# Renewable energy course#04

50 %
50 %
Education

Published on March 21, 2014

Source: slideshare.net

Solar Power

Solstices June solstice - North Pole is tilted 23.5o towards the Sun relative to the circle of illumination. All places above a latitude of 66.5o N are in 24 hours of sunlight, while locations below a latitude of 66.5o S are in darkness.

Equinoxes Equinoxes – Earth’s axis is not tilted toward or away from the Sun and the circle of illumination cuts through the poles. Red circles are the Arctic Circle.

Equinoxes, Solstices, Aphelion, and Perihelion

Relationship of maximum Sun height to latitude for the equinox (left) and June solstice (right). The red values on the right of the globes are maximum solar altitudes at solar noon. During the equinox, the equator is the location on the Earth with a Sun angle of 90 degrees for solar noon

Solar Altitude α = Sin-1[Sin δ Sin φ + Cos δ Cos ω Cos φ] φ is latitude Hour Angle ω = 15 (ts – 12) (degrees) ts is local solar time in hours Declination Angle δ = Sin-1 [0.39795 Cos [0.98563 (N-173)]]

Hour Angle Declination Angle (between the equatorial plane and the sun-earth line)

Variation of Declination Angle

Solar Altitude Angle Observer Zenith Angle

Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant 1367 W/m2

Total Daily Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface Ho,h = 86,400 Io [ωs Sin Φ Sin δ + Cos δ Cos Φ Sin ωs] / π (J/m2 ) Io = Isc [1 + 0.34 cos {2πN / 365.25}] is the solar constant Isc = 1367 Watt ωs = cos–1 [- tan(δ) tan(Φ)] is the hour angle of sunset in radians -Ve before noon & +Ve after noon Instantaneous Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface Ioh = Io [cos δ cos Φ cos ω + sin δ sin Φ]

Photocell Response

Heliostat, Albuquerque

Designing & Fabrication of a 2-kW Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

Storage Requirement

Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Surface Normal to Sun Annual cosine effect reduces solar radiation on a horizontal surface by 39% - equator, 52% - 40o latitude, 74% - 80o latitude.

Effect of Air Mass on Spectral Irradiance on the Ground Air Mass = 1 for sea level normal Irradiance Sun rise & Sun set > 30 air mass

Air mass AM = 1/[cos θz + 0.50572 (96.07995 – θz) -1.6364 ] θz = Zenith angle = 90o at sunset Solar Radiation Attenuation Due to Air Mass I = 1.1 x Ioh x 0.7(AM)**(0.678) factor of 1.1 accommodates the 10% diffused radiation

Attenuation of Normal Solar Radiation Versus Azimuth Angle 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 20 40 60 80 100 Azimuth Angle (degrees) AirMass/SolarRadiation Air Mass Solar Radiation (25 W units)

Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer

Global Solar Irradiance on a mostly Sunny day and a mostly Cloudy day

750 MW Imperial Valley Project of 250 kW Solar Dish Striling Engines

Linear Freznel

 User name: Comment:

June 18, 2018

June 18, 2018

June 18, 2018

June 18, 2018

June 18, 2018

June 18, 2018

## Related pages

### Renewable Energy for Your Home - Books Pics

Alan Bridgewater, Gill Bridgewater, "Renewable Energy for Your Home: Using Off-Grid Energy to Reduce Your Footprint, Lower Your Bills and be More Self ...

### Environmental/Natural Resources Law Courses

Environmental/Natural Resources Law Courses Spring 2013 ... 09:00:00 AM Renewable Energy Project Development and ... Course 04:00:00 PM Land Use Planning

### Mastering Renewable and Alternative Energies 2016 ...

Mastering Renewable and Alternative Energies 2016, Mastering Renewable and Alternative Energies Course, United Kingdom, London, 4 - 6 April 2016

### Implementation of GSHP in Mediterranean Climate Part II

specifications which must be met by renewable energy equipment and systems, including SGE systems, in order

### Solar Certifications Archives - Florida Advanced Solar ...

USSolar sells solar parts and smarts in Florida and the Caribbean: Solar panels design, construction + installation services; solar energy training courses.

### Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration PI: David L. Block Florida Solar Energy Center Co PI: A. K. Sleiti University of North Carolina ...