Research_ Power Point

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Published on April 25, 2019

Author: rebeccasales11

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slide 1: Cell Phone Usage and State of Sleep Group 5: Rebecca Sales and Faith Chang Azusa Pacific University Research: Poster Power Point slide 2: Hypothesis slide 3: If a person uses their cell phone frequently during the day they will have more difficulty falling asleep at night. slide 4: The relationship between sleep quality and cell phone use has been researched in hopes of finding any relationship that may exist between the two. In Babak et al. 2017 found in a study that 52 of participants reported that cell phone use after 9 P. M. affected their quality of sleep. Mireku et al 2019 researched the impact of media devices an hour before bed time. These devices included cell phones as well as other media devices. The results of this study showed that roughly two-thirds of participants self reported using screen based devices at night. One-third of these surveys reported using these screen in the dark. Night time mobile phone use and television use was associated with insufficient sleep during the weekdays and reported more frequently using these devices in a dark room. Other research has shown the impact of night time notification on sleep. Murdock Horissian and Crichlow-Ball 2017 conducted a study amongst 83 undergraduate students and found a significant connection between text messages at night and disruptions in sleep patterns.These disruptions led participants to a lower quality of sleep. In a similar finding Rod Dissing Clark Gerds and Lund 2018 found that on average a person loses 48 minutes of sleep as a result of overnight cell phone interruptions. Other research has aimed to identify which has a greater impact on sleep the amount of screen time in a day or the time of day screen time occurs. Murdock Adams Crichlow-Ball Horissian and Roberts 2019 conducted a study with two different sample groups and found that the timing and the compulsivity of the phone use at night is more important in relation to the sleep disturbances than the total number of texts or time spent on calls a person has in a day. Saling and Haire 2016 conducted a study on the impact of night time cell phone usage on the tiredness of a person. This study found that phone usage at night made a small impact on the tiredness of each participant. This study suggests further research on the value of each call or text on the impact of tiredness and phone usage at night. Studies done by Murdock Adams Crichlow-Ball Horissian and Roberts 2019 and Saling and Haire 2016 take into account not only the time of day but the urge and importance of the notification on the cell phone user. Literature Review - Time Specific Screen Time Usage slide 5: Literature Review - Age Group Specific Usage The amount of screen time or use of screen time during the day has been studied. Bozhi et al. 2019 researched the impact of screen time on children under 2. This research found that screen time impacted children’s sleep in a negative correlation. Similarly Foerster HennekeChetty-Mhlanga and Röösli 2019 conducted a study on adolescents and day time screen exposure. This study used surveys from parents and teens and found that teens who reported higher rates of screen time also had a higher chance of developing sleep problems or other general health issues as opposed to their counterparts who had less exposure to screen time. Preety Devi and Priya. 2018 conducted a study on teens and late night communication through cell phone usage. This study found that teens who reported low-quality sleep had a correlation with late-night text messages or calls. Vernon Modecki and Barber 2018 conducted a study including 1000 participants varying between the ages of 13 and 16. This study analyzed phone usage and sleep behavior amongst adolescents. This study saw positive linear growth over time between sleep behavior and night time phone usage. slide 6: Literature Review - Sleep Patterns and Quality Research has shown that sleep patterns have been affected by screen time including cell phone usage. Mortazavi et al. 2018 found that the impact of blue light had a negative impact on sleep patterns. This research contributed this finding to blue lights ability to block the ability to secrete melatonin. In the same study amber light was found to positively correlate with sleep patterns and when used had healthier sleep patterns than those who used blue light devices. In another study by Mohammadbeigi et al. 2016 380 college students were studied to identify a link between sleep quality and cell phone use. The results of the study indicate that sleep quality is inextricably linked to the use of cell phones. slide 7: Method slide 8: Participants Participants included non graduate students. Participants volunteered to participate. Participants were not paid for their participation in this study. Participants were not given any type of school credit for their participation in this study. Participants included colleagues non-students and family members. Male and female participants were included in this study. slide 9: Materials A survey via SurveyMonkey was used to conduct this research. Internet access was necessary for this research to create conduct and submit each survey. In addition to internet access it is also necessary to have an internet compatible device including a computer smart phone or tablet. slide 10: Procedure The study created survey questions which included 8 qualitative and 2 quantitative questions. Once the questions were created the study then submitted the questions to OIRA of Azusa Pacific University for clearance and review to conduct a graduate level research project. After a week the study was granted permission to conduct their research. Once permission to research was granted the study then created a link allowing them to collect qualitative and quantitative research through SurveyMonkey. This was sent to participants with informed consent which indicated that participation in this survey was voluntary. 25 participants voluntarily took this cell phone and sleep research survey via a link. This link was sent to each participant through email and text message. Once the desired number of participants took the survey the research team closed the survey. The data collected from the survey was then inputted into graphs and charts. The research team used the data collected to find the standard deviation of each question and identify any patterns that existed. slide 11: Results The main objective of this study was to provide a picture of the relationship between daytime phone usage and nighttime sleep hours. With respect to the current sample our results show that cell phone use happens when they can’t sleep as well as it is easier to falls asleep without cell phone use and using cell phone more than should. 3.1 Average sleeping hours per night In total 26 participants the participation rate was 100. Overall had a total sleep time of 6.67 hr SD0.9hr see table 1. 38.5 of them have at least 7 hours of sleep nearly fifty percent 42.3 of them have less than 7 hours of sleep and 19.23 of them have more than 7 hours of sleep everyday. slide 12: Results 3.2 Average hours of use of the phone In this survey we can find that the frequency of people using cell phones is not low as we though. In our questionnaire it can be found that nearly forty 34.61 of people spend an average of more than 5 hours on their mobile phones use per day. Interestingly in the 34.61 one person spends 10 hours on the phone. On the contrary among the 26 participants 65.38 of them use cell phones for less than 5 hours. Among in this 65.38 only one of them used the phone for less than an hour and 5 of them will spend 3 hours on their cell phones. Overallnearly eighty 76.92 respondents thought they use cell phone more than they should see figure 2. In other words they are not optimistic about the time they actually spend on their cell phones. Although more than half of people think that they spend too much time on their cell phones surprisingly according to our questionnaire results nearly sixty 57.7 of people still choose to use mobile phones when they cant fall asleep. See figure 1 slide 13: Question Mean Standard Deviation I get an adequate amount of sleep each day. 2.54 1.18 I use a cell phone during the daytime. 1.35 0.75 When I can’t sleep at night I use cell phone apps to help me fall asleep quickly 3.65 1.23 I use my cell phone when I can’t sleep 2.7 1.44 My nightly cell phone use leads me to delay going to sleep 2.73 1.28 It is easy to fall asleep when I limit my cell phone use 2.54 1.14 Cell phone use impacts my ability to fall asleep 3 1.3 I use a cell phone more than I should 2.12 0.91 How many hours a day do you average using your cell phone 4.13 2.16 How many hours of sleep do you average nightly 6.67 0.9 Table 1 slide 14: Figure 1 Figure 2 slide 15: Discussion The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a link between using the phone during the day and the state of sleep at night. Cell phone use is really inseparable from sleep problems There were cross-sectional relationship between high contrasted with low cell phone use and stress sleep unsettling influences and side effects of dejection for the people Thomée et al. 2011. It is said that people who spend more than 5 hours a day on mobile phones and those who use mobile phones excessively have relatively poor sleep quality Bianchi et al. 2005. slide 16: Future Directions As the research method used in this study is to use the post-retrospective method to fill in the questionnaire it is suggested that qualitative research or longer-term follow-up research can be added in the future to obtain more information and enhance research value. slide 17: Study Limitations The measurement of sleep quality and mobile phone use in this study uses subjective questionnaires to collect data which is a post-memory recall and may affect the survey results due to the recall errors of the subjects. This study is limited to time and manpower considerations. Only 26 people over the age of 18 and above are the subjects of study. Therefore the research results are limited in inference. If the number of samples can be expanded in the future. In turn the effect of more efficient cell phone use on sleep quality is obtained. slide 18: Conclusions For the core concept of this research people should pay attention to and reduce the frequency of use of cell phones decrease the dependence on cell phones improve the habit of excessive use of mobile phones and then promote sleep quality by doing that can increase the efficiency of daytime activities so that people can get a body and mind. Let everyone gain a win-win situation good daytime performance and good sleep quality. slide 19: References Babak Amra Ali Shahsavari Ramin Shayan ‐Moghadam Omid Mirheli Bita Moradi ‐Khaniabadi Mehdi Bazukar … Roya Kelishadi. 2017. The association of sleep and late ‐night cell phone use among adolescents. Jornal de Pediatria Versão Em Português Vol 93 Iss 6 Pp 560-567 2017 6 560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedp.2017.03.001 Bianchi A. Phillips J. G. 2005. Psychological Predictors of Problem Mobile Phone Use. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR 1 39. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirecttrueAuthTypessodbedsblANRN164147525siteeds-live scopesite Bozhi Chen Rob M. van Dam Chuen Seng Tan Hwee Ling Chua Pey Gein Wong Jonathan Y. Bernard Falk Müller-Riemenschneider. 2019. Screen viewing behavior and sleep duration among children aged 2 and below. BMC Public Health Vol 19 Iss 1 Pp 1-10 2019 1 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6385-6 Links to an external site.Links to an external site. slide 20: References Foerster Milena Henneke Andrea Chetty-Mhlanga Shala Röösli Martin. 2019. Impact of Adolescents’ Screen Time and Nocturnal Mobile Phone-Related Awakenings on Sleep and General Health Symptoms: A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Vol 16 Iss 3 p 518 2019 3 518. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030518 Mireku M. O. Barker M. M. Mutz J. Dumontheil I. Thomas M. S. C. Röösli M. … Toledano M. B. 2019. Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents’ sleep and health-related quality of life. Environment International 124 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.069 Links to an external site.Links to an external site. Mortazavi S. Parhoodeh S. Hosseini M. A. Arabi H. Malakooti H. Nematollahi S. Mortazavi G. Darvish L. … Mortazavi S. 2018. Blocking Short-Wavelength Component of the Visible Light Emitted by Smartphones Screens Improves Human Sleep Quality. Journal of biomedical physics engineering 84 375-380. slide 21: References Mohammadbeigi A. Absari R. Valizadeh F. Saadati M. Sharifimoghadam S. Ahmadi A. … Ansari H. 2016. Sleep Quality in Medical Students the Impact of Over-Use of Mobile Cell-Phone and Social Networks. Journal Of Research In Health Sciences 161 46–50. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirecttrueAuthTypessodbmnhAN27061997siteeds-livescope sitecustidazusa Murdock K. K. Horissian M. Crichlow-Ball C. 2017. Emerging adults text message use and sleep characteristics: A multimethod naturalistic study. Behavioral Sleep Medicine 15 228-241. Murdock K. K. Adams S. K. Crichlow-Ball C. Horissian M. Roberts M. 2019. Nighttime notifications and compulsivity illuminate the link between emerging adults’ cellphone use and sleep-related problems. Psychology of Popular Media Culture 8 1 12-21. slide 22: References Preety R. Devi R. G. Priya A. J. 2018. Sleep deprivation and cell phone usage among teenagers. Drug Invention Today 1010 2073–2075. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirecttrueAuthTypessodbaphAN131602202siteeds-livescopesitecustid azusa Rod N. H. Dissing A. S. Clark A. Gerds T. A. Lund R. 2018. Overnight smartphone use: A new public health challenge A novel study design based on high-resolution smartphone data. Public Library of Science ONE 13 10 1-12. Saling L. L. Haire M. 2016. Are you awake Mobile phone use after lights out. Computers in Human Behavior 932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.006 Thomee S. Harenstam A. Hagberg M. n.d.. Mobile phone use and stress sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-66 Vernon L. Modecki K. L. Barber B. L. 2018. Mobile Phones in the Bedroom: Trajectories of Sleep Habits and Subsequent Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Child Development 1 66. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12836

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