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Retail Pricing

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Information about Retail Pricing
Business & Mgmt

Published on November 25, 2008

Author: rajnishkumar71

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Retail Pricing by Rajnish Kumar
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Rajnish Kumar Pricing in Retail

If you get your customers because of price, you are going to Loose them because of price.

Basic Pricing Strategies Mark-up Pricing Markup on cost can be calculated by adding a pre-set (often industry standard) profit margin, or percentage, to the cost of the merchandise. Markup on retail is determined by dividing the dollar markup by retail. Be sure to keep the initial mark-up high enough to cover price reductions, discounts, shrinkage and other anticipated expenses, and still achieve a satisfactory profit. Retailers with a varied product selection can use different mark-ups on each product line. Vendor Pricing Manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP) is a common strategy used by the smaller retail shops to avoid price wars and still maintain a decent profit. By pricing products with the suggested retail prices supplied by the vendor, the retailer is out of the decision-making process. Another issue with using pre-set prices is that it doesn't allow a retailer to have an advantage over the competition. Competitive Pricing Consumers have many choices and are generally willing to shop around to receive the best price. Retailers considering a competitive pricing strategy will need to provide outstanding customer service to stand above the competition. Pricing below competition simply means pricing products lower than the competitor's price. This strategy works well if the retailer negotiates the best prices, reduces costs and develops a marketing strategy to focus on price specials. Prestige pricing, or pricing above competition , may be considered when location, exclusivity or unique customer service can justify higher prices. Retailers that stock high-quality merchandise that isn't available at any other location may be quite successful in pricing their products above competitors. Psychological Pricing Psychological pricing is used when prices are set to a certain level where the consumer perceives the price to be fair. The most common method is odd-pricing using figures that end in 5, 7 or 9. It is believed that consumers tend to round down a price of $9.95 to $9, rather than $10.

Mark-up Pricing

Markup on cost can be calculated by adding a pre-set (often industry standard) profit margin, or percentage, to the cost of the merchandise.

Markup on retail is determined by dividing the dollar markup by retail.

Be sure to keep the initial mark-up high enough to cover price reductions, discounts, shrinkage and other anticipated expenses, and still achieve a satisfactory profit. Retailers with a varied product selection can use different mark-ups on each product line.

Vendor Pricing

Manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP) is a common strategy used by the smaller retail shops to avoid price wars and still maintain a decent profit. By pricing products with the suggested retail prices supplied by the vendor, the retailer is out of the decision-making process. Another issue with using pre-set prices is that it doesn't allow a retailer to have an advantage over the competition.

Competitive Pricing

Consumers have many choices and are generally willing to shop around to receive the best price. Retailers considering a competitive pricing strategy will need to provide outstanding customer service to stand above the competition.

Pricing below competition simply means pricing products lower than the competitor's price. This strategy works well if the retailer negotiates the best prices, reduces costs and develops a marketing strategy to focus on price specials.

Prestige pricing, or pricing above competition , may be considered when location, exclusivity or unique customer service can justify higher prices. Retailers that stock high-quality merchandise that isn't available at any other location may be quite successful in pricing their products above competitors.

Psychological Pricing

Psychological pricing is used when prices are set to a certain level where the consumer perceives the price to be fair. The most common method is odd-pricing using figures that end in 5, 7 or 9. It is believed that consumers tend to round down a price of $9.95 to $9, rather than $10.

Other Pricing Strategies Keystone pricing is not used as often as it once was. Doubling the cost paid for merchandise was once the rule of pricing products, but very few products these days allow a retailer to keystone the product price. Putney Pricing strategy is being used by some retailers to increase margins. Multiple pricing is a method which involves selling more than one product for one price, such as three items for $1.00. Not only is this strategy great for markdowns or sales events, but retailers have noticed consumers tend to purchase in larger amounts where the multiple pricing strategy is used. Discount pricing and price reductions are a natural part of retailing. Discounting can include coupons, rebates, seasonal prices and other promotional Markdowns. Merchandise priced below cost is referred to as loss leaders . Although retailers make no profit on these discounted items, the hope is consumers will purchase other products at higher margins during their visit to the store. It is important to understand the concept of Known value items or KVI’ s If th retailer wishes to increase the footfalls with the help of loss leaders As you develop the best pricing model for your retail business, understand the ideal pricing strategy will depend on more than costs. It is difficult to say which component of pricing is more important than another. Just keep in mind, the right product price is the price the consumer is willing to pay, while providing a profit to the retailer.

Keystone pricing is not used as often as it once was. Doubling the cost paid for merchandise was once the rule of pricing products, but very few products these days allow a retailer to keystone the product price. Putney Pricing strategy is being used by some retailers to increase margins.

Multiple pricing is a method which involves selling more than one product for one price, such as three items for $1.00. Not only is this strategy great for markdowns or sales events, but retailers have noticed consumers tend to purchase in larger amounts where the multiple pricing strategy is used.

Discount pricing and price reductions are a natural part of retailing. Discounting can include coupons, rebates, seasonal prices and other promotional Markdowns.

Merchandise priced below cost is referred to as loss leaders . Although retailers make no profit on these discounted items, the hope is consumers will purchase other products at higher margins during their visit to the store.

It is important to understand the concept of Known value items or KVI’ s If th retailer wishes to increase the footfalls with the help of loss leaders

As you develop the best pricing model for your retail business, understand the ideal pricing strategy will depend on more than costs. It is difficult to say which component of pricing is more important than another.

Just keep in mind, the right product price is the price the consumer is willing to pay, while providing a profit to the retailer.

EDLP vs. High Low Pricing There are two kinds of retailers in the industry: HILO and EDLP. HILO means grocery stores that normally have high prices (HI) that run rotating super-cheap loss-leaders (LO). The EDLP stores specialize in Everyday Low Prices–so their sales are rarely as good, but their standard prices are considerably lower. There are three kinds of typical shopper. Some are store-faithful. The amount that they buy in a particular week depends heavily upon the sales offered. Others choose the store by the sale. The amount they buy is fairly consistent, but where they spend it varies. The third type is very rare–people who go to multiple stores every week. These people far more time than money and are sometimes labelled as ‘Cherry Pickers’ EDLP pricing is more suitable for Hypermarkets, Supermarkets and Price clubs such as Wal Mart, Costco, Kmart etc. They promise the customers to save not on individual items but on a basket of items.So you are more likely to save at Wal Mart if you buy from them on a daily basis items of regular and repeat use rather than pick and choose from time to time. One important condition that drives EDLP pricing is the “Low Price” image of the retailer is the consumer’s mind. HILO Pricing is more suited for Departmental Stores who face obsolescence and tempt customers to peg up their buying during the SALE period. They make money during the HI phase when the products are not on discount but they also make sure that they do not loose as much when they are on SALE. A HILO pricing is supported by ‘Premium’ image of the retailer as it helps the retailer to up charge the customer during the HI phase. The HI LO pricing will fail in a scenario if the customers do not find enough value when the products are put on sale.

There are two kinds of retailers in the industry: HILO and EDLP.

HILO means grocery stores that normally have high prices (HI) that run rotating super-cheap loss-leaders (LO).

The EDLP stores specialize in Everyday Low Prices–so their sales are rarely as good, but their standard prices are considerably lower.

There are three kinds of typical shopper. Some are store-faithful. The amount that they buy in a particular week depends heavily upon the sales offered.

Others choose the store by the sale. The amount they buy is fairly consistent, but where they spend it varies.

The third type is very rare–people who go to multiple stores every week. These people far more time than money and are sometimes labelled as ‘Cherry Pickers’

EDLP pricing is more suitable for Hypermarkets, Supermarkets and Price clubs such as Wal Mart, Costco, Kmart etc. They promise the customers to save not on individual items but on a basket of items.So you are more likely to save at Wal Mart if you buy from them on a daily basis items of regular and repeat use rather than pick and choose from time to time. One important condition that drives EDLP pricing is the “Low Price” image of the retailer is the consumer’s mind.

HILO Pricing is more suited for Departmental Stores who face obsolescence and tempt customers to peg up their buying during the SALE period. They make money during the HI phase when the products are not on discount but they also make sure that they do not loose as much when they are on SALE.

A HILO pricing is supported by ‘Premium’ image of the retailer as it helps the retailer to up charge the customer during the HI phase. The HI LO pricing will fail in a scenario if the customers do not find enough value when the products are put on sale.

They have gone…What About You ????? SALE

Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity = % Change in sales %Change in Price Price elasticity of 2 implies that for a 10 % cut in price the retailer can expect a sales lift of about 20 % Price Elasticity varies from product to product. It will be different for grocery and Apparel. Which is higher ?

Price Elasticity = % Change in sales

%Change in Price

Price elasticity of 2 implies that for a 10 % cut in price the retailer can expect a sales lift of about 20 %

Price Elasticity varies from product to product. It will be different for grocery and Apparel. Which is higher ?

Beyond a point the demand flattens irrespective of the Discount % Deal Decay – The longer the item is on a deal the lower is the height of deal spike The Deal spike also depends upon how long ago there was a deal on the same product

Beyond a point the demand flattens irrespective of the Discount %

Deal Decay – The longer the item is on a deal the lower is the height of deal spike

The Deal spike also depends upon how long ago there was a deal on the same product

Asymmetric Deal Behavior High Price High Quality National Brand Low Price Low Quality Local Brand Private Label Sales SALE !! High Price High Quality National Brands tend to eat away the share of low Quality, low Price Local Brands when Price promoted whereas the Reverse may not happen Why ??? As the Margins on Private Label and Local brands are usually higher the retailer may end of loosing money as a result of such a price promotion A retailer may not do it unless supported by the National Brand

High Price High Quality National Brands tend to eat away the share

of low Quality, low Price Local Brands when Price promoted whereas the

Reverse may not happen

Why ???

As the Margins on Private Label and Local brands are usually higher the retailer may end of loosing money as a result of such a price promotion

A retailer may not do it unless supported by the National Brand

Cross Fertilization The promo on one category can favorably as well as adversely affect the sale of another category Complimentary categories may see a rise in sales Ex : Shirts and Trousers, Mens Shoes and Mens Apparel Substitute Categories may see a fall in sales Ex : Orange and Apple Juice

The promo on one category can favorably as well as adversely affect the sale of another category

Complimentary categories may see a rise in sales Ex : Shirts and Trousers, Mens Shoes and Mens Apparel

Substitute Categories may see a fall in sales Ex : Orange and Apple Juice

Impact on Store Traffic Loss leaders may help increase Store traffic To avoid Cherry Picking the retailer must club categories in order to minimize losses Also the store must be geared up to handle and take advantage of higher footfalls Conversion in other products than the loss leader needs to be the key focus

Loss leaders may help increase Store traffic

To avoid Cherry Picking the retailer must club categories in order to minimize losses

Also the store must be geared up to handle and take advantage of higher footfalls

Conversion in other products than the loss leader needs to be the key focus

The avalanche Effect Display Budget Price cut Major Ad Week after Week ? Two together ? All 3 together ?

Display Budget

Price cut

Major Ad

Week after Week ?

Two together ?

All 3 together ?

The incremental jump in Sales from running the 3 together =275 pieces Cumulative increase of running the 3 seperately = 198 Pieces

Caution !! Promotions give an instant kick but they have serious long term impact Frequent promotions can condition the customer to wait for the SALE If not handled carefully Promotions can play havoc with a retailers positioning Cannibalization and destruction of value chain have to be seriously considered while designing promotions

Promotions give an instant kick but they have serious long term impact

Frequent promotions can condition the customer to wait for the SALE

If not handled carefully Promotions can play havoc with a retailers positioning

Cannibalization and destruction of value chain have to be seriously considered while designing promotions

Happy Selling !!

Happy Selling !!

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