Rejmanek Honza Poster 20061110

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Information about Rejmanek Honza Poster 20061110

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: Danielle



Slide1:  An Investigation of the Mountain Wave Produced by Volcano Villarica in Southern Chile By: Honza Rejmánek Atmospheric Science Abstract: The Villarica volcano (2850m) located at just north of 40S in Chile offers a unique opportunity for the study of stratified airflow over a conical mountain. Its smoke provides an ideal marker of the air that flows immediately over the summit. Time lapse photography, upwind pilot balloon wind profiling, and temperature logging on the side of the volcano will be conducted. Temperature soundings from the COSMIC program will also be very instrumental. The data collected will be used to initialize COAMPS or WRF models in an attempt to replicate the witnessed flow pattern. The results will improve our understanding of airflow over isolated mountains which has direct implications for flight safety. Introduction: On March 5, 1966, a British Overseas Airways Boeing 707 crashed into the volcano Mt. Fuji in Japan. That cloudless afternoon the pilot wanted to give the passengers a view of the volcano. The plane came apart in the air due to the extreme turbulence encountered. Winds of 60-70 knots were recorded at the base of the mountain at the time of the crash (UCAR COMET). Much has been learned about stratified airflow over mountains in the last 40 years yet many features of the flow continue to elude us (Grubisic et al. 2004). The Villarica volcano (2850m) located at just north of 40S in Chile (Fig. 1) offers a unique opportunity for the study of stratified airflow over an isolated conical mountain. Figure 1. Location of Volcano Villarica. Its smoke injects a visible marker into the air that flows immediately over the summit (See top two photos on this poster). The volcano has been in a state of almost continuous activity for the past five centuries (Rosi et. al. 2003).The smoke is visible on most clear days but its abundance varies. Often this smoke is easily visible for more than 15km from the crater (Fig.2) with distinguishable puffs visible for ~2km downwind of the crater. Figure 2. Morning smoke from Villarica, minimal wind at summit. Background: Waves were discovered in the 1930’s by glider pilots downwind of mountain ranges. In the 1950’s mountain waves and rotors were studied in the Owens Valley during the Sierra Wave Project (Kuettner 1959), in the 1970’s on the front range of the rocky mountains during the Colorado Lee Wave Program and most recently (2006) during the Terrain Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) in the Owens Valley (Grubišić et al. 2004) Neither one of these studies concentrated on the flow over and around an isolated conical mountain. Only limited meteorological studies have been made on conical mountains near Fort Collins in Colorado (McCutchan et. al. 1986, Wooldrige 1987). An exhaustive search has not produced any record of research of the behavior of a smoke streamline behind a volcano in stratified flow. The proposed investigation of this streamline will be novel to atmospheric science and useful in the verification of computer models. The time lapse recordings of the streamline can also be used in ground schools for pilots. Objectives: The primary objective of this pilot field project is to collect enough data to adequately initialize WRF or COAMPS models focused on reproducing the stratified flow observed in the streamline passing over the summit. If certain features are difficult to replicate then data quality and model capability will be evaluated. Some initial discrepancy is certainly expected. A concentrated attempt will be made at correlating the location where the streamline rebounds back upward (see photos at top of poster), with the wind velocity at the summit, and the upwind wind profile. The secondary objective is to document and begin to categorize by Froude number the variety of flows observed (Stull 1988; Jim Doyle personal communication). This documentation will not be limited to only the stratified flows but also to the transition of stratified to hydraulic flows. This happens when the top of the boundary layer grows to summit level or beyond. The goal is to accumulate a quality data set given the time and instruments available. In subsequent years, if funding is secured, a far more rigorous project can be executed with better instrumentation. If this is realized then improvements might be made in forecasting of aviation hazards around volcanoes. Figure 3. Radiosonde locations (black dot) A,. Typical COSMIC soundings (green diamond) B. Methods: Though admittedly the best way to get an upwind sounding would be by means of a radiosonde, this luxury will not be available during the first field campaign. The closest one is launched 200km to the south in Puerto Montt. The soundings from the constellation of COSMIC satellites will be very instrumental in obtaining a stability profile of the atmosphere upwind of volcano Villarica (fig. 3). The upwind wind profile will be obtained the traditional way by means of theodolite and pilot balloon. This will be done on days that an IOP (Intensive Operation Period) is declared. The criteria for declaring the IOP will be simple: 1) The smoke is visible from the research station 2) It is showing wave activity. On these days camera one will begin recording at sunrise at one frame every five seconds (Fig. 4). The operator of camera two, (a local person) will be contacted via cell phone or 2m radio and told to begin recording. Since this camera will be used for verification of plume direction it will take one picture every 15 minutes. A B Methods: (continued) Camera three (if obtained) will be used in synchronization with camera one in order to obtain a stereoscopic image of the plume. Upon arrival to the region the placement of camera two (with a direction indicator in the field of view) will be one of first tasks. It needs to be downwind and underneath the smoke. A 10m anemometer tower will be installed at the west (upwind) side of the crater rim, and the temperature loggers on the south facing slope (crosswind and less touristy) side (Fig. 5). Figure 5. Proposed instrumentation on the mountain. There will be six temperature loggers on the south side of the volcano separated by 200m vertical increments. Though surface temperatures on the side of the volcano are not exactly the same as of the free atmosphere, the discrepancy becomes smaller as wind speed increases (McCutchan et. al. 1986). This will give an idea of the stability of the air mass from the summit to 1000m bellow it. During the IOP’s a drive will be made to the town of Villarica and then south toward Lincon Ray (up wind of the volcano) to launch red 10g pilot balloons that will be tracked with a theodolite to get a wind profile. The field campaign will run for two months from January 5 – March 5, 2007. Some data processing applying photogrammetric techniques to the camera recordings will be conducted at the research station. Model runs will be made at the University of California Davis upon returning in March. Acknowledgements: - The Jastro-Shields Grant for Instruments - Shu Hua Chen University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA - Vanda Grubišić Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, USA - Jim Doyle Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California, USA - Dave Whiteman University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA - Ricardo Muñoz Universidad de Chile, Santiago, CHILE Bibliography: UCAR COMET Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds UCAR COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 webpage Grubišić,V., Doyle, J. D., Poulos, G. S., Kuettner, J., Whiteman, C. D., 2004: T-REX Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment Overview Document and Experiment Design Kuettner, J., 1959: The rotor flow in the lee of mountains. AFCRC-TN-58-626, ASTIA Doc. No. AD-2008862, ARDC, U. S. Air Force, Bedford Mass. 20 pp. McCutchan, M. A., Fox, D. G., Furman, R. W., 1986: The effect of elevation and aspects on wind, temperature, and humidity .J. Appl. Clim.,25, 1996–2013. Rosi, M., Papale, P., Lupi, L., Stoppato, M., 2003: Volcanoes. Firefly Books LTD pp 306-307 Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology Kluwer Academic Publishers pp 602 Wooldrige, G. L., Fox, D. G., Furman, R., 1987: Airflow patterns over and around a large three-dimensional hill. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 37, 259-207 Figure 4. The schematic layout of the field operations. Courtesy, Google Earth Courtesy, Google Earth Courtesy, Google Earth Photo by: Dan Rejmánek Photo by: Honza Rejmánek Photo by: Honza Rejmánek

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