Published on March 8, 2014
RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining & non-defining Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
What’s a relative clause? A relative clause gives us information about the subject or object of a main clause. This information could be necessary to understand the message (defining), or could be extra information and therefore not necessary (non-defining) Ex. That is the museum which was built next to the cathedral. Ex. Salamanca, which is my hometown, is one of the prettiest cities in the world. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO for people WHOM for people but preceded by a preposition (formal English) WHICH for animals,things or ideas. THAT for people, animals,things or ideas (only in defining r. clauses) WHOSE for possession and relationships Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
RELATIVE ADVERBS WHERE refers to places.(=in/at +which) WHEN refers to time.(= in/on + which) The house where you live is very beautiful. Do you remember the day when we met? WHY refers to reason.(=for +which) The reason why I didn’ t come was because I didn’t feel OK. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES They are necessary to understand the main clause. They go just after the name they refer to, called antedent. They are introduced by a relative pronoun or an adverb. EX. The woman who lives next door is a famous writer. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
When do we use THAT? THAT can only be used in defining relative clauses to replace a person, an animal or a thing or idea. NEVER in non-defining c. THAT cannot be used after a preposition. Ex. This is the house in which we lived. THAT is preferred after a superlative. Ex. This is the prettiest girl that I have known. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
Leaving out the Relative Pronoun The pronoun in a relative clause can be the subject or the object of the clause. 1. 2. 1. 2. Ex. The man who lives next door is Brad Pitt. Ex. The man who I met at the party is now my husband. When the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, it works as the subject of the relative clause and therefore, it CANNOT be omitted. When the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or a pronoun, followed by a verb, it works as an object and it CAN be omitted. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES They give us extra information about the subject or the object of a main clause. They are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. The antecedent in these clauses is usually a proper noun or it is accompanied by a possessive, the definite article the or a demonstrative. If we remove the clause, the sentence still makes sense. Ex. My house, which is quite comfortable, needs decorating. J.K. Rowling, who wrote Harry Potter’s books, had a hard life. My car, which is red, is very small. We never use THAT in non-defining relative clauses. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
PREPOSITIONS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES We sometimes form a relative clause using verbs with prepositions, such as apply for. The position of the preposition is different in formal and informal English : Ex. That is the job which I applied for. (informal) Ex. Below are the details of the job for which I applied. ( formal) As I’ve said before, you CANNOT use THAT after a preposition. Prepositions CANNOT be used in clauses beginning with WHEN or WHERE. Ex. *This is the house where I used to live in. This is the house where I used to live. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES We often make relative clauses shorter. If the verb in the original relative clause is active, we use the –ing form. If the verb is passive we use the –ed form. It’s a shop that sells designer jeans. It’s a shop selling designer jeans. It’s a novel which is based on a true story. It’s a novel based on a true story. We can only make clauses shorter when the noun we are describing is the same as the subject of the relative clause and NEVER if it is different. This is the photo of the hotel that we stay in every year. *This is the photo of the hotel staying in every year. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
WHAT in Relative Clauses What is the result of the addition of the antecedent and the relative pronoun in one word. (=the thing(s) that). What you said was irrelevant. (the thing that you said was irrelevant) We don’t include the noun in a clause beginning with WHAT. *The thing what you said was irrelevant. Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
The End Mª Mercedes Sánchez Villafranca 2013
Relative Clauses (Relativsätze), Kurzerläuterung und Übungen ... Notwendige Relativsätze Schwierigkeitsgrad leicht. Notwendige Relativsätze (auch ...
Content How to form relative clauses Level: lower intermediate Relative pronouns Level: lower intermediate Subject pronouns or Object pronouns?
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate ...
Clear explanations of English relative clauses, with lots of examples and exercises.
We use who and whom for people, and which for things. We use that for people or things. We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell ...
Relative pronouns , Relative clauses, who, which, whose - Exercise - Learning English
The Relative Clause Recognize a relative clause when you see one. A relative clause—also called an adjective or adjectival clause—will meet three ...
Relative clauses: defining and non-defining - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionaries ...
Verbinde die Sätze mit einem Relativsatz ohne Relativpronomen (Contact Clauses). We bought a car last week. The car is blue. The car The girl is a singer.
Contact clauses – Relativsätze ohne Relativpronomen; Ortsangaben und Zeitangaben im Aussagesatz; Relativsätze mit who, which, whose und that; Übungen.