Replacing an Aged Lime Treatment Plant with Passive and Semi-Passive Treatment Techniques

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Technology

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: SovereignConsultingInc

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presentation by Tyler Chatriand, PE, Sovereign Consulting Inc. Seattle, Washington branch. "Replacing an Aged Lime Treatment Plant with Passive and Semi-Passive Treatment Techniques." Presented during Energy and Waste Management Session to the American Waste Management Association - Pacific Northwest International Section at the 53rd Annual Conference on November 8, 2013.

Replacing an Aged Lime Treatment Plant with Passive and Semi-Passive Treatment Techniques Presented by: Tyler Chatriand, PE Sovereign Consulting Inc.

Mine Water Treatment Options  Active Treatment  Uses chemicals, energy, labor, & infrastructure to produce clean water in the shortest time & smallest possible footprint  Passive Treatment  Capitalizes on the low-energy dynamics employed in natural biological and geochemical processes at ambient temperatures      No moving parts or power requirements => Simple to operate Resilient to quantity variations (flow rates, temp, chemistry) Blends into landscape, wildlife habitat Low O&M Large footprint, long HRT, high capital  Semi-Passive Treatment  Utilizes moving parts and chemicals WITHOUT continuous power and labor required for active treatment systems

The Problem - Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)  ARD is formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals when exposed to air and water.  Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans – metabolizes iron and sulfur to produce sulfuric acid Gusek, 2004 Stumm and Morgan, 1981

Project Background  Inactive Coal Mine in Western PA  Surface Mine  2 Underground Mines   Upper Freeport coal seam Kiskiminetas coal seam  3 Coal Refuse Disposal Areas  Waste rock piles – Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)

Vicinity Map

Active Mining - 1993

Post Mining - 2006 Coal Refuse Area #5 Coal Refuse Area #4 Coal Refuse Area #6 Treatment Plant

Existing ARD Treatment Hydrated Lime Feed Plant • 25+ yrs old • Weak structural integrity • Inadequate pump system • Single stage treatment • Insufficient Mn/Al removal • Clean stormwater routed below compliance point   Treatment Alternatives Analyses  Passive vs. Active?  Hybrid

Site Characterization      Review Historical Data Inventory ARD Sources Establish Monitoring and Gaging Stations Evaluate Water Chemistry and Contaminant Loadings Identify Treatment Alternatives

ARD Sources

Conceptual Site Model

Proposed Semi-Passive System

Alternatives Analysis  Economic Analyses  New Active Plant vs. Semi-Passive Treatment Option Capitol Cost Annual O&M Total Cost Year 1 Total Cost Year 5 Total Cost Year 10 Total Cost Year 20 Total Cost Year 30 Hybrid Passive Train $2,419,568 $120,360 $2,539,928 $3,021,367 $3,623,167 $4,826,766 $6,030,364 Lime Treatment Plant $1,922,845 $400,000 $2,322,845 $3,922,845 $5,922,845 $9,922,845 $13,922,845

Pebble Quicklime at ARD Source  Aquafix – water wheel driven chemical feed system

Pond 14 Lime Dosing Footprint 400 sf

Passive Mixing/Aeration – BioMost, Inc MixWell BioMost, Inc A-Mixer BioMost, Inc

Passive Aeration - Trompe  Water-powered air compressor  For every 4’ TDH, = 1 cfm/25 gpm  Pond 14 Outfall = 13’  3 Trompes in series = 4 CFM at base flow

Field Pilot Testing

Source Control  Back to the ARD Tetrahedron  Remove the Source  Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Impermeable cap – high cost  In-situ treatment   pHoamTM injection technology  Waste milk, Biosolids, Surfactants (SLS)  Biochemical reactor (BCR) effluent

Source Control – BCR Effluent  BCR - uses sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce sulfide and bicarbonate, allowing metals to precipitate as metal sulfides.  Excess alkalinity generated by sulfate reducing bacteria and limestone dissolution in the BCR substrate  Excess dissolved sulfide ion, which can bind with dissolved ferrous iron to form iron mono-sulfide coatings/deposits, and  Dissolved manganese which could coat pyritic refuse in deeper, more aerobic zones of the refuse area with manganese oxide.

Recap  Semi-Passive Treatment is a viable, cost-effective alternative to solely active or passive treatment         Treat at the source - reduce SW impacts, flow flux, reclaim stream Small footprint Increased chemical utilization No power required - reliable Minimal labor – periodic inspections Low capital and O&M Effective – meet stringent discharge permit limits Innovative Source Control Methods  Water treatment in perpetuity  Eliminate the source  Only walk-away solution  Stage 3 Reclamation Bond Release

Questions? Tyler Chatriand, PE, CFM Environmental Engineer | email: tchatriand@sovcon.com Office: 206.812.8265 Cell: 406.471.0436 Sovereign Consulting Inc. 2101 Fourth Ave, Suite 2130 Seattle, WA 98121 www.sovcon.com

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