Renewable Energy LCHS

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Information about Renewable Energy LCHS

Published on January 23, 2008

Author: Teresa1


Slide1:  Renewable Energy Chapters16 Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E Slide2:  Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Energy Efficiency:  Energy Efficiency Increasing energy efficiency of common devices has economic and environmental advantages Reducing oil imports Prolonging fossil fuel supplies Reducing pollution and environmental degradation Saving money Buys time to develop new technology Creating jobs Slide4:  Efficiency of Some Common Devices Device Efficiency (%) Dry-cell flashlight battery 90 Home gas furnace 85 Storage battery 70 Home oil furnace 65 Small electric motor 62 Steam power plant 38 Diesel engine 38 High-intensity lamp 32 Automobile engine 25 Fluorescent lamp 22 Incandescent lamp 4 Slide5:  Energy Efficiency percentage of energy input that does useful work in an energy conversion system Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency :  Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the United States leveled off or declined Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction of car sales Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are expected to increase Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available within a few years Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range transportation alternatives Slide7:  Energy use of various types of transportation Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency :  Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Superinsulated house is more expensive than a conventional house, but energy savings pay back the extra cost Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of using an annually renewable agricultural residue, thus slowing deforestation Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency :  Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Existing homes can be made more energy efficient adding insulation plugging leaks installing energy-saving windows wrapping water heaters installing tankless models buying energy-efficient appliances and lights Natural Gas or Electricity:  Natural Gas or Electricity Water heater Electricity is produced at power plant via gas or coal and transferred via wire to your home Some energy is lost over the wire, … Water Heater:  Water Heater Tank Water is heated 365/24/7 Because heat is lost through the flue and the walls of the storage tank (this is called standby heat loss), energy is consumed even when no hot water is being used. Water Heater:  Water Heater Tankless The energy consumption of these units is generally lower since standby losses from the storage tank are eliminated. Demand water heaters with enough capacity to meet household needs are gas- or propane-fired. Slide13:  Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Solar Energy :  Solar Energy Buildings can be heated passive solar heating system active solar heating system Solar thermal systems are new technologies that collect and transform solar energy into heat that can be used directly or converted to electricity Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly into electricity Slide15:  Suitability of Solar Usage best when more than 60% of daylight hours sunny Slide16:  Solar Heating Passive system: Absorbs & stores heat from the sun directly within a structure Active system: Collectors absorb solar energy, a pump supplies part of abuildings heating or water heating needs. Slide17: Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW):  Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) An open circuit hot water system heats the domestic water directly on the roof of the building The water flows from the heat collector into the hot water tank to be used in the house Integration of solar energy conservation in homes can reduce energy consumption by 75-90%. SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt Slide19:  Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells Provides electricity for buildings Inside the PV cell:  Inside the PV cell PV cells are made from silicon alloys PV module 1cm by 10cm cells 36 cells connected SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt Slide21: Solar Thermal Techniques:  Solar Thermal Techniques Solar Two SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt Heliostats:  Heliostats Heliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the power tower The reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its daily trajectory SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt Power Tower:  Power Tower Sunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed receiver in power tower Fluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the power block Used to heat a steam generator Solar One SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt Slide25: Solar-Hydrogen Revolution :  Solar-Hydrogen Revolution Splitting water can produce H2 gas If scientists and engineers can learn how to use forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply, they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen revolution Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles and appliances Slide28: Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability History of Hydroelectric :  History of Hydroelectric B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago 1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with establishment of Chief Engineer for the Continental Army 1880 - Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light and Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt History of Hydroelectric :  By 1940 - 40% of electrical generation was hydropower Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled again between 1940 and 1980 Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity comes from hydropower. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt History of Hydroelectric Slide31: hydroelectric/hydro.ppt Turbine Technologies:  Turbine Technologies Reaction fully immersed in fluid shape of blades produces rotation hydroelectric/hydro.ppt Slide33: Slide34:  Tidal Power Plant Slide35: Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Rotary Windmill:  Rotary Windmill Slide37: Vertical Blades Slide38: Energy from Wind :  Energy from Wind Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by wind farms is expected to increase Western Europe currently leads in the development of wind power Land used for wind farms also can be used for ranching or crops and most profits stay in local communities North Dakota Optimization:  Optimization Low Torque – Rapid Speed good for electrical generation High Torque – Slow Speed good for pumping water Small generator low wind speeds captures small amount of energy Large generator high wind speeds may not turn at low speeds Slide41: Slide42:  Source: American Wind Energy Association Slide43: Slide44: Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Energy from Biomass :  Energy from Biomass In the developing world, most people heat homes and cook by burning wood or charcoal Plant materials and animal wastes also can be converted into biofuels, Biogas Liquid ethanol Liquid methanol Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators to produce electricity and heat Slide46:  Types of Biomass Fuel Slide47:  Conversion Processes Biomass Feedstock Trees Forest Residues Grasses Agricultural Crops Agricultural Residues Animal Wastes Municipal Solid Waste Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Methanol Hydrogen Electricity Heat Products Plastics Foams Solvents Coatings Chemical Intermediates Phenolics Adhesives Fatty acids Acetic Acid Carbon black Paints Dyes, Pigments, and Ink Detergents Etc. Biorefinery Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation Enzymatic Fermentation - Gas/liquid Fermentation - Thermochemical Processes - Gasification/Pyrolysis - Combustion - Co-firing Slide48: Slide49: Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Geothermal Energy :  Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings and to produce electricity Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is removed faster than natural processes renew it, but the potential supply is vast Technology:  Technology Geothermal Heat Pumps shallow ground energy Direct-Use hot water can be piped to facilities Power Plants steam and hot water drive turbines dry steam plants flash steam plants binary cycle plants geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Dry Steam Power Plants:  Dry Steam Power Plants Hydrothermal fluids are primarily steam Steam goes directly to turbine No fossil fuels geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Flash Steam Power Plant:  Flash Steam Power Plant Fluids above 200 degrees Celsius Fluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure Fluid rapidly vaporizes Steam drives turbine geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Binary Cycle Power Plant:  Binary Cycle Power Plant Cooler water (below 200 degrees Celsius) Hot thermal fluid and a second fluid pass through heat exchanger geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Heat Mining:  Heat Mining Last week the Massachusetts Institute of Technology released a study concluding that heat mining could generate enough energy by 2050 to replace the coal-fired and nuclear power plants that are likely to be retired over the next several decades. Boston Globe Gareth Cook, Globe Staff  |  January 29, 2007 @ Slide64:  At present the DHM project and drilling activities are financed by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the canton of the city of Basel, the water and energy public utilities of Basel (IWB), a power company (Elektra Basel Land), and a private foundation (G.H. Endress) Benefits:  Benefits Clean Energy one sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas very little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur compounds Availability 24 hours a day, 365 days a year Homegrown Renewable geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Environmental Effects:  Environmental Effects Only emission is steam Salts and dissolved minerals reinjected Some sludge produced Mineral extraction Little Visual Impact Small acreage, no fuel storage facilities geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Location:  Location Hot geothermal fluid Low mineral and gas content Shallow aquifers Producing and reinjecting the fluid Private land Simplifies permit process Proximity to transmission lines geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Slide68: rebasics_geothermal.html Future :  Future Only tiny fraction is currently used Dry hot rock heated by molten magma Drill into rock and circulate water geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt Slide70:  Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability Slide71:  Suggestions to make the transition to a more sustainable energy future.

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