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Information about respiration

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: raniashok



Respiration: Respiration Mrs. Rani Ashok Associate Professor of Zoology, Lady Doak College, Madurai – 2 Email: PowerPoint Presentation: What happens after you consume this? PowerPoint Presentation: How? Releases energy ….. Respiration …: Respiration … Catalyzed by enzymes Main food oxidized is glucose Occurs in all Living cells Also called Cellular Respiration PowerPoint Presentation: Uses of the Energy Released during Respiration Human Other Animals Plants produce light in fireflies muscle contraction absorb mineral salts by active transport keep warm produce sound in some birds transport food substances absorb food by active transport produce smell in some mammals PowerPoint Presentation: Respiration In presence of … In absence of … Complete Oxidation Incomplete Oxidation CO 2 + H 2 O + heat + ATP CO 2 + Ethanol+ energy Occurs in Mitochondria Occurs in Cytoplasm Large amount of energy released Small amount of energy released Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Occurs in most living cells Occurs in bacteria, yeast & Vertebrate muscle PowerPoint Presentation: Respiration Sequence of events that result in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the mitochondria Respiratory strategies of animals: Unicellular and small multicellular organisms rely on diffusion for gas exchange Larger organisms must rely on a combination of bulk flow and diffusion for gas exchange, i.e., they need a respiratory system Respiratory strategies of animals Respiratory Strategies: Animals more than a few millimeters thick use one of three respiratory strategies Circulating the external medium through the body Sponges, cnidarians, and insects Diffusion of gases across the body surface accompanied by circulatory transport Cutaneous respiration Most aquatic invertebrates, some amphibians, eggs of birds Diffusion of gases across a specialized respiratory surface accompanied by circulatory transport Gills ( evaginations ) or lungs (invaginations) Vertebrates Respiratory Strategies Circulating the external medium through the body : Circulating the external medium through the body Parazoa and Cnidaria Circulating the external medium through the body : Circulating the external medium through the body Tracheal system Series of narrow tubes leading from surface to deep within body Gases move in the tubes via a combination of diffusion and bulk flow PowerPoint Presentation: Cricket spiracle Most animals have a circulatory system: Diffusion of gases across a specialized respiratory surface accompanied by circulatory transport Most animals have a circulatory system Respiratory surface Tissue Circulatory system External medium O 2 O 2 Cutaneous respiration: Cutaneous respiration Respiration through skin Found in some aquatic invertebrates and a few vertebrates Disadvantages: relatively low surface area Conflict between respiration and protection Salamander Annelid Lake Titicaca frog External gills: External gills Gills originate as outpocketings ( evaginations ) Advantages : high surface area, exposed to medium Disadvantages : easily damaged, not suitable in air Polychaete Salamander Internal gills: Internal gills Advantages : High surface area, protected Disadvantages : not usually suitable in air Lungs: Lungs Originate as infoldings (invaginations) Advantages : High surface area, protected, suitable for breathing air Disadvantages : not suitable in water Ventilation : The active movement of the respiratory medium (air or water) across the respiratory surface Ventilation of respiratory surfaces reduces the formation of static boundary layers i.e. improves efficiency of gas exchange Types of ventilation Nondirectional - medium flows past the respiratory surface in an unpredictable pattern Tidal - medium moves in and out Unidirectional - medium enters the chamber at one point and exits at another Animals respond to changes in environmental oxygen or metabolic demands by altering the rate or pattern of ventilation Ventilation PowerPoint Presentation: Human Respiratory System Figure 10.1 PowerPoint Presentation: Components of the Upper Respiratory Tract Figure 10.2 PowerPoint Presentation: Passageway for respiration Receptors for smell Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material Moistens and warms incoming air Resonating chambers for voice Upper Respiratory Tract Functions PowerPoint Presentation: Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract Figure 10.3 PowerPoint Presentation: Functions: Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production Trachea: transports air to and from lungs Bronchi: branch into lungs Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange Lower Respiratory Tract PowerPoint Presentation: Gas Exchange Between the Blood and Alveoli Figure 10.8A PowerPoint Presentation: Inspiration/Expiration: air in/air out Cycle: Relaxed state : diaphragm and intercostal muscles relaxed Inspiration : diaphragm contracts, pulling muscle down, intercostal muscles contract elevating chest wall and expanding volume of chest, lowering pressure in lungs, pulling in air Expiration : muscles relax, diaphragm resumes dome shape, intercostal muscles allow chest to lower resulting in increase of pressure in chest and expulsion of air Process of Breathing: Pressure Gradient PowerPoint Presentation: Respiratory Cycle Figure 10.9 PowerPoint Presentation: Lung volumes and vital capacity Tidal volume: volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a single breath Dead space volume: the air that remains in the airways and does not participate in gas exchange Vital capacity: the maximal volume that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation Inspiratory reserve volume: the amount of air that can be inhaled beyond the tidal volume Measurement of Lung Function PowerPoint Presentation: Lung volumes and vital capacity (continued) Expiratory reserve volume: the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled beyond the tidal volume Residual volume: the amount of air remaining in the lungs, even after a forceful maximal expiration Measurement: spirometer Measurement of Lung Function (cont.) PowerPoint Presentation: Measurement of Lung Capacity Figure 10.10A PowerPoint Presentation: Respiratory center in the medulla oblongata: establishes basic breathing pattern Chemical receptors: monitor carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and oxygen levels Medulla: sensitive to hydrogen ions in cerebrospinal fluid resulting from carbon dioxide in blood Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System Involvement PowerPoint Presentation: Regulation of Breathing Figure 10.13 PowerPoint Presentation: Carotid and aortic bodies: sensitive to carbon dioxide, pH, and oxygen levels Conscious control: resides in higher brain centers; ability to modify breath is limited Regulation of Breathing: Nervous System Involvement PowerPoint Presentation: Reduced air flow: asthma, emphysema, bronchitis Infections: pneumonia, tuberculosis, botulism Lung cancer Congestive heart failure Cystic fibrosis Disorders of Respiratory System Breathing disorders: One breathing disorder: Asthma or Bronchitis One possible cause Prevention Treatment Breathing disorders PowerPoint Presentation: The Neural & Chemical Control of Respiration PowerPoint Presentation: 39 Factors Influencing Respiration Neural control of Respiration: Neural control of Respiration Fairly normal ventilation retained if section above medulla Ventilation ceases if section below medulla  medulla is major rhythm generator The Rhythm : inspiration followed by expiration Neural control of Respiration: Neural control of Respiration Until recently, it was thought the Dorsal respiratory group of neurons generate the basic rhythm of breathing It is now generally believed that the breathing rhythm is generated by a network of neurons called the Pre-Brotzinger complex . These neurons display pacemaker activity. They are located near the upper end of the medullary respiratory centre What gives rise to inspiration?: What gives rise to inspiration? PONS MEDULLA SPINAL CORD Dorsal respiratory group neurones (inspiratory) Fire in bursts Firing leads to contraction of inspiratory muscles - inspiration When firing stops, passive expiration What about “active” expiration during hyperventilation?: What about “active” expiration during hyperventilation? Increased firing of dorsal neurones excites a second group: Ventral respiratory group neurones Excite internal intercostals, abdominals etc Forceful expiration In normal quiet breathing, ventral neurones do not activate expiratory muscles The rhythm generated in the medulla can be modified by neurones in the pons:: The rhythm generated in the medulla can be modified by neurones in the pons : “ pneumotaxic centre ” ( PC ) Stimulation terminates inspiration PC stimulated when dorsal respiratory neurones fire Inspiration inhibited Without PC , breathing is prolonged inspiratory gasps with brief expiration - APNEUSIS - + The “apneustic centre”: The “apneustic centre” Apneustic centre Impulses from these neurones excite inspiratory area of medulla Prolong inspiration Conclusion? Rhythm generated in medulla Rhythm can be modified by inputs from pons Reflex modification of breathing: Reflex modification of breathing Pulmonary stretch receptors Activated during inspiration, afferent discharge inhibits inspiration - Hering-Breuer reflex Unlikely - only activated at large >>1litre tidal volumes Maybe important in new born babies Do they switch off inspiration during normal respiratory cycle? May prevent over-inflation lungs during hard exercise? Joint receptors: Impulses from moving limbs reflexly increase breathing Probably contribute to the increased ventilation during exercise Joint receptors Factors That May Increase Ventilation During Exercise: Reflexes originating from body movement Increase in body temperature Adrenaline release I mpulses from the cerebral cortex Later : accumulation of CO 2 and H + generated by active muscles Factors That May Increase Ventilation During Exercise Chemical Control of Respiration: An example of a negative feedback control system The controlled variables are the blood gas tensions , especially carbon dioxide Chemoreceptors sense the values of the gas tensions Chemical Control of Respiration Peripheral chemoreceptors regulating respiration: Aortic bodies * On aorta Send sensory info to medulla through X (vagus n) Carotid bodies + At fork of common carotid artery Send info mainly through IX (glossopharyngeal n ) 50 Peripheral chemoreceptors regulating respiration * + Influence of Chemical Factors on Respiration: Influence of Chemical Factors on Respiration PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU

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