Published on February 26, 2014
Chapter 12 Eurasia recovered from the Plague China recovered from the Plague & Mongols
Route of the Bubonic Plague What areas were not affected by the Black Plague? WHY do you think that was?
Bubonic Plague • Began in Asia – possibly Gobi Dessert • Intermittently from 1331 to late 17th c. • Mortality Rate: 60-70% in China, 30-50% West of there • Areas NOT affected: India, Scandinavia, SubSaharan Africa
Jews, disabled, and otherwise “undesirable” people blamed for the plague
Disruption of Societies & Economies • Massive Labor shortages • Urban workers demanded higher wages • Left home for better situations • Government tried to make people stay where they were / reinstate feudalism • Revolts throughout countryside & cities
Europe Recovered from the Plague… Statebuilding • Taxes & Administrative Structure as instruments of national monarchies • Fragmented & Competitive MORE WARS!! – Frequent small scale wars Hundred Years War-BIG! – New military & naval technology – Standing European armies
Recovery in Western Europe Proof: The Renaissance: 1400-1600 Renaissance • Began in Florence, spread to other Northern Italian City States… then West. Cultural Blossoming!! • BUSINESSMEN in these City States sponsored innovations in art & architecture • A whole new age: – Not ruled by Church – Not ruled by FEUDALISM Genoa Florence Siena – Palazzo Publico
Baptistry, Florence Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, Florence David - Michelangelo Brunelleschi’s Dome on Cathedral of Florence Florence
Santa Maria del Fiore, Giotto’s Bell Tower, Brunelleschi's dome
View of an Ideal City, Pierro della Francesca linear PersPective
H ani s m =M i s t he um an M eas ur e of Al l Thi ngs •Idealization of the Human Mind & Body as perfect creations of a perfect God! •REALISM! “Parla!” •Religious – especially the Virgin, Bible scenes •Classical – Mythology, History •Primary Sources consulted •Nature
Citizens of the City! City as backdrop / Gives Context – Contemporary Citizens IN artwork!! – More Educated Citizens – Patronage of Town-dwelling Businessmen: Businessmen Medici – Individualism – how one artist perceived & portrayed the world, consisting of individuals.
Elder Cosimo Lorenzo The Magnificen t Medici Bro Medici Bro Mirandola Lorenzo’s Dad Boticelli
Leonardo Da Vinci
The sense of moral power and tense energy is conveyed not only through the anatomy, but through the concentrated gaze of the Biblical hero.
Natural poses, lifelike bodies.
“Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife” by Dutch painter Jan van Eyck, (1434).
Renaissance Humanism: Religious & Intellectual Movement • Humanities curriculum – Poetry, art, history, grammar, rhetoric, ethics • Classics • Primary Sources, not interpretations. Sources – Placed great value on uniqueness of each individual • God as center of Man’s Universe; Man as God’s highest creation! – Human creativity demonstrated God’s power and majesty
Petrarch Father of Humanism Father of Italian (Florentine) Language Sonnets– admired & imitated throughout Europe Coined term “Dark Ages” Dante Alighieri “Divine Comedy” – considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language, and a masterpiece of world literature – Social commentary - Florence
• Florentine, wrote poetry and romances, then became a diplomat. • Masterpiece called the Decameron, set in the Decameron time of the black death. • Dialogue master.
• Florentine diplomat, political philosopher, musician, poet, playwright – an Italian Renaissance Man and a servant of the Florentine Republic. • Cynical (realist) approach to power in The Prince, the Discourses, and the History. • Synonymous with ruthless politics, deceit and the pursuit of power by any means: “It is better to be feared than to be loved, if one cannot be both.”
• Spanish author of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Mancha • The two main characters of this classic are Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
• English • Author of 37 plays, many sonnets. – Great imagery, vocabulary, imagination – Comedies, histories, tragedies, and romances. • Greatest works: Taming of the Shrew, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and Julius Caesar.
Trial of Galileo, 1633
Bonfire of the Vanities • 1497 – Dominican priest Girolamo • • Savonarola Part of Florentine Shrove Tuesday observance. Collected and publicly burned thousands of objects deemed to be “occasions of sin of vanity.” – cosmetics, mirrors, fine dresses, hair ornaments, jewelry – Secular art – paintings, sculpture – Musical instruments, playing cards, – Books that were deemed to be “immoral” such as poetry, secular songs, romances and other works of non-religious themes.
Recovering from the Plague, Europe was blossoming, finally… As West finally began to meet East… what about China?
Ming Dynasty Reviving Chinese Traditions after the Departure of the Mongols: • Centralization of Government: Direct Rule of Emperor • Mandate of Heaven • Ethnically Han • Confucian education – Civil Service Exam – Mandarins & Eunuchs
Ming Dynasty • Promoted Economic Recovery – Repaired irrigation systems Ag productivity surged under Emperor Hongwu’s programs Surplus of Ag goods Commerce. Promoted efficient Manufacture of silk, porcelain, cotton Greater commercial output – Trade within Asia flourished
Cultural Revival – Actively promoted Neo-Confucianism – Yongle Encyclopedia – anthology of Chinese cultural traditions
“Chinese Reconnaissance of the Indian Ocean Basin” • Open & Control sea trade in Indian Ocean & Spice Islands • Threats to China? – Military Rivals? – Stop Piracy • Inspire Awe! • Re-Activate Tributary System
Admiral Zheng He
Treasure Ships • 450 ft. long x 180 ft. wide • 9 masts, 4 decks w/ public & private rooms, restrooms! • 500 – 1000 passengers • 62 treasure ships, 240 smaller ships
End of Voyages, 1433 • Confucian ministers distrusted foreign alliances – Barbarians, Muslims • Trade items did not match China’s luxuries – Flowers, fruit, zebra, giraffe • Use treasury to support Agriculture, Defense instead. • China closed to outside trade; resources redirected…
End of Voyages, 1433 • Technology forgotten • Ships left to rot in harbor • Nautical charts probably destroyed
China Turned her Face Inward …As Europe Took to the Waves
Key Moments in European Maritime Travel 1415 1420 1430’s 1433 1480’s 1480’s 1492 1496 1497-98 1520-23 Portuguese seize Ceuta in Morocco Portuguese explore West Coast of Africa Portuguese in the Azore Islands off coast of Africa Chinese fleets withdraw from Indian Ocean Portuguese contact with Kongo; royal family converts to Christianity Sugar production begins in Canary Islands First Transatlantic voyage of Columbus John Cabot enters Indian Ocean, reaches India Vasco da Gama enters Indian Ocean, reaches India Magellan’s Voyage to Asia via the Americas; first circumnavigation of the golbe
European Exploration Portuguese – 1st – Expand Christianity – Expand commercial opportunities Why? – Already Sea farers – Good relations with Muslims – Poor country compared… Henry the Navigator – His passion – Schools – Invested
Colonization of Atlantic Islands • Portugal seized Ceuta, Morocco • Colonized Madeiras, Azores, etc. • Italian investors, Portuguese landowners: Sugarcane Plantations
Slave Trade • West Coast of Africa • Traded guns, textiles for gold, slaves • Thousands of slaves to Atlantic island plantations
Indian Ocean Trade • Portuguese searched for sea route to Asian markets without Muslim middlemen. • Bartolomeu Dias – – Reached Cape of Good Hope, entered Indian Ocean- 1488 • Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut in 1498, returned to Lisbon w/ huge profit
Portuguese Dominated Indian Ocean Trade • Cannons on their Ships!! • Required all ships in Indian Ocean to pay tribute…
Cristoforo Colombo • • • • Italian from Genoa Italian city states, Portugal refused Spain agreed – 1492 4 voyages
FIN Vamos al Nuevo Mundo!
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