religiosity sexualbehaiviors

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Information about religiosity sexualbehaiviors
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Published on August 11, 2007

Author: Freedom

Source: authorstream.com

RELIGIOSITY AS A FACTOR IN SAFE SEX PRACTICES AMONG WEST AFRICAN YOUTH: EXAMPLE OF COTE D’IVOIRE:  RELIGIOSITY AS A FACTOR IN SAFE SEX PRACTICES AMONG WEST AFRICAN YOUTH: EXAMPLE OF COTE D’IVOIRE STELLA BABALOLA JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, CENTER FOR COMM. PROG., BALTIMORE, MD Paper presented at the 2002 Annual APHA Conference, November 10 to 13, 2002. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania CREDITS:  CREDITS The survey reported in this presentation was conducted for the SFPS/FHA project with funding from the United States Agency for International Development. Tulane University and the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Program (JHU/CCP) provided technical assistance for its implementation. ENSEA, Abidjan was contracted to implement the survey BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON COTE D’IVOIRE:  BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON COTE D’IVOIRE Population: 17 million Annual growth rate: 2.5% Life expectancy: 47 years HIV Infection Rate: 10.7% People living with HIV: 1 million % of 15 - 24 year-old women infected: 12.4% DATA:  DATA Household sample survey in Abidjan, Bouake and Korhogo; Target: male and female youth aged 15 - 24 years; Sample size: 1262 male and 1419 female youth. METHODS:  METHODS Model: Expanded ideation model - a predictive model that includes psychosocial, family and community characteristics: Behavior is determined by ideation, that is the 'ways of thinking' or value orientation. The model recognizes a number of individual characteristics that denote the cognitive, emotional and social interactions dimensions of ideation The model also includes family and community variables METHODS:  METHODS Timing of first sex Life Table Analysis Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Condom Use Bivariate methods Logistic Regression Slide7:  MEASUREMENT:  MEASUREMENT Religiosity measured through 2 variables: Affiliation to an organized religion; Frequency of participation in religious ceremonies per month. Divided into three levels for analytic purposes: Reported a religion and attend services more than 3 times a month - High religiosity Reported a religion and attend services fewer than 4 times a month- Low religiosity Has no religion Level of religiosity by gender:  Level of religiosity by gender Male: n =1262 Female: n=1419 Correlates of religiosity (identified through multinomial regression):  Correlates of religiosity (identified through multinomial regression) TIMING OF FIRST SEX:  TIMING OF FIRST SEX Percent that have ever had sex by gender and level of religiosity:  Percent that have ever had sex by gender and level of religiosity Male: n =1262 Female: n=1419 Life table proportion of virgins at specific ages by level of religiosity - male:  Life table proportion of virgins at specific ages by level of religiosity - male n =1262 Log rank test: X2 = 21.3; pandlt;0.001 Life table proportion of virgins at specific ages by level of religiosity - female:  Life table proportion of virgins at specific ages by level of religiosity - female n =1419 Log rank test: X2 = 19.66; pandlt;0.001 Median age at first sex by gender and level of religiosity:  Median age at first sex by gender and level of religiosity Male: n =1262 Female: n=1419 Selected life table indicators by gender, religion and level of religiosity:  Selected life table indicators by gender, religion and level of religiosity Percent reporting perceived self-efficacy to refuse sex with someone known for more than 3 months by gender and level of religiosity - single respondents:  Percent reporting perceived self-efficacy to refuse sex with someone known for more than 3 months by gender and level of religiosity - single respondents Male: n =1224 Female: n=1184 Percent that perceive that most of their friends are sexually active by gender and level of religiosity :  Percent that perceive that most of their friends are sexually active by gender and level of religiosity Male: n =1224 Female: n=1184 Score for perceived social support for premarital sexual abstinence by gender and level of religiosity:  Score for perceived social support for premarital sexual abstinence by gender and level of religiosity Male: n =1224 Female: n=1184 Percent reporting regular use of alcohol by gender and level of religiosity.:  Percent reporting regular use of alcohol by gender and level of religiosity. Male: n =1262 Female: n=1419 Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single male:  Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single male n =1224 A Derived from Cox proportional Hazard model that adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements in childhood and community religiosity ** *** Notes: ** pandlt;0.01; *** pandlt;0.001 Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single male:  Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single male n =1224 A Derived from Cox proportional Hazard model that adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements in childhood, community religiosity and ideational variables ‡ Notes: ‡ pandlt;0.1; Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single female:  Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single female n =1184 A Derived from Cox proportional Hazard model that adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements during childhood and community religiosity ‡ ‡ Notes: ‡ pandlt;0.1; Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single female:  Hazard ratioa of experiencing first sex at a specific age by level of religiosity - single female n =1184 A Derived from Cox proportional Hazard model that adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements in childhood, community religiosity and ideational variables Condom Use:  Condom Use Percent that used a condom during last sexual intercourse by gender and level of religiosity:  Percent that used a condom during last sexual intercourse by gender and level of religiosity Male: n =817 Female: n=735 Odds ratioa of condom use at last sex by gender and level of religiosity:  Odds ratioa of condom use at last sex by gender and level of religiosity a Derived from logistic regression models that adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, current living arrangements, community religiosity and ideational variables Male: n =817 Female: n=735 DISCUSSION:  DISCUSSION The relationship between religiosity and the timing of first sex is in the expected direction however the magnitude of the effects is smaller than expected. Nominal religion or low level of religiosity makes littledifference in terms of the timing of first sex. If religion has any notable effects at all, it is at high levels of religiosity. Less than 60% of Christians and only 42% of Moslems demonstrate high level of religiosity. Discussion:  Discussion Religiosity appears associated with certain ideational and behavioral variables that favor primary sexual abstinence: perceived self-efficacy to refuse sex; non-use of alcohol; perceived social support for sexual abstinence perceived peer behavior (females) Discussion:  Discussion In the absence of other ideational variables, religiosity is strongly associated with late sexual debut among males. Among females the relationship is only marginally significant. When the other ideational variables are considered, religiosity becomes an insignificant predictor of the timing of sexual debut. Discussion:  Discussion Religious leaders need to work with communication experts to design and implement doctrinally appropriate behavior change interventions that will incorporate pertinent ideational variables. Effective programs will be those that are strategically developed to strengthen the self-efficacy to refuse sex and increase discussion around sexual abstinence. Small group interventions; Peer-to-peer Discussion:  Discussion Religious leaders also need to help their young congregation members develop the life skills to enable them delay sexual debut: critical thinking sexual negotiation priority setting problem solving coping with life challenges. Discussion:  Discussion Religiosity makes less of a difference for females compared to males. One explanation of this may be related to the lower decision-making power of women: women should be specially targeted with carefully designed messages and life skills to enable them avoid early sexual experimentation. Slide34:  Religiosity is not a factor in condom use. Very religious sexually active youth are as likely as others to use a condom. Limitations:  Limitations Appropriateness of measurement of religiosity; Findings provide a snapshot of the situation at a point in time. It is not clear how relevant the current religiosity status is to past behaviors; Religiosity is not static, neither are its influence consistent over the life cycle; A longitudinal study that follows individuals from pre-adolescence to the end of young adulthood years should help to shed better light on the complex relationship between religiosity and the timing of first sex.

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