Published on September 30, 2015
1. PRODUCTION Management Reliability, Maintenance
2. Group members.. Shivani Sahu – 121 Afzal Shaikh – 132 Nazneen Sheikh – 137 Raviraj Shetty - 140 Gulmohit Singh – 148 Yogesh Singh - 151 Sandesh Sonawane – 154 Lydia Thomson - 159
3. Maintenance • Maintenance management is concerned with the direction and organisation of resources in order to control (improve) the availability and performance of the industrial plants to some specified level. • Maintenance is defined also as that function of production management concerned with the day to day problem of keeping the physical plant in good operating condition
4. Plant Maintenance • Is repairing of the machine at planned intervals so that sudden breakdowns could be prevented and costly downtime avoided. This work is generally done when the shop can spare the machine for repairs, generally during off shift hours, Sundays and holidays. – Lubrication and Inspection are two constituents of PM
5. OBJECTIVE – Get equipment back into operation as quickly as possible. – Control cost of repairs crews. – Control cost of the operation of repair shops. – Control the investment in replacement spare parts. – Control the investment in standby or backup machines. – Perform the appropriate amount of repairs at each malfunction.
6. Advantages of PM • Greater safety to workers • Reduction in production down time • Lesser expenditure on repairs due to fewer repetitive and large scale repairs • Less spare parts • Prolongs the life of the machine • Maintains quality and continuity of production
7. Disadvantages of PM • High control on records and analysis, planning & scheduling • Monitoring of parameters like temperature, lubrication, noise, corrosion ,leaks etc are high. The equipments to do that also are costly. • Optimum PM is required, hence correct judgement is needed. Too much or too little is not good.
8. SCOPE OF MAINTENANCESCOPE OF MAINTENANCE • Primary functions:-Primary functions:- • Maintenance of existing plant and equipment's. • Maintenance of existing plant buildings and grounds. • Equipment inspection and lubrication. • Utilities generation and distribution. • Secondary functions:-Secondary functions:- • Store keeping • Plant protection including fire protection. • Waste disposal • Salvage.
9. Importance of maintenanceImportance of maintenance • Dependability of services is on of the performance measures. • Maintenance is an important factor in quality assurance. • It helps company by offering protection in case of lengthy equipment • Important for the company ‘s cost control. • To maintain equipment in good condition.
10. Reliability • Reliability is defined as the probability of a plant to give satisfactory performance in a particular period of time under specified conditions. The time between failures is called MTBF • Availability is the percentage of time the machine will be available for operation • Availability = Mean Time Between failures(MTBF) MTBF + Mean Time for Repairs(MTR)
11. Maintenance and Reliability The objective of maintenance and reliability isThe objective of maintenance and reliability is to maintain the capability of the system whileto maintain the capability of the system while controlling costscontrolling costs Maintenance is all activities involved inMaintenance is all activities involved in keeping a system’s equipment in workingkeeping a system’s equipment in working orderorder Reliability is the probability that a machineReliability is the probability that a machine will function properly for a specified timewill function properly for a specified time
12. Strategic Importance of Maintenance and Reliability Failure has far reaching effects on a firm’sFailure has far reaching effects on a firm’s OperationOperation ReputationReputation ProfitabilityProfitability Dissatisfied customersDissatisfied customers Idle employeesIdle employees Profits becoming lossesProfits becoming losses Reduced value of investment in plant andReduced value of investment in plant and equipmentequipment
13. Maintenance Strategy Employee InvolvementEmployee Involvement Information sharing Skill training Reward system Employee empowerment Maintenance and ReliabilityMaintenance and Reliability ProceduresProcedures Clean and lubricate Monitor and adjust Make minor repair Keep computerized records ResultsResults Reduced inventory Improved quality Improved capacity Reputation for quality Continuous improvement Reduced variability
14. Categories • Breakdown Maintenance ( Corrective maintenance) • Preventive maintenance(PM) – Lubrication & Inspection • Predictive maintenance ( Condition monitoring) – Is a form of PM – by tracing the performance of the machine over its operating life, deterioration that can occur at various intervals of time is predicted. Early symptoms of failure are identified and proper maintenance measures developed.
15. • Routine maintenanceRoutine maintenance a. Running maintenance b. shut down maintenance • Planned maintenancePlanned maintenance It is an maintenance activities that are carried out according to a predetermined schedule .also known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance.
16. IMPACT OF POOR MAINTENANCEIMPACT OF POOR MAINTENANCE • Production capacity • Production costs • Product and service quality • Employee or customer safety • Customer satisfaction
17. IMPORTANT TACTICSIMPORTANT TACTICS ReliabilityReliability 1.1. Improving individual componentsImproving individual components 2.2. Providing redundancyProviding redundancy MaintenanceMaintenance 1.1. Implementing or improving preventiveImplementing or improving preventive maintenancemaintenance 2.2. Increasing repair capability or speedIncreasing repair capability or speed
18. IMPLEMENTING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCEIMPLEMENTING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Need to know when a system requires serviceNeed to know when a system requires service or is likely to failor is likely to fail High initial failure rates are known as infantHigh initial failure rates are known as infant mortalitymortality Once a product settles in, MTBF generallyOnce a product settles in, MTBF generally follows a normal distributionfollows a normal distribution Good reporting and record keeping can aid theGood reporting and record keeping can aid the decision on when preventive maintenancedecision on when preventive maintenance should be performedshould be performed
19. Computerized Maintenance System Output ReportsOutput Reports Inventory and purchasing reports Equipment parts list Equipment history reports Cost analysis (Actual vs. standard) Work orders – Preventive maintenance – Scheduled downtime – Emergency maintenance Data entry – Work requests – Purchase requests – Time reporting – Contract work Data FilesData Files Personnel data with skills, wages, etc. Equipment file with parts list Maintenance and work order schedule Inventory of spare parts Repair history file
20. Maintenance Costs The traditional view attempted to balanceThe traditional view attempted to balance preventive and breakdown maintenance costspreventive and breakdown maintenance costs Typically this approach failed to consider theTypically this approach failed to consider the true total cost of breakdownstrue total cost of breakdowns InventoryInventory Employee moraleEmployee morale Schedule unreliabilitySchedule unreliability
21. Increasing Repair Capabilities 1.1. Well-trained personnelWell-trained personnel 2.2. Adequate resourcesAdequate resources 3.3. Ability to establish repair plan and prioritiesAbility to establish repair plan and priorities 4.4. Ability and authority to do material planningAbility and authority to do material planning 5.5. Ability to identify the cause of breakdownsAbility to identify the cause of breakdowns 6.6. Ability to design ways to extend MTBFAbility to design ways to extend MTBF
22. How Maintenance is Performed OperatorOperator MaintenanceMaintenance departmentdepartment Manufacturer’sManufacturer’s field servicefield service Depot serviceDepot service (return equipment)(return equipment) Preventive maintenance costs less and is faster the more we move to the left Competence is higher as we move to the right
23. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Designing machines that are reliable, easy toDesigning machines that are reliable, easy to operate, and easy to maintainoperate, and easy to maintain Emphasizing total cost of ownership whenEmphasizing total cost of ownership when purchasing machines, so that service andpurchasing machines, so that service and maintenance are included in the costmaintenance are included in the cost Developing preventive maintenance plansDeveloping preventive maintenance plans that utilize the best practices of operators,that utilize the best practices of operators, maintenance departments, and depot servicemaintenance departments, and depot service Training workers to operate and maintain theirTraining workers to operate and maintain their own machinesown machines
24. Establishing Maintenance Policies SimulationSimulation Computer analysis of complex situationsComputer analysis of complex situations Model maintenance programs before theyModel maintenance programs before they are implementedare implemented Physical models can also be usedPhysical models can also be used Expert systemsExpert systems Computers help users identify problemsComputers help users identify problems and select course of actionand select course of action
25. What is system reliability? Also known as product reliability. When components or parts are combined into a larger system, such as a machine or a product, the combined reliability of all the components or parts form the basis for system reliability.
26. Knowing how to calculate system reliability • When critical components interact during the operation of the product or system, the reliability of the product or system is determined by computing the product of the reliabilities of all the interacting critical components.
27. Calculation. • If a product or system has ‘n’ critical components each with reliability CR1, CR2,….. CRN, then the product or system reliability SR= CR1*CR2*……CRN (this is known as multiplication law of probability). • 10 critical points, each having a reliability of 0.99, the reliability of that product would be (0.99)10 = 0.904. 100 critical components, each having a reliability of 0.99, system reliability would be (0.99)100 = 0.366.
28. Fault tree analysis: a systematic and stylized deductive process. An undesired event is defined. The event is resolved into its immediate causes. This resolution of events continues until basic causes are identified A logical diagram called a fault tree is constructed showing the logical event relationships
29. Benefits of Constructing a Fault Tree Explicitly shows all the different relationships that are necessary to result in the top event A thorough understanding is obtained of the logic and basic causes leading to the top event Is a tangible record of the systematic analysis of the logic and basic causes leading to the top event
30. Why FTA is carried out ? To exhaustively identify the causes of a failure To identify weaknesses in a system To assess a proposed design for its reliability or safety To identify effects of human errors To prioritize contributors to failure To identify effective upgrades to a system To quantify the failure probability
31. Role of FTA in System Safety Analysis FTA is used to resolve the causes of system failure FTA is used to quantify system failure probability FTA is used to evaluate potential upgrades to a system FTA is used to optimize resources in assuring system safety FTA is used to resolve causes of an incident
32. The Thought Process in FTA FTA is backward looking The end result is the analysis starting point The end result is then traced back one step at a time to its immediate causes The relationships of the causes, or events, are shown with logic symbols This backward tracing process continues until the basic causes are identified FTA systematizes and codifies the process
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