Respiratory System and Immune System

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Information about Respiratory System and Immune System
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Published on September 24, 2008

Author: sacklax40

Source: slideshare.net

Respiratory System

Function To exchange gases with the surrounding environment O 2 in, CO 2 out

To exchange gases with the surrounding environment

O 2 in, CO 2 out

Mechanism CO 2 is a waste product of cellular respiration It is carried in the blood as a Carbonate (carbonic acid) The medulla oblongata keeps track of blood acidity

CO 2 is a waste product of cellular respiration

It is carried in the blood as a Carbonate (carbonic acid)

The medulla oblongata keeps track of blood acidity

Organs involved Mouth, Nose Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli

Mouth, Nose

Trachea

Bronchus

Bronchioles

Alveoli

Protection From External Environment All passageways of the respiratory system are kept moist, and most are lined with mucous This is to keep air flowing freely, and to trap dirt and bacteria We also have some cilia lined air passageways to prevent dirt from entering our lungs (nasal passages, and Trachea)

All passageways of the respiratory system are kept moist, and most are lined with mucous

This is to keep air flowing freely, and to trap dirt and bacteria

We also have some cilia lined air passageways to prevent dirt from entering our lungs (nasal passages, and Trachea)

How does it work? Lungs are not muscles Diaphragm is Diaphragm contracts Ribcage expands Lungs expand Air rushes in to fill up empty space

Lungs are not muscles

Diaphragm is

Diaphragm contracts

Ribcage expands

Lungs expand

Air rushes in to fill up empty space

How does it work? Exhaling is generally a passive process Diaphragm relaxes Lungs compress Forces out air You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air

Exhaling is generally a passive process

Diaphragm relaxes

Lungs compress

Forces out air

You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air

Diffusion Confusion Alveoli are to the respiratory system like villi to the digestive system, and like the nephron to the excretory system INCREASED SURFACE AREA LEADS TO MORE GAS EXCHANGE!!

Alveoli are to the respiratory system like villi to the digestive system, and like the nephron to the excretory system

INCREASED SURFACE AREA LEADS TO MORE GAS EXCHANGE!!

 

Diffusion Alveoli are where circulatory system meet the respiratory system Site of gas exchange High concentration to low concentration Same process drive absorption of nutrients and wastes

Alveoli are where circulatory system meet the respiratory system

Site of gas exchange

High concentration to low concentration

Same process drive absorption of nutrients and wastes

Homeostatic Control Feedback loops Increased muscular activity leads to more cellular respiration Increased cellular respiration leads to increased levels of Carbon Dioxide in the blood Leads to high acid levels Triggers Medulla Medulla sends signal to increase respiratory rate

Feedback loops

Increased muscular activity leads to more cellular respiration

Increased cellular respiration leads to increased levels of Carbon Dioxide in the blood

Leads to high acid levels

Triggers Medulla

Medulla sends signal to increase respiratory rate

Disorders Bronchitis Asthma COPD Emphysema Lung Cancer Others…..

Bronchitis

Asthma

COPD

Emphysema

Lung Cancer

Others…..

Immune System Pathogens can get into the body Lymph system and Circulatory system

Pathogens can get into the body

Lymph system and Circulatory system

Immunity The ability of an organism to resist foreign organisms or invaders which enter its body. 

The ability of an organism to resist foreign organisms or invaders which enter its body. 

Layered Defense Humans have three layers of protection against pathogens 1- Physical barrier 2- Innate immune response 3- Adaptive immune response

Humans have three layers of protection against pathogens

1- Physical barrier

2- Innate immune response

3- Adaptive immune response

Physical Barrier

Innate Immune System A non-specific response to pathogens Many different WBC Phagocytes , mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells . Attack and destroy (phagocytosis)

A non-specific response to pathogens

Many different WBC

Phagocytes , mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells .

Attack and destroy (phagocytosis)

Adaptive Immunity Immune system has a memory It can produce antibodies to certain pathogens Next time pathogen enters body antibodies deactivate, and tag it for destruction

Immune system has a memory

It can produce antibodies to certain pathogens

Next time pathogen enters body antibodies deactivate, and tag it for destruction

Vaccines Rely on adaptive immunity Inject inactive pathogen Body develops antibodies If invaded, you already have the antibodies to fight it off

Rely on adaptive immunity

Inject inactive pathogen

Body develops antibodies

If invaded, you already have the antibodies to fight it off

Allergies Overactive immune system Body identifies harmless substance as a pathogen Produces immune defense (sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, mucus production increase)

Overactive immune system

Body identifies harmless substance as a pathogen

Produces immune defense (sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, mucus production increase)

Autoimmune Diseases Disease in which the immune system targets it’s own body cells for destruction http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_autoimmune_diseases

Disease in which the immune system targets it’s own body cells for destruction

http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_autoimmune_diseases

AIDS Acquired Immune Defiency AIDS is a viral disease which destroys the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies, so the afflicted individual is unable to cope with infections and cancer cells which arise within the body.

Acquired Immune Defiency

AIDS is a viral disease which destroys the ability of the immune system to produce antibodies, so the afflicted individual is unable to cope with infections and cancer cells which arise within the body.

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