Published on March 21, 2014
Designing & Fabrication of a 2-kW Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant
10 Concrete Pillar Solar Cooker Booster Mirror Nylon Chord Tracker Base Curved Steel Pipe Water Container Intravenous Drip Set
α β I I' = I / Sin α I'' = I' Sin (α+ β) Solar Cooker Box Booster Mirror I''' = I'' Sin (α+2β–180o )/Sin(180o –α–β) LB L α+2β–180o 180o –α–β
Tracking Circuit Two 6-Volt Batteries Lead wires Electric Motor Motion synchronizing strip Circular end attachments of primary mirror strips mounted on wooden frame Threaded end rod
α β I I' = I / Sin α I'' = I' Sin (α+ β) 180o –α–β Horizontal Surface Freznel CollectorSolar Altitude
Performance Analysis Solar Irradiance at Noon in Karachi – 22 Years Avg. Mo nth Jan. Feb Mar April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Inoon 0.52 0.59 0.67 0.77 0.79 0.76 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.64 0.56 0.50 I = Inoon Sin [ 180 (t – tsunrise) / (tsunset – tsunrise) ] (W/m2 ) Iact(t) = I Sin (α+θ) / Sin(α) (W/m2 ) α = Sin-1[Sin δ Sin φ + Cos δ Cos ω Cos φ] (degrees) ω = 15 (ts – 12) (degrees) δ = Sin-1 [0.39795 Cos [0.98563 (N-173)]] (degrees) Φ = Latitude
Performance Analysis t2 Eexp = A € ∫ Iact(t) dt (Joules) t1 Etheo = M C (T2 – T1) € = Eexp / Etheo € = 1837 kJ / 4515 kJ = 0.407
Pakistan’s Solar Map
Monthly Averaged Global Solar Radiation on Five Major Cities of Pakistan 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month of the Year RadiationEnergy(MJ/m 2 /day)
Solar Resource Pakistan (Around Quetta) 28-30o N 2200 0.81 0.75 Estimate ~ 85 x 1012 kWh/y ~ 25 times the total installed capacity (~ 40,000 km2 ) of Pakistan at 5% conversion efficiency
Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS - 1985) Cost / kWh: 25¢ in 1985 – 10-13¢ today
5 fields of 33 MW each Operational and commercially viable since 1985 15 additional years working life expected Mojave Desert at Kramer Junction, California
750 MW Imperial Valley Project of 250 kW Solar Dish Striling Engines
Concentrating Solar Thermal Power • CSP capacity expected to double every 16 months over the next five years • Worldwide installed CSP capacity will reach 6,400 megawatts in 2012 • CSP Costs expected: 7–10¢ per kilowatt-hour by 2015 and to 5–7¢ per kilowatt-hour by 2020 • CSP and PV plants may produce 69 percent of U.S. electricity and 35 percent of total U.S. energy, including transportation, by 2050
View Notes - Energy and Environment.pdf from SCIENCE 88-167 at HKU SPACE Po Leung Kuk Community College (HPCC). THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG HKU SPACE
Promotion of the Efficient Use of Renewable Energies in Developing Countries EIE-06-256 REEPRO 6 17. Mr. Mony Ratana Participant, MEC 4 General Consideration
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