeps pay and other employment costs under control. While it is rare to find this happening, we should encourage clients to think about the subject and advise them to: understand the long-term goals, performance objectives and measures of the organisation consider what the organisation needs to be good at to succeed consider what behaviour they want to encourage to achieve this, and how ‘reward’ can help. If they want to encourage team working, do not reward individual contribution exclusively decide how the success of the reward strategy is measured - better performance; better recruitment; better retention; better employee development, for example understand what the business strategy is so that the reward strategy can have a connection to it avoid complexity take time over changing reward systems. A rush to complete (by the pay review date, say) will probably make matters worse as a result of poor communications or pay modelling, for example concentrate on improving the performance of the middle 80% of employees, not the worst and best 10% 2
Collinson Grant Reward get buy-in of directors and senior managers be realistic about the ability of line managers to deliver on performance management (appraisal and pay decisions). If they are not trained, or the system is over-complicated, it will fail. Developing a reward strategy The flow- chart below shows a process for developing a reward strategy. It is rather elaborate, but is useful for reference as it includes all the key issues. Purpose Phase 1 Diagnosis of current situation, setting the future direction and principles, development of the future reward architecture Outputs Full understanding of current situation Identification of key reward issues Future reward strategy definition and components Defined ‘employment’ deal Prioritisation of schemes and changes Formalising and communicating the plan Buy-in and support of relevant interest groups Typical stages Planning Formation of project teams Interviews and group discussions Market analysis Internal data review Workshops Purpose Outputs Typical stages Phase 2 Detailed design of the components of the future reward strategy Detailed scheme designs pay structures and levels base pay reviews incentive and bonus plans share schemes benefits Schemes initially modelled and tested Preparation plan Senior management approval Design team meetings Drafting of scheme designs Testing of new schemes on sample of jobs Further consultation Staff updates and briefings 3
Collinson Grant Reward Purpose Outputs Typical stages Purpose Outputs Typical stages Phase 3 Preparation and testing, building the capability to deliver Agreed finalised changes / schemes Fully tested and costed reward schemes Trained managers and staff with a clear understanding of the strategy and changes Defined implementation and operating responsibilities Phased implementation plan Branded reward strategy with clear themes and components Further testing of designs, for example, pilots Analysis of transition from status quo Detailed modelling and costing Development and delivery of communications and training support Trade union negotiation Design of operating, administrative and control procedures Phase 4 Implementation and on-going review and adjustment Detailed communication plan Effectively implemented reward schemes Effectively implemented reward processes Operation of review mechanisms and modifications as required Further development of managerial skills and staff understanding Full and possibly phased implementation Regular audits of effectiveness Design of any modifications to schemes Source: Brown D, (2001) Reward Strategies. CIPD Total reward Most commentators these days regard ‘reward’ as more than just pay - it is all the other benefits that an employee gets from employment, and is sometimes referred to as ‘total reward’. The table shows the different components 4
Collinson Grant Reward Pay Benefits Base pay Bonuses Long-term incentives Shares Profit sharing Learning and development Training On-the-job learning Performance management Career development Succession planning Pensions Holidays Perks Flexibility Work environment Organisation culture Leadership Communications Involvement Work-life balance Non-financial recognition Although we are capable of delivering work on all these, when people talk about reward, they almost certainly mean pay. Appendix 2 is a quote from E-Reward about the process a client should go through before selecting a consultant. Appendix 3 is Collinson Grant's approach in summary. Some definitions Broadbands/broadbanding Broadbands are a design of pay structure that (usually) has fewer grades than traditional structures, has wider salary bands/ranges, a large overlap between bands, and does not use midpoints to determine the ‘fully acceptable’ salary. Within a broadband pay range, pay zones may be established that determine the minimum and maximum salary. The maximum can only be exceeded if the employee is given new responsibilities or acquires specified skills, for example. This builds in a ‘bar’ to the pay range. Broadbands can be useful in situations where there is little scope for promotion, but increased expertise is valued. ‘Techies’ in IT, for example, are often poor supervisors: broadbands provide pay progression without the need for promotion to a supervisory job. However, broadbands make pay management more difficult and tend to lead to pay inflation. With less visible mechanisms to restrict pay advancement than traditional systems, it can be difficult to communicate and justify pay decisions. Benchmark jobs Benchmark jobs are a collection of jobs that produce a representative sample of jobs for evaluation. They should: 5
Collinson Grant Reward cover the range of work and include jobs with a large number of job holders include standard jobs that exist externally, to assist pay comparison be stable jobs that are well-established and understood exclude one-off jobs. They represent the backbone of a job evaluated pay structure. Benchmarking salaries Assessing a client’s salaries against the market. Usually, this is done by referring to published salary surveys (Inbucon/IDS/Reward). A more reliable way is to survey particular employers in the area or sector, by asking them to send information about pay and benefits in return for a copy of our report. (Appendix 1 sets out an approach). Competence based pay Pay increases according to the employee’s acquisition of additional skills or competence. Typical ‘levels’ of competence are: entry level developing level fully competent advanced. Advantages Can reinforce culture of employees being responsible for own development. Encourages acquisition of new skills. Focuses on skills the organisation wants to encourage. Disadvantages The pay increase arising from the increased competence needs to be sufficient to make it worthwhile. The employer may not want everybody in a particular job/role to have all the competencies. There is a high management /administration requirement. It may be applicable to some categories of employee, but not all. Competence acquisition may be better linked to performance development, but not pay. 6
Collinson Grant Reward Contribution pay Contribution pay takes Performance Related Pay a step further, by combining performance and competence to measure and reward not only performance but also the increasing skills and capabilities of the employee. Flexible benefits Flexible benefits (flex) allow employees to choose the benefit, or level of benefit, that suits them. It allows, within certain constraints, the employee to decide the mix of cash and benefits. Advantages Reinforces value/cost of benefits to employees. Reduces status barriers. May appeal to diverse workforce. Empowers/engages employees to make choices rather than rely on employers’ decision about benefits. Costs can be reduced through reduced national insurance. Recruitment (and retention) may be improved by more attractive employment offer. May assist harmonisation of employment terms: all the same and all different. Flex schemes normally involve the concept of salary sacrifice. The employee gives up an amount of salary in return for non-cash benefits. Usually, the employee has the opportunity to change the package annually. There are two approaches: A value is attributed to each benefit that may be flexed. Employees can spend the cash or points on the benefits available, or take more in cash, or A fund, or allowance, is provided, to be spent on benefits, typically a percentage of salary, or a fixed amount by grade. Gainsharing Bonus based on self-funding pay-outs. Employees share in the financial success of over-achievement once pre-agreed targets have been reached. Grade drift Grade drift occurs when, over time, jobs are placed in a higher grade than they started in, usually because it has been argued the job has become more difficult/responsible. 7
Collinson Grant Reward Incentives Usually, a generic term for a payment that recognises a particular level of measured contribution. Job families Job families are an approach to relating different roles across an organisation in an integrated way. Job families might be: accounts/production/sales/IT, for example. Job families cluster jobs of a similar type and market base rate together. Within the job family there is a hierarchy of roles: Analyst level 1/Analyst level 2, and so on, say. An example of market zoning at an insurance company 26,000 21,000 18,000 £ 20,000 16,000 13,000 15,000 13,000 9,000 10,000 8,000 1 2 3 6,000 2 1 3 A B In the diagram, three different pay ranges can be applied to jobs in the same grade. For example: B1 are customer service B2 are Finance B3 are IT. Advantages Reflect different pay markets for jobs of similar size. Reflect different career structures of different functions. 8
Collinson Grant Reward Useful in organisations with a high number of knowledge workers. Can accommodate a wide variety of functions and jobs. Disadvantages Can be complex to administer and communicate. Relies on getting reliable pay data. Can create barriers to lateral moves in the business. Job grading Advantages Clarity. Internal equity. Control over pay levels. Rational. If based on analytical job evaluation, defensible in equal pay claims. Disadvantages Inflexible. Does not respond to skill shortages. Grade drift is inevitable. Classic pay grading structure -- 35 -- 30 -- 25 Money 40 -- 20 -- 15 -- 10 -- 5 -- Pay range 80 to 120% Midpoints Grade width 18% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Job size 9
Collinson Grant Reward Pay/salary range The distance between the minimum and maximum salary for a job or job grade. Pay spine Historically, the basis for most public sector pay structures. A pay spine is a series of often many incremental steps extending from the lowest to the highest paid jobs in the structure that may cover the whole organisation. Pay scales are superimposed on the spine to determine the minimum and maximum for the job, with usually automatic increments annually applied until the employee reaches the top of the range for the job/grade. Pay and grading structures Spine points Butt jointed grades Overlapping grades Pay market The salaries paid by employers for a particular job. What market comparator is best? Is it the local market for factory workers, say, but the national market for managers? Performance-related pay (PRP) Judgements are made about an individual’s performance, usually by the manager, but sometimes with contributions from peers and subordinates. Based on this performance, the employee is given a pay increase. Advantages Emphasises that performance in line with company objectives is important to the organisation. Allows employees to feel the link between their performance and their pay. Can act as a channel of communication of company objectives. 10
Collinson Grant Reward Disadvantages Difficult to set and measure employees’ objectives. Inconsistency of managers’ assessments of performance creates dissatisfaction/scheme disrepute. Tendency to regard all employees as at least ‘satisfactory’. Deming (ancient guru) thought this encouraged short-term performance, prevented long term planning, built fear, prevented teamwork, fostered rivalry and made people bitter. Role Often used interchangeably with ‘job’. description/definition. So are job description and role ‘A role may be a set of discrete jobs that are described with some generic responsibilities but with clearly defined skill sets. For example, a role may be a musician but a job, amongst several within a role, would be second violinist’. Share schemes See Appendix 4. Team-based pay A bonus is paid according to the performance of a group of employees, rather than being based on individual performance. The same cash, or percentage of salary, is paid to each person in the group. Advantages Whole team shares in success. Supports teamwork. Emphasises collaboration. Rewards supportive behaviour. Disadvantages Requires clear, stable work groups. Less effective members get equal benefit. Peer pressure can be oppressive. High performers may be frustrated. Variable pay Pay that is ‘at risk’, such as bonuses and incentives 11
Collinson Grant Reward Paying an amount of pay in addition to or instead of base pay as part of an employee’s total remuneration which varies according to criteria, such as: commission or other sales incentives performance bonus company-wide bonus profit sharing gainsharing. Job evaluation The objective of job evaluation is to establish a transparent grading framework with a clear route for pay progression. It: measures the job not the person doing it does not measure the volume of work does not measure individuals’ performance. Why introduce it? To ensure that jobs are graded fairly and to achieve equal pay for work of equal value. To underpin new pay and grading structures and assure internal equity in the system. To assist harmonisation of terms and conditions following merger or acquisition. To clarify job profiles and ensure relevant comparisons when benchmarking externally. Analytical schemes break down a job its key constituent parts, such as skill, experience, effort (factors). Each factor is given a weight depending on its importance. They offer rigour, consistency and objectivity. They are not scientific, requiring judgements to be made in deciding which level of education is required, for example. Non-analytical job evaluation, each job is examined in its entirety. It is quicker than analytical schemes, but we would only recommend it as management tool. It would be unlikely to be acceptable to employees and is not acceptable in assessing equal pay for work of equal value. 12
Collinson Grant Reward Job evaluation project - roles and responsibilities Group Responsibility Steering group Manages high level policy and direction of the project. Does not second-guess the actual results of the exercise. Led by a senior manager who is responsible for the project at the highest level Project manager Responsible for the day-to-day conduct and implementation of the project Working group The forum that makes decisions about the various stages of the project. May include employee representatives. If large, may need to delegate tasks to project teams Project teams Deliver elements of the project Job holders/line managers Provide information about the job to enable job descriptions to be prepared and agreed. May give ‘evidence’ to job evaluation panel Job evaluation panel The body that evaluates the jobs. May be the Working Group Appeal body The body that hears appeals against an evaluation. It should be separate from the job evaluation panel Collinson Grant Offer technical advice on methodology and process/assist with job descriptions/chair or adviser to job evaluation panel Project process Planning. Communication. Selection of factors to value jobs (or use existing/proprietary scheme). Initial design of factor levels and points values/weights. Selection of benchmark jobs. Job description design. Job information collection. Test scheme (using benchmark jobs?). Amend/refine scheme if necessary. Train evaluators. Evaluate benchmark jobs. Evaluate remaining jobs. Confirm evaluations. Publish evaluations (with/without points?). Hear appeals. Develop pay structure. 13
Collinson Grant Reward Points rating job evaluation This method breaks a job down into several factors that are scored against a numerical scale. The sum of the factor scores gives the total job size. It is the most common form of job evaluation. It: is analytical can be specific to the organisation examines each job in the same way provides relative scale is not ‘scientific’. Example Levels Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Knowledge and skills 50 100 150 200 250 300 Weight % 26.8 2 Responsibility 50 100 150 200 250 300 26.8 3 Decision making 40 80 120 140 180 220 19.6 4 Complexity 25 50 75 100 125 150 13.4 5 Contacts 25 50 75 100 125 150 13.4 Design Factors should: cover all the significant features of the job population avoid double counting, omission or combining features be a manageable number not be sex-biased (giving a lot of points to ‘heavy lifting’, for example). According to E-Reward, the most commonly used factor groupings are: knowledge, skills, expertise and experience communication, contacts and interpersonal skills decision-making, problem solving and complexity impact and accountability people management, leadership and team working 14
Collinson Grant Reward various types of responsibility, demands and attributes environment and work demands freedom to act/discretion responsibility for financial and other resources innovation and thinking planning. Whilst visually appealing, forcing the same number of levels for each factor is not recommended. Some factors have a greater range to be measured. Collinson Grant job evaluation scheme It is an analytical scheme for evaluating all administrative and managerial jobs. It is not suitable for manual jobs. It is at Appendix 5. Hybrid job evaluated/competency schemes Fewer, broader role profiles. Simpler evaluation schemes. Broader pay bands. Looser performance management schemes, with equal emphasis on the reward and development aspects. Pay progression based on personal contribution - that is, a combination of competence displayed and results achieved. Flexible working hours and arrangements. Personal choice of benefits. 15
Collinson Grant Reward Base salary comparison analysis Our client employed a group of specialist technicians. It wanted to know where its pay stood in relation to the market and compared to their skills and competencies. The company had job descriptions and information on those employers that competed with them for technical employees. We: reviewed the job descriptions and organisational charts to understand the responsibilities of each job and its position in the organisation identified those jobs that could be market-priced using available market surveys and which jobs would require a specialised survey designed a specialised survey to obtain information for industry-specific jobs invited appropriate organisations to participate in the survey and offered complimentary copies of the results for participating market-priced as many jobs as possible and slotted the remaining few jobs into market based salary guidelines plotted the salaries paid by the client against the salary guidelines asked managers to determine the skill and competency level for each employee plotted the skill and competency levels against the salary guidelines where skill and competency levels did not match the salary position in the guidelines, made individual salary adjustment plans to move employees to the appropriate position developed communication tools for managers’ use when introducing the plans to employees. Appendix 1
Collinson Grant Reward What is the best way to select and use reward consultants? Ensure that there is a business case for using consultants Specify the objectives and ‘deliverables’ of the assignment in a way that clearly indicates that the desired results are worthwhile and achievable and will meet the business need Source and select the consultants with great care. Always consider alternatives even if you already have someone in mind. Approach reputable firms and individuals Obtain a proposal from the consultant that sets out: Their understanding of the assignment Their experience of similar projects How they would tackle it Who would do it, with details of relevant experience How long the project would take How much it would cost Check the proposal and compare it with others against the following criteria: Understanding of the aim of the project Grasp of the issues Relevance and realism of their proposals The thoroughness with which the proposal has been researched and prepared The reputation and relevance of the experience of the firm The strength of the team in terms of qualifications and relevant experience The ability of the consultants involved to fit the culture and management style of the organisation: do we think we can work well with them? Will they work well with us? The timescale - will they deliver the programme when required? The costs - a consideration but not the only one Always meet and approve the actual consultants who will carry out the job Plan the project meticulously with the consultants. Agree terms of reference, deadlines, deliverables, methods of monitoring and reviewing projects and reporting arrangements Manage the project. You are purchasing someone else’s services: it is up to you to ensure they deliver The best consultancy projects are those in which the client and the consultant work in partnership Remember that all consultancy projects involve change. Take particular care over the implementation, involvement and communication processes during and after the assignment. Source: E-Reward Appendix 2
Collinson Grant Reward Collinson Grant's approach – in summary How we can help you with reward? We do a lot of work on reward We expect there to be clearly defined benefits from it, otherwise it’s not worth doing Pay/incentives/benefits/ performance development We have about ten consultants who work on it We’ve just finished a very interesting job reviving an ageing pay structure in [sector of your choice] We usually find the unions are supportive if they understand what you’re trying to achieve [optional] Fundamentally it is about pay Developed pay structures of all sorts in virtually every sector We find Reward is subject to fashion: single-status/broad-banding/competencies/job families - but simple grade structures are usually the basis We do a lot of job evaluation work Collinson Grant job evaluation scheme used in dozens of clients Develop tailor-made schemes where appropriate We find clients often identify a particular problem and think a quick fix will solve it Need to look at the broader, strategic, picture - what you want to achieve with pay and benefits It is not sensible to look at pay and reward in a vacuum We have never believed there is a ‘one size fits all’ answer to reward issues We try to ensure improved productivity is the result: not necessarily job reductions, but better training, improved performance and reduced staff turnover also contribute Appendix 3
Collinson Grant Reward Share schemes This section is to set the principal types of share scheme. A variety of rules apply to them. The principal types of share plan are: Inland Revenue approved plans Company share option plan (CSOP). Share incentive plan (SIP). Sharesave plan (SAYE). Enterprise management incentive (EMI). Non-Inland Revenue approved schemes Discretionary share option plan (DSOP). Performance share plan. Phantom share plans/cash settled stock appreciation rights (SARS). Equity settled SARS. Deferred bonuses. Inland Revenue approval is obtained from its Employee Shares and Securities Unit. Company share option plan The employer can select the recipients. The employer can attach pre-determined performance conditions to the option award. The value of each employee’s shares under option must not exceed £30,000, but this does not include options that have already been exercised. No income tax or national insurance liability arises at grant of option or on exercise unless it is within three years of grant. Share incentive plan Provides employees with the opportunity to buy shares out of gross income and to receive awards of shares on a tax-free basis. Employers can choose which aspects of the plan to operate, but the plan must operate on an allemployee basis. Maximum tax benefits arise if the shares are held in the SIP for five years from the award. Four types of share: Free shares - employees can be allocated shares at no charge Partnership shares - employees can purchase shares from gross income Matching shares - employers give shares to match each Partnership share Dividend shares - employees can use dividend payments to purchase additional equity. Sharesave plans (Save as you earn) Objective is to encourage wider share ownership in a tax-efficient manner. All employees are offered share options on ‘similar terms’. Stipulated exercise price can be at a discount of up to 20% of the market value at the time of grant. Appendix 4 Page 1 of 2
Collinson Grant Reward Employees fund the exercise price by entering into a savings contract. Employees can save between £5 and £250 per month and the interest accumulated is a tax-free bonus. Enterprise management incentives Offer more flexibility than CSOPs. Share options are granted to employees on a discretionary basis. Exercise of options can be made conditional upon the fulfilment of pre-determined performance targets. An employee may hold EMI options worth up to £100,000. EMI only available to companies of no more than £30 million gross assets and many sectors are excluded from participation. Discretionary share option plans Not Inland Revenue approved and so does not enjoy favourable tax treatment. Probably the most common form of non-approved plan. Share option awards made to selected employees on a discretionary basis. Company is able to determine the option exercise price. Exercise of options can be made subject to the achievement of pre-determined performance conditions. Performance share plans Also known as long-term incentive or restricted share plans Number of shares awarded to participants is usually dependent on company performance. Participants typically given right to receive shares at nil or nominal cost. A typical PSP would measure performance over three to five years. Phantom plans/Cash settled share appreciation rights (SARS) Discretionary schemes that pay a cash award related to the increase in share price. Used where conventional share options may not be appropriate, such as for overseas executives. A notional option award is granted to selected employees. Equity settled SARS Allow the exercise of an option to be satisfied by delivering shares with a market value equivalent to the gain on the exercised option. An option award is granted to selected employees. The award gives the employee the right to exercise the options granted, after a vesting period. Deferred bonuses The participants are paid part or all of bonus in shares to be held for a significant period. Often the award of further shares is made at the end of the holding period, subject to performance conditions. Appendix 4 Page 2 of 2
Collinson Grant Reward Job evaluation scheme Experience 1 Communication skills 3 4 5 6 7 Short work experience Knowledge 2 Over 6 months’ work experience, plus understanding of related activities Over 12 months’ experience of commercial, administrative or technical tasks, plus broad knowledge of related activities Considerable experience of commercial, administrative or technical tasks Extensive experience of a specialist function or of several functions generally related in nature and objectives Broad experience of business practice or of several functions diverse in nature and objectives Extensive experience of the widest spectrum of business activity ii iii i ii iii i ii iii i ii iii i ii iii i 29 32 35 38 41 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 32 A Secondary education and general work training i ii iii 35 38 41 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 i ii iii 92 99 107 118 123 134 99 107 118 123 134 145 35 41 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 41 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 41 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 44 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 47 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 51 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 55 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 D Knowledge of commercial, administrative or technical subjects. May require a part-professional qualification 59 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 63 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 68 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 E Professional or technical proficiency normally gained through study for a professional qualification 73 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 78 85 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 85 E 38 38 92 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 B Probably to GCSE level and training in basic procedures or equipment such as a PC d u c a t i o C Knowledge normally gained through further education or apprenticeship F Proficiency in an advanced or highly-specialised field G Requires mastery of principles, practices and theories, or expertise in several specialised fields, probably gained through special development 99 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 107 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 438 107 n 92 99 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 438 469 118 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 438 469 509 123 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 438 469 509 549 134 145 154 167 180 193 209 225 241 261 281 301 326 351 376 407 438 469 509 549 589 Communications skills: the extent to which achievement of objectives is dependent upon ‘influencing’ others, within or outside the company, over whom the job-holder has no direct authority i Ordinary courtesy and effectiveness in dealing with others ii Important, but not essential, to the achievement of objectives iii Critical to the achievement of objectives Appendix 5 Page 1 of 4
Collinson Grant Reward Scope 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 or 2 people Up to 10 people Up to 25 people Up to 100 people Up to 250 people Over 250 people 10 14 18 24 Work of Others A Part-time, immediate supervision while doing the same work as the supervised for most of the time 4 7 5 8 6 B D e C g Immediate supervision where most of the time is spent assigning, reviewing, checking work and eliminating ordinary difficulties Supervision of a group accountability for results of employees, without 7 9 10 8 14 9 10 14 D e Management of a group of employees, with accountability for results 14 15 20 E Direction and co-ordination of several departments or functions through subordinate supervision 18 24 20 26 Integration of several functions through managers who, in turn, are responsible for individual departments 24 26 28 36 51 64 55 59 51 44 55 59 44 47 41 51 44 41 38 33 41 47 36 44 47 36 33 41 36 33 38 28 30 33 38 28 30 22 F 26 36 38 28 30 22 33 28 26 24 30 30 22 28 26 22 20 18 24 24 16 26 22 20 18 16 e 18 16 15 20 16 15 12 11 15 12 11 12 r 11 64 55 69 74 80 69 86 Appendix 5 Page 2 of 4
Collinson Grant Reward Guidance received 1 C o m pl e x i t y A N a t u r O f D u t i e s Use of a few well-defined procedures and limited judgement, since the work involves little choice of method 2 3 4 5 6 Immediate supervision with short work assignments General supervision where standard practice enables job-holder to proceed alone on routine work A definite objective is set and job-holder plans and arranges own work General direction only, where jobholder works from policies and general objectives Job-holder plays a major part in setting own objectives, methods and standards of performance Under board control and direction 7 16 10 25 19 13 B C D E F Duties demand following a range of clearly defined procedures and taking minor decisions under standard practice or instruction 16 Duties demand following diversified procedures and taking decisions in accordance with standard practice or instruction 25 Substantially diversified procedures and precedents require job-holder to devise new methods and modify established practices 37 Working with defined policies and principles, making decisions based on conclusions for which there are few precedents 52 Working within broad functional goals 70 policies and principles to 22 25 19 33 29 29 47 58 148 136 175 223 190 205 175 148 190 205 148 160 136 114 175 160 114 124 104 86 114 104 148 160 136 124 86 94 124 86 78 136 114 104 94 64 104 94 64 70 114 124 86 78 104 86 78 70 58 78 94 64 86 94 64 58 52 42 58 70 47 78 64 70 47 42 33 47 42 52 70 58 52 33 37 52 42 37 22 78 37 29 223 190 241 259 280 241 301 Appendix 5 Page 3 of 4
Collinson Grant Reward Results of errors 1 Accountability A Easily and quickly detected 2 3 4 5 6 Minor confusion or expense in correction Generally confined to a single department. Correction may involve re-working by others May have appreciable effect on departmental performance May mean significant expenditure or losses May involve major expenditure and/or losses May be critical to the company’s success 10 28 16 49 35 22 B Usually detected in succeeding operations 28 42 49 35 E r Detected usually in reviews of progress 57 o D Detected only in reviews of results 73 81 106 E Detected only after decisions have been implemented 97 s 124 106 134 Rarely detected before consequences are irretrievable 124 144 178 254 317 273 294 254 220 273 294 220 235 205 254 220 205 190 166 205 235 178 220 235 178 166 205 178 166 190 144 154 134 166 190 144 154 115 F 134 178 190 144 154 115 166 144 134 124 89 134 154 115 144 154 115 106 97 r 106 124 89 134 115 124 89 81 65 89 81 97 124 106 97 65 73 r 65 57 49 97 81 73 42 C 73 57 366 317 273 340 396 340 426 Appendix 5 Page 4 of 4
33 St James’s Square London SW1Y 4JS United Kingdom Telephone +44 20 7661 9382 Facsimile +44 20 7661 9400 Ryecroft Aviary Road Worsley Manchester M28 2WF United Kingdom Telephone +44 161 703 5600 Facsimile +44 161 790 9177 Web www.collinsongrant.com
Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzung für reward im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch).
Übersetzung für reward im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc.
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