Respiratory System

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Information about Respiratory System

Published on November 11, 2009

Author: jrmaustria


Slide 2: The respiratory system of animals is responsible for the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) with the body. The cells of animals need to have a constant supply of oxygen to function. Carbon dioxide, a by-product of cellular respiration, needs to be transported outside the body. All of these are done by the respiratory system. The respiratory system of animals exhibit diversity. For example: aquatic invertebrates such as sea stars, crustaceans, and marine worms have gills. What is the HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM? The human respiratory system has a specific function to allow gas exchange to all parts of the body. Slide 5: The LUNG is the major respiratory organ of vertebrates. The lungs have moist surfaces with a dense net of small blood vessels to facilitate gas exchange. The surface area of lungs is very large, allowing sufficient gases to be exchanged for the whole body. ALVEOLI. LARYNX. known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. The larynx houses the vocal folds, which are an essential component of singing and if improperly used can result in permenant voice loss. The vocal folds are situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus. Slide 6: PHARYNX. part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to (behind) the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. The pharynx is part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many organisms. Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or aspiration. In humans the pharynx is important in vocalization. TRACHEA. a tube that connects to the pharynx or larynx, allowing the passage of air to the lungs. It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells with mucosal goblet cells which produce mucus. This mucus lines the cells of the trachea to trap inhaled foreign particles which the cilia then waft upwards towards their larynx and then the pharynx where it can either be swallowed into the stomach or expelled as phlegm. Slide 8: Inhalation Inhalation is initiated by the diaphragm and supported by the external intercostal muscles. Normal resting respirations are 10 to 18 breaths per minute, with a time period of 2 seconds. During vigorous inhalation (at rates exceeding 35 breaths per minute), or in approaching respiratory failure, accessory muscles of respiration are recruited for support. These consist of sternocleidomastoid, platysma, and the scalene muscles of the neck. Under normal conditions, the diaphragm is the primary driver of inhalation. When the diaphragm contracts, the ribcage expands and the contents of the abdomen are moved downward. This results in a larger thoracic volume and negative (suction) pressure (with respect to atmospheric pressure) inside the thorax. As the pressure in the chest falls, air moves into the conducting zone. Here, the air is filtered, warmed, and humidified as it flows to the lungs. During forced inhalation, as when taking a deep breath, the external intercostal muscles and accessory muscles aid in further expanding the thoracic cavity. Slide 9: Exhalation Exhalation is generally a passive process; however, active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles. During this process air is forced or exhaled out. The lungs have a natural elasticity: as they recoil from the stretch of inhalation, air flows back out until the pressures in the chest and the atmosphere reach equilibrium. During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles, generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. Slide 10: Circulation The right side of the heart pumps blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. The trunk branches into right and left pulmonary arteries to the pulmonary blood vessels. The vessels generally accompany the airways and also undergo numerous branchings. Once the gas exchange process is complete in the pulmonary capillaries, blood is returned to the left side of the heart through four pulmonary veins, two from each side. The pulmonary circulation has a very low resistance, due to the short distance within the lungs, compared to the systemic circulation, and for this reason, all the pressures within the pulmonary blood vessels are normally low as compared to the pressure of the systemic circulation loop. Slide 11: Gas exchange The major function of the respiratory system is gas exchange between the external environment and an organism's circulatory system. In humans and mammals, this exchange facilitates oxygenation of the blood with a concomitant removal of carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the circulation. As gas exchange occurs, the acid-base balance of the body is maintained as part of homeostasis. If proper ventilation is not maintained, two opposing conditions could occur: 1) respiratory acidosis, a life threatening condition, and 2) respiratory alkalosis. Upon inhalation, gas exchange occurs at the alveoli, the tiny sacs which are the basic functional component of the lungs. The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx. 0.2 micrometres). These walls are composed of a single layer of epithelial cells (type I and type II epithelial cells) in close proximity to the pulmonary capillaries which are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells. The close proximity of these two cell types allows permeability to gases and, hence, gas exchange. This whole mechanism of gas exchange is carried by the simple phenomenon of pressure difference. When the atmospheric pressure is low outside the air from lungs flow out. When the air pressure is low inside, then the vice versa. Slide 13: The symptoms of respiratory disease differ depending on the disease. Common symptoms are: General malaise Shortness of breath or dyspnea which usually occurs with exercise and can interfere with daily activities. In severe cases, shortness of breath can occur while resting. Cough with or without the production of sputum. Coughing blood (haemoptysis).It is very painful. Chest pain. This may or may not be pleuritic chest pain (that is pain that worsens with the movements of breathing). Noisy breathing, either wheeze or stridor. Loss of appetite. Weight loss. Cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the lips, tongue or fingers. Slide 14: Obstructive lung diseases are diseases of the lung where the bronchial tubes become narrowed making it hard to move air in and especially out of the lung. Restrictive lung diseases (also known as interstitial lung diseases) are a category of respiratory disease characterized by a loss of lung compliance,[4] causing incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. E.g. in infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Slide 15: Treatment of respiratory disease depends on the particular disease being treated, the severity of disease and the patient. Lifestyle factors such as regular exercise and healthy nutrition are important in preventing and treating respiratory disease. Vaccination can prevent some respiratory diseases. In addition, the following treatments are often used for respiratory diseases: Medication, often given in an inhaled form Corticosteroids Bronchodilators Antibiotics Anticoagulants Cancer chemotherapy Immune suppressants Physiotherapy Oxygen Mechanical ventilation Liquid ventilation (or Liquid breathing) Surfactant Replacement Therapy Radiotherapy Surgery Removal of a cancer e.g. lobectomy, pneumonectomy Pleurodesis Lung volume reduction surgery Lung transplantation Artificial lung

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