Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders dr. c. l. gowda

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Information about Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders dr. c. l. gowda
Business & Mgmt

Published on March 8, 2014

Author: ipga

Source: slideshare.net

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Research advances in pulses & benefits to stakeholders by Dr. C.I. Gowsa at The Pulses Conclave 2014 by India Pulse & Grains Association, IPGA

Research advances in pulses and benefit to stakeholders CL Laxmipathi Gowda Deputy Director General, ICRISAT

Vision A prosperous, food-secure and resilient dryland tropics Mission To reduce poverty, hunger, malnutrition and environmental degradation in the dryland tropics

ICRISAT Locations in the Semi-arid Tropics WCA Regional Hub- Bamako, Mali 55 countries 6.5 million sq km 2.5 billion people HeadquartersESA Regional Hub-Nairobi, Kenya Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India

Production of major pulse crops in India Crop Pigeonpea Chickpea Mungbean Urdbean Lentil Other Pulses Total Pulses Foodgrains Area (mha) 4.01 8.30 3.39 3.22 1.56 2011-12 2012-13 Production Yield Producti Yield Area (mha) (mt) (kg/ha) on (mt) (kg/ha) 2.65 662 3.81 3.07 806 7.70 928 8.70 8.88 1020 1.63 483 2.75 1.20 436 1.77 549 3.19 1.90 595 1.06 678 1.41 1.08 765 3.99 2.27 570 3.61 2.32 643 24.46 124.75 17.09 259.29 699 2078 23.47 120.16 18.45 255.36 786 2125

Top chickpea producers, import and export Rank Production 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 India (69%) Pakistan (5%) Turkey (5%) Australia (5%) Myanmar (4%) Ethiopia (3%) Iran (2%) Mexico (1%) Import Export India (19%) Pakistan (14%) Bangladesh (13%) UAE (7%) Algeria (5%) Spain (5%) UK (3%) Jordon (3%) Australia (37%) India (13%) Mexico (11%) Turkey (7%) Canada (6%) Myanmar (4%) Ethiopia (4%) USA (3%)

Options for increasing production Enhancing yield by reducing yield gap Yield gaps in chickpea Improved cultivars + Improved ICM

A large shift (about 4 million ha) in chickpea area from cooler, long-season environments to warmer, short-season environments 6.1 4.7 Central and southern states 2.1 Northern and eastern states 0.7

Options for increasing chickpea production 1. Bringing additional area under production - Huge opportunities exist in rice-fallow areas in South Asia (e.g. India, Bangladesh and Nepal)

Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars 1. Knowledge empowerment of farmers •Electronic and print media •Field days/farmers’ fairs •Training programs •Demonstrations •Farmer-participatory varietal selection trials (FPVS)

Enhancing adoption of improved cultivars -2 2. Ensuring seed supply of improved cultivars •Strengthening formal seed system (both public and private seed sectors) •Strengthening informal seed system (seed production by individual farmers and farmers’ groups). •Establishing linkages between formal and informal seed systems •Making available seed samples (1-2 kg) to large number of farmers

JAKI 9218 JG 11 JG 130 JG 14 • 40 chickpea varieties developed in India through ICRISAT- JG 16 ICAR partnerships and account for 49% of the total indent JGK 2 JAKI 9218 of chickpea breeder seed in the country for 2014-15 KAK 2 Virat JG 6 JGK 1 ICRISAT-ICAR Vishal JGK 3 partnership Vaibhav varieties JG 218 Ujjawal (IPCK 2004-29) Pratap Chana 1 Raj Vijay Gram 203 Kranti (ICCC 37) GG 2 • ICRISAT-ICAR partnership varieties are grown in >90% ICCV-2 Himachal Chana 2 of the chickpea area in AP and were instrumental in Vihar bringing a chickpea revolution in the state. KRIPA GG 4 Chickpea varieties developed through ICRISAT-ICAR partnerships 49%

Promoting agribusiness ventures through Seed Business Ventures A unique initiative of Agri-Business Incubation (ABI) Program of ICRISAT •to develop and promote rural seed business ventures at village level, and thereby •address demand-supply gap for open pollinated, quality seeds through public, private and people partnership (PPPP). SBV MODEL

Adoption and impacts of improved chickpea cultivars - A success story from Andhra Pradesh State of India

Chickpea success story from Andhra Pradesh, India During the past 12 years (2000 – 2011) • 3.6-fold increase in area (163,000 to 580,000 ha) • 2.1-fold increase in yield (583 to 1241 kg/ha) • 7.6-fold increase in production (95,000 to 720,000 t) • >90% area under improved short-duration cultivars developed through ICARICRISAT partnership (JG 11, JAKI 9218, KAK 2, Vihar)

til: Short Duration IPL 316, Pusa Vaibhav, JL 3, IPL 81, DPL 62 pea: IPFD 10-12 (green seeds), Adarsh, Indra, Jaya, Ambika, Vikas, Prakash

High yielding varieties Mungbean : Samrat, SML 668, IPM 2-3, HUM 16, IPM 2-14, Pant M 5, Pusa Vishal, Gujarat Mung 1, Gujarat Mung 4, AKM 9911 Urdbean : Jawahar Urid 2, 3, IPU 2-43, RBU 38 (Barkha), TPU 4, Pant U 30, TAU 1, TAU 2, AKU 4 (Melghat)

Extra-large/Large seeded Varieties

Mungbean for spring/Summer season Samrat, SML 668, IPM 02-3, IPM 2-14, HUM 16

At 60 days Hybrids in Pigeonpea • More vigor and yield Hybrid Variety • 44% greater shoot mass so needs low seeding rates • 40-50% greater root mass with greater drought tolerance • Ideal for inter-cropping

ICPH 2671 ON- FARM TRIALS (2007-10) State Dist Farmers Mean yield (kg/ ha) Hybrid Check %Gain Maha 7 782 969 717 35.1 A. P. 8 399 1411 907 55.6 Karnataka 4 184 1201 951 26.3 Jharkhand 9 288 1460 864 68.9 M. P. 10 360 1940 1326 46.3 Total 38 2013 1396 953 46.5

Developing early and extra-early chickpea cultivars Early and extra-early cultivars have been developed which are better adapted to short-season environments (e.g. southern India) and escape end of season stresses

Reproductive stage heat tolerance Effects of reproductive stage heat stress on chickpea

Chickpea cultivars suitable for mechanical harvesting

Herbicide tolerance

Market preference for grain quality

Transgenic Chickpea Resistance to Helicoverpa Transgenic Non-transgenic

The chickpea genome  Illumina sequencing used to generate 153.01 Gb  73.8% of the genome is captured in scaffolds  Genome analysis predicted 28,269 genes  High levels of synteny observed between chickpea and Medicago  > 81,845 SSRs and 4.4 million variants (SNPs and INDELs)

The pigeonpea genome  Illumina sequencing tech used to generate 237.2 Gb  72.7% (605.78 Mb) of the total pigeonpea genome assembled into scaffolds  Genome analysis predicted 48,680 genes  High levels of synteny observed between the pigeonpea and soybean  >50,000 SSR and SNP markers identified  Higher abundance of drought tolerance genes

MABC for root and other drought tolerance related traits in chickpea 5000 Irrigated Rainfed 4500 4000 3500 3000 ) a h / g k ( d l e i Y 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 The Plant Genome, 2013

Future Scenario in Pulses • Demand will continue to grow (62 m tons by 2050) • Supply gap will exist in South Asia • Technologies available to bridge yield gap • New initiatives and cutting-edge technologies will need to be deployed • Good news: Fast progress in technologies will help increasing supplies

Thank you! ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium

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