Published on March 11, 2014
C.L.TUPLING ACHIEVING ETHICAL RESEARCH
“The value of research depends as much on its ethical veracity as on the novelty of its discoveries” (Walliman, 2006: p. 147)
C.L.TUPLING What are ethics? Refers to the rules of conduct of carrying out research Ethical issues are present at all stages of research Essential part of the research process
C.L.TUPLING Ethics Committees Proposed methodology, methods of data collection, and approach to ethical issues scrutinised by peers Judgements are are made in accordance with principles and relevant codes of ethics
C.L.TUPLING Codes of Ethics Underpinned by: Nuremberg Code (1947-49) Declaration of Helsinki (1964)
C.L.TUPLING 4 Key Principles Protection of the interests of participants Voluntary participation based on informed consent No deception Conﬁrms to national laws See Denscombe (2010)
C.L.TUPLING Key Considerations Respect Equity Do no harm Protection of vulnerable participants
C.L.TUPLING Rights of Participants Informed Consent Anonymity Conﬁdentiality Privacy Dignity
C.L.TUPLING Sampling & Representativeness Sites where access is convenient Who does this include/exclude? Representativeness Not an aim of qualitative research, but Issues of inclusiveness Privacy
C.L.TUPLING Participants or Subjects? Research on a group vs research with a group Exploitation Getting out
C.L.TUPLING Children as participants Research on children vs research with children Adults instigate research/guard access Children as co-researchers
C.L.TUPLING Consent What is informed consent? What age can children give consent? Can very young children give consent? Who has right to consent on behalf of children/vulnerable adults? Active consent vs failure to dissent
C.L.TUPLING Deception Meaning of deception? Is deception ever acceptable? Is deception desirable? Purposes of deception
C.L.TUPLING Access & Gatekeepers Negotiating access Contacts and power relationships Pressure to take part? Adults gatekeep access to children Motivation/Purpose of consent on behalf of children
C.L.TUPLING Incentives Bribery? Recompense? How do you encourage participation?
C.L.TUPLING Research Settings Characteristics of research participants Characteristics of researcher Gender/ethnicity/age/class/appearance Location of research
C.L.TUPLING Harm No harm principle - realistic? Innocent intentions misinterpreted Distress - response? Disclosure - action?
C.L.TUPLING Beneﬁts Research aims to beneﬁt Who does research beneﬁt Do beneﬁts justify methodology/methods/sample?
C.L.TUPLING Privacy and Conﬁdentiality Participants should be non-identiﬁable Achievable? Small scale qualitative research Limits to conﬁdentiality
C.L.TUPLING Ethical Dilemmas Arise during course of research Can they be envisaged? How you respond to the situation
C.L.TUPLING Conclusion Research ethics - balance - likelihood of harm - beneﬁts of research Reﬂect on ethical issues of in/famous research studies
C.L.TUPLING Bibliography Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, 4th ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press Denscombe, M. (2010) The Good Research Guide: for small-scale social research projects 4th editon, Maidenhead: Open University Press Walliman, N. (2006) Social Research Methods, London: Sage
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