Respiration Lecture

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Information about Respiration Lecture

Published on February 8, 2008

Author: levouge777

Source: slideshare.net

What is Respiration ? Goals: What is the respiratory system? What is respiration? What are the structural features? What are their functions?

Goals:

What is the respiratory system?

What is respiration?

What are the structural features?

What are their functions?

Respiration is: IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE BODY TAKES IN AND USES O 2 AND REMOVES CO 2 REQUIRES- Ventilation by the lungs inspiration and expiration Gas exchange across alveolar membrane diffusion, Fick’s law Transport of gases by blood haemoglobin Uptake of O 2 and release of CO 2 by tissues diffusion

IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE BODY TAKES IN AND USES O 2 AND REMOVES CO 2

REQUIRES-

Ventilation by the lungs

inspiration and expiration

Gas exchange across alveolar membrane

diffusion, Fick’s law

Transport of gases by blood

haemoglobin

Uptake of O 2 and release of CO 2 by tissues

diffusion

 

 

 

 

Other Functions of the Respiratory System BEHAVIORAL -talking, laughing, singing, reading DEFENSE - humidification, particle expulsion (coughing, sneezing), particle trapping (clots), immunoglobulins from tonsils and adenoids, a-1 antitrypsin, lysozyme, interferon, complement system SECRETIONS - mucus (goblet cells, mucus glands)

BEHAVIORAL -talking, laughing, singing, reading

DEFENSE - humidification, particle expulsion (coughing, sneezing), particle trapping (clots), immunoglobulins from tonsils and adenoids, a-1 antitrypsin, lysozyme, interferon, complement system

SECRETIONS - mucus (goblet cells, mucus glands)

Other Functions: cont METABOLIC - forms angiotensin II, prostacyclin, bradykinin, serotonin and histamine ACID - BASE BALANCE- changes in ventilation ;e.g., acute acidosis of exercise MISCELLANAEOUS - lose heat and water, liquid reservoir for blood,force generation for lifting, vomiting, defaecation and childbirth

METABOLIC - forms angiotensin II, prostacyclin, bradykinin, serotonin and histamine

ACID - BASE BALANCE- changes in ventilation ;e.g., acute acidosis of exercise

MISCELLANAEOUS - lose heat and water, liquid reservoir for blood,force generation for lifting, vomiting, defaecation and childbirth

Which of the following are not a function of the Respiratory System: 1. Speech 2. Gas exchange 3. Metabolism 4. Structural support for the heart 5. Acid-base balance QUIZ Question

 

 

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jeffery Movie

Fishman A, Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 3 rd ed. 1998, McGraw-Hill, p. 23.

 

 

 

 

 

Conducting Airways Includes: trachea --> terminal bronchioles Trachea --> right and left mainstem bronchi. Right mainstem vulnerable to foreign particles Mainstem bronchi -->lobar bronchi. Dichotomous branching: ~16 generations of airways Convective Flow

Includes: trachea --> terminal bronchioles

Trachea --> right and left mainstem bronchi.

Right mainstem vulnerable to foreign particles

Mainstem bronchi -->lobar bronchi.

Dichotomous branching: ~16 generations of airways

Convective Flow

 

Bronchoscopy

 

 

 

 

 

 

Airway Branching Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.56.

A = Terminal + Lobule Bronchiole 3-5 ACINI Functional Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sac Alveolus

 

 

 

 

Quiz Question: Which of the following is not a function of the conducting airways? Humidifying the inspirated air Adjusting the air to body temperature 3. Exchange of CO 2 4. Section of mucus

Quiz Question:

Which of the following is not a function

of the conducting airways?

Humidifying the inspirated air

Adjusting the air to body temperature

3. Exchange of CO 2

4. Section of mucus

 

Transitional & Respiratory Zones. Final generations of airway Respiratory Bronchioles Alveolar Ducts Alveoli Diffusive air movement as opposed to Convective air movement Interface between inspired air and blood

Final generations of airway

Respiratory Bronchioles

Alveolar Ducts

Alveoli

Diffusive air movement as opposed to Convective air movement

Interface between inspired air and blood

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alveoli 1 and 8 million alveolar ducts 300 million alveoli (diameter 70-300  m) Total alveolar surface area ~ 70 m 2 Alveolar membrane thickness < 1  m.

 

Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 24.

NORMAL

EMPHYSEMA

 

Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood - respiratory bronchioles - trachea - alveolus - glottis - alveolar ducts - nose

Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood 1) nose 2) glottis 3) trachea 4) respiratory bronchioles 5) alveolar ducts 6) alveolus

Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 29.

 

Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 30.

 

 

 

Blood Vessels of the Lung Pulmonary Artery: Deoxygenated (venous) cardiac output. Pulmonary capillaries extremely dense underground parking garage Pulmonary Veins: Oxygenated (arterial) cardiac output.

Pulmonary Artery:

Deoxygenated (venous) cardiac output.

Pulmonary capillaries

extremely dense

underground parking garage

Pulmonary Veins:

Oxygenated (arterial) cardiac output.

 

Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 28.

Bronchiole Alveoli Pulm. artery Pulm. vein

 

 

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.16.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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