Renewable energy course#00

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Information about Renewable energy course#00
Education

Published on March 21, 2014

Author: Syed_Sajjad_Raza

Source: slideshare.net

Renewable Energy Dr. Suhail Zaki Farooqui Pakistan Navy Engineering College National University of Sciences & Technology

Text Book

Text Books 3. Wind Turbine Engineering Design By David M. Eggleston Van Nostrand Reinhold Company NY 4. Power From The Sun by William B. Stine and Michael Geyer, 2001

Energy Scenario for Pakistan  Total Installed capacity ~ 21,000 MW  Actual Demand ~ 18,000 MW  Actual Production ~ 12,000 MW  Shortfall ~ 6000 MW

Energy Mix of Pakistan 1 2 3 4 5 46% Gas 35% Oil 12% Hydel 6% Coal 2% Nuclear

Fuel for Electricity Generation in Pakistan 1 2 3 4 36% Oil 32% Hydel 27% Gas 5% Others

Projected Power Demand in Pakistan (2009-2030) 20.594 24.474 36.217 54.359 80.566 113.695 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 Year Power(GW)

Energy Transitions • Global energy consumption ~ 15.4 billion MWh/y • Demand for energy is to rise by 50% by 2030 • Conventional power stations will be phased out completely by 2037 • Required global investment in energy business up to 2030 ~ US $ 9 trillion • Low-carbon energy industry is set to be worth $3 trillion per year by 2050. • Renewable energy could contribute 80% of global energy supply by 2050, report Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Targets 2020 • Australia to offer 50% rebate for small wind turbines to achieve 20% renewable by 2020 – may become 100% renewable if spends 3% of its GDP ($ 330bn) • India’s ‘New Solar Mission’ – the most ambitious solar energy development plan in the world - 20 GW by 2022 – 75% of world’s total solar energy • India aims to generate 15% of its electricity from renewables by 2020 • Brazil to invest $ 5.5bn on Renewable Energy until 2013

New Strategies • US-DOE Announces Research Funding up to $6 Million for addressing 20% Wind Energy by 2030 • DOE Awards 16 Contracts for up to $80 Billion in Projects at Federal Facilities, December 2008 • Wind and solar power-generation combined will match new conventional generation by 2025 • AWEA Wind Power conference 2011had over 20,000 attendees – 2009 had 5,000

Renewable Energy Sources  Solar Energy  Wind Energy  Biomass Energy  Biofuels  Geothermal Energy  Tidal / Wave / Ocean Energy  Hydel Power  Nuclear Energy

Wind Energy Technology

Wind Energy History

Nassuden Wind Park Sweden 3 MW Wind Turbine

Wind Energy • World’s total installed wind power capacity ~ 300 GW by the end of 2012 • Global wind power to reach 400 GW by 2014 • Wind capacity will reach 7,500GW by 2025 • US Off Shore wind power capacity > 4000 GW – Total US consumption ~ 1000 GW  Wind Blades ~ 80 meter length • Global Wind Energy Business in 2011 > $ 100x109

Accumulated Global Wind Power Capacity 1995-2011 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Year (1995 - 2011) WindPower(MW)

Projected US Wind Power Installation 2003-2016 5000 - 2,640,000 MW 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Year - 2003 - 2016 MegawatInstalled A factor of 100 from 2008 capacity 25000 MW 2008

Wind Targets 2030 • EU 20% Renewable by 2020 (17% Wind – 230 GW) • EU 35% Wind by 2030 – 400 GW • China overtaken USA with currently 63000 MW • China - All electricity from Wind by 2030 • India Currently at 16,000 MW aiming for 200,000 MW by 2030

Wind Turbine Engineering Design David M. Eggleston Aero Technology One must enter into wind-turbine aerodynamics analysis with a proper feeling for the complexity of the subject. After doing this sort of thing full-time for 30 to 40 years with many different flow problems, you begin to have a decent understanding of how fluid is likely to flow.

TTT Things Take Time

The Gharo Wind Corridor – 11,000 MW

Vertical Axis

Over 8000 components

Lift Production in Airfoil

NACA 4415 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Coefficient of Lift For NACA 4415 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Angle (degrees) Cl

Coefficient of Drag Versus Lift for NACA 4415 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Cl Cd

Design theories grasped and computer simulated i) Frankine –Froude Actuator Disc Theory ii) Glauert Annulus Momentum Vortex Theory iii) Prescribed-Wake Vortex Theory iv) Free-Wake Vortex Theory v) Optimal Rotor Theory vi) Dual Optimum Theory vii) Modified Glauert Momentum Theory viii) Wilson & Lissaman’s Theory ix) Linearized Tip Correction Theory

Design Equations – Linearized Tip Correction Theory P = Cp ρ A V3 / 2 (1) F = (2/π) cos-1[exp{(-B/2)((Ro- r)/r sinθ)}] (2) λ Cp = 8 ∫ F sin2θ (cosθ – X sinθ) (sinθ + X cosθ) [1 - Cd / Cl cotθ] X2 dX / λ2 (3) Xhub θopt = MAX [ F sin2θ (cosθ – X sinθ) (sinθ + X cosθ) {1 - Cd / Cl cotθ} ] (4) where λ, X, and Cd / Cl are held constant in the maximization process (c Cl / Ro)opt = [(8π/B) (r/ Ro) F sinθ (cosθ – X sinθ) / (sinθ + X cosθ)]θ=θopt (5)

500 Watt 250 Watt Both Both 500 Watt 250 Watt Both Blade Section No. Radial Position (meters) Radial Position (meters) Twist (θopt -α) (Degrees) (c Cl / Ro )opt Cord Length (meters) Cord Length (meters) Tip Correc Factor 1. 0.249 0.185 22.0 0.224 0.233 0.172 1.000 2. 0.319 0.235 17.5 0.205 0.212 0.158 1.000 3. 0.388 0.285 14.0 0.184 0.191 0.144 1.000 4. 0.458 0.335 11.0 0.169 0.175 0.130 1.000 5. 0.528 0.385 9.0 0.151 0.156 0.118 0.999 6. 0.597 0.435 7.0 0.139 0.145 0.108 0.999 7. 0.667 0.485 5.5 0.128 0.132 0.098 0.998 8. 0.737 0.535 4.5 0.116 0.120 0.090 0.995 9. 0.806 0.585 3.5 0.106 0.110 0.084 0.989 10. 0.876 0.635 2.5 0.099 0.103 0.077 0.980 11. 0.946 0.685 2.0 0.088 0.092 0.072 0.959 12. 1.015 0.735 1.0 0.083 0.086 0.066 0.928 13. 1.0854 0.785 0.5 0.072 0.074 0.059 0.857 14. 1.155 0.835 -0.5 0.061 0.063 0.050 0.735

Twist Distribution with Tip Correction Features -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Spanwise Radial Position (meters) TwistAngle(degrees)

Optimal Tip Corrected Blade Shape 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Blade Span (meters) BladeChord(meters)

4 8 18 21 32 42 50 mm Root Cut Area Side View of the Log (2” x 6” x 45”) Front face drop

Balancing weights Suspension

Twisted Aluminum pipe piece Stainless Steel Rod Galvanized iron sheet Rivets

Electric Generators 500 Watts

1500 Watt Generator

Gear Ratio Calculation Tip Speed Ratio = 6 Power Required = 500 Watts Rated Wind Speed = 8 m/s Air Density = 1.2 kg / m^3 Efficiency = 25 % Power = Density x Area x Efficiency x (Speed)^3 / 2 Blade Length = 4’-8” RPM = 320 Generator RPM = 1500 Gear Ratio = 1500 / 320 = 4.7

Wind Rose

Wind Data Profile at Shahabandar (May 21-June 21, 2002) 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Wind Velocity (m/s) NumberofHours 30 feet 100 feet Average 6.02 m/s Average 7.53 m/s Power (100') = 2 x Power (30')

Power Versus Wind Speed -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Speed (m/s) Power(kW/m2)

Accumulated Power Versus Wind Speed Rating -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Speed (m/s) AvailablePoweratTurbineRating(kW/m2)

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