Published on May 31, 2014
REFERENCE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE IT IS MORE THAN JUST REINVENTING THE WHEEL! Dr. Cherriethel (Cherry) Emerson, © 2014 "Oh, y ahora ¿quién podrá defenderme/nos?"
RESIDENT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE • Re-engages students via dropbox comments • Re-engages students in discussion posts • Re-engages students in replies to peers • Re-engages students with instructor (email) • Re-engages students in instructor commented submissions in dropbox • Information is literally at your fingertips INCREASES PARTICIPATION
REFERENCE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE • Reference management software, citation management software or personal bibliographic management software is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilizing bibliographic citations (references).[ Once a citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies, such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays. The development of reference management packages has been driven by the rapid expansion of scientific literature • These software packages normally consist of a database in which full bibliographic references can be entered, plus a system for generating selective lists of articles in the different formats required by publishers and scholarly journals. Modern reference management packages can usually be integrated with word processors so that a reference list in the appropriate format is produced automatically as an article is written, reducing the risk that a cited source is not included in the reference list. They will also have a facility for importing the details of publications from bibliographic databases IT KEEPS ALL OF YOUR INFORMATION ONE PLACE OR MANY PLACES FULLY ON INTERNET, RESIDENT ON YOUR COMPUTER EVEN ON YOUR FLASH DRIVE What is it and why should I care?
HOW MANY RESIDENT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARES ARE THERE? How do I choose?
WHY ZOTERO? Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. Ranked highest in comparisons Firefox or Stand Alone or Online FREE Free Online Storage 400 MB Operating Systems Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, BSD, UNIX IOS APP and ANDROID APP (3rd Party) Exports to BibTex, Endnote/Ref/BiblX, MODS XML, RIS, REF, TEL, Wikipedia Imports from BibTeX, Endnote/Ref/BiblX, ISI, Medline, MODS XML, OVID, PubMed, RIS, SciFinder, COinS, MARC, RDF, unaPI Browser, Bookmarks, Endnote XML Citation Styles APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, MLA, 6770+Styles, CSL Reference List File Formats HTML, RTF, RSS, clipboard Word Processor Integration Microsoft Word, Apache OpenOffice/LibreOffice, LyZ, RTF scan, NeoOffice, Google Docs Database connectivity ArXivf, Cite Seer, IEEEXplore, PubMed Password “protection” and network versions Passworded, Networking – User-specified permissions and Simultaneous write access
DISCUSSION SUMMARIES Are they an albatross around your neck?
DISCUSSIONS [Example] • Discussion Question: Many people worldwide believe that once modern humans came on the scene our evolution as a species halted. In recent times this concept has been challenged by scientist who propose that such evolutionary change has never stopped and may, in fact, be accelerating! Consider the evidence needed to support such an assertion. You may expand to other species to support changes that we are able to see in recorded history. • Initial Post: Decide whether you support or oppose this theory and provide evidence supporting your argument. Post should be 300+ words and have at least one reference. • Response Post: Remember to receive full credit for this discussion you MUST respond to at least two of your peer's initial posts by the scheduled due date. • Timeliness: Posting all your posts the last 48 hours of a discussion will lose 50% of the possible points regardless of how good the posts are in content. This is a discussion, we need time to discuss with you and many student are done with the discussion by that time (Saturday/Sunday).
EXAMPLE ORIGINAL STUDENT POSTEvolution has two main variables: genetic mutation and environmental pressure (Stanford et al 2013). Genetic mutation occurs within the individual, while environmental pressure acts on that individual. In order for evolution to accelerate, one or both of these two factors must accelerate. First, let's consider genetic mutation. An increased rate of mutation would lead to an accelerated rate of evolution because with more mutation comes greater genetic variation, and greater genetic variation leads to accelerated rates of evolution (Stanford et al 2013) Mutation can occur in two main ways: randomly, or environmentally. A nondisjunction error is an example of random mutation (Stanford et al 2013) while radiation exposure is an example of environmentally-influenced mutation (DNA Learning Center 2014). We can see that random mutation occurs at a fairly constant rate simply from mathematical calculations and probability. Therefore, it would be difficult to increase the rate of most random mutations. However, nondisjunction errors are one sort of random mutation that can be increased. Nondisjunction errors occur much more frequently in women over the age of forty than in women under the age of thirty (Stanford et al 2013). That means that if more women chose to have children at a later age, the rate of mutation would also increase. And this is something that is actually happening. In fact, in most developed nations, more and more women are having children at a later age, so mutation is occurring at an accelerated rate. However, nondisjunction errors result in miscarriages more often than not, so this would still be an unlikely source of accelerated evolution. And since random mutation occurs--as the name implies--randomly, other forms of random mutation probably won't increase. The other form of mutation--environmentally-influenced mutation--is a possible source of accelerated evolution. If a population is exposed to mutating factors such as radiation on a large scale, then mutation will occur at an accelerated rate. And, in fact, radiation exposure is indeed increasing due to the depleting ozone layer, which is most likely leading to an accelerated rate of mutation. When taking into consideration the fact that there are many, many more sources of environmentally-influenced mutations than just radiation, it is fairly safe to assume that mutation rates have probably increased in recent years. The other variable in evolution is environmental pressure. If environmental pressure increases, natural selection also increases because the increased environmental pressure will lead to a higher death rate for individuals with unfavorable traits. In turn, this leads to accelerated evolution because those traits that are favorable will be selected for much more quickly than they would be otherwise. We are actually seeing an increased death rate at this point in time. Scientists estimate that between 1,000 and 10,000 species go extinct every year due to the changing environment (Center for Biological Diversity 2014). In fact, many scientists have proposed that we are in the middle of a mass extinction, the sixth such event in earth's history (Center for Biological Diversity 2014). Environmental pressure is definitely increasing as evidenced by this fact. So, is the rate of evolution accelerating? With the definite increase in environmental pressure, and a possible increase in the rate of mutation due to environmental factors, I hypothesize that the rate of evolution is most likely accelerating. References Center for Biological Diversity (2014). The extinction crisis. http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/elements_of_biodiversity/extinction_crisis/ DNA Learning Center (2014). Radiation can cause DNA mutations. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. http://www.dnalc.org/view/15529-Radiation-can-cause-DNA-mutations-3D-animation-with-narration.html Stanford, C., Allen J.S., Anton, S.C. (2013). Biological Anthropology: The Natural HIstory of Humankind. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. THREE ADDITIONAL PEEER REPLIES TO THIS POST
EXAMPLE ANT 111 INSTRUCTOR REPLY As usual, I open your post and think that "Cherry you have to think harder to keep up with this student." :) You certainly made a good case and have three solid references. I know we all agree that radiation can cause DNA mutation. We all have all read about the loss of species, due to expansion of human populations as well as environmental change. Let’s look at some non-human evolutionary change that can be seen in the last 100 years: I think of butterflies (ah was Butterfly Chairman for the Colorado Federation of Garden Clubs) and while we can easily see the evolution of the Peppered Moth (ok so the research may have been a tad flawed it still proved a point) .The Peppered Moth , we can also see extinction due environmental change created by humans, an example is the Xerces Blue Butterfly The Xerces Blue Butterfly These are not human evolution, but certainly are examples of environmental change and evolutionary changes -- both revolving around industrialization and urbanization. Have some fun, spread your wings, explain why one was able to adapt and the other wasn't. SIX ADDITIONAL PEER REPLIES TO THIS POST
EXAMPLE STUDENT RE-ENGAGE This is a great little puzzle! I think there are a couple things that come into play in figuring out why the Xerces Butterfly died while the Peppered Moth adapted. First and foremost, it is important to always keep in mind that evolution is not a conscious force. Species don't adapt because they need to keep up with their environment (the exception being cognitive adaptation, of which humans are a great example). Physiological adaptation is secondary to selection. Those species whose populations happen to carry favorable traits in the current environment will end up surviving while those who carry unfavorable traits will die. Eventually, when enough favorable traits are selected for, the species will have adapted, but not through any conscious effort--just through the deaths of every other unfavorable population. The biggest difference between the Xerces Butterfly and the Peppered Moth is that the Xerces Butterflies faced total habitat destruction (Essig Museum) whereas the Peppered Moths just faced a slight change in their habitat (Truth in Science). There's no way that Xerces variation could have kept up with such rapid changes to their habitat and the subsequent increased environmental pressure. The Peppered Moth, on the other hand, faced only a small change that was fairly easy to adapt to, especially since that species already had the necessary variation (Truth in Science). Just as in past mass extinctions, there will be species during this extinction that don't make it--like the Xerces Butterfly--because they carry too many unfavorable traits in a rapidly changing environment. I think that natural selection selects against unfavorable traits more often than it selects for favorable traits, especially when environmental pressure increases at a rapid rate. That's what happened to the Xerces. Its traits were too unfavorable and the environmental pressure was too great for adaptation to occur. This reminds me of the recent reports on the monarch butterfly population. Here's a link to a chart and a blog post about the declining monarch population. I wonder whether monarch butterflies will go the way of the Xerces or the Peppered Moth? Essig Museum. Xerces blue butterfly. Berkeley. Retrieved from http://essig.berkeley.edu/endins/xerces.htm Truth in Science (2013). The peppered moth. NINE ADDITIONAL PEEER REPLIES TO THIS POST
Expansion of the Butterflies One student “spread her wings” and flew with this topic! 1. First Student posted original answer regarding evolutionary change 2. Instructor answered and included two Zotero saved references to Xerces Butterfly and Peppered Moth 3. First Student researched and answered and mentioned Monarchs 4. Nine other students posted/replied – Total Posts to this thread =19 5. One student did the final project on “Brush Footed Butterflies”
FINAL GRADES COMPARISON – D2L CLASS 1 10 WK 0% use of Zotero in the discussions to re- engage students CLASS 2 15WK 50% use of Zotero in the discussions to re- engage students CLASS 3 15WK 100% use of Zotero in the discussions to re- engage students
SUMMARY Reference Management Software helps us engage and re-engage our students because all of our wonderful references, including web sites, are at our fingertips. Zotero is a searchable database, forgot where you put a reference? Easy to find! Reference Management helps us to be clever – “quick to understand, learn, and devise or apply ideas; intelligent, canny, cunning, crafty, ingenious, bright, quick-witted and even shrewd.” And in reality, there is nothing wrong with being clever! "¡No contaban con mi astucia!"
References "Automatic Bibliography Maker." BibMe: Fast & Easy Bibliography Maker. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://www.bibme.org/>. El Chapulin Colorado <http://www.chespirito.com/> "Diigo - Better reading and research with annotation, highlighter, sticky notes, archiving, bookmarking & more.." Diigo - Better reading and research with annotation, highlighter, sticky notes, archiving, bookmarking & more.. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <https://www.diigo.com/>. Emerson, Cherry (2014) “How to be Successful in Online Discussions.” published in Desire2Learn class content "Reference management software comparison." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Mar. 2014. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reference_management_software_comparison>. "Reference management software." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Oct. 2014. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reference_management_software>. “Adaptation and Adaptability – Butterflies” Anthropology 101, student presentation, 2014 submitted to Cherry Emerson “zotero” <https://www.zotero.org/>
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