Published on January 11, 2008
Men on Mars: Men on Mars Royal Reinecke February 26, 2007 A Need to Explore: A Need to Explore Missions around solar system Reasons: Learn more Inspire the country Develop technology New frontiers Steps Along the Way: Steps Along the Way Past Moon Missions: Past Moon Missions Apollo 11 July 20, 1969 Continued to carry out hands on exploration of the Moon Apollo 17 1974 Budget cut Past Mars Missions: Past Mars Missions Mariner (4) 1964, first close-up photos of another planet (9) 1969, first to orbit another planet Viking probes 1976, successful landing, measured temperature Biology experiment indicated evidence of life Mars Global Surveyor 1996, Mapped entire surface from low altitude Rovers Mars Rovers: Mars Rovers Pathfinder July 4, 1997, first rover Sojourner Analyzed chemical properties of rocks Only went a few meters, proof of concept Slide7: Mars Exploration Rovers 2003, Spirit 4.3 mi 2004, Opportunity 5.6 mi Have lasted over 11 times longer than planned Solar panels collect dust Geological analysis of rocks Look for evidence of water The Next Leap for Mankind: The Next Leap for Mankind Jan 14, 2004: President Bush presents Vision for Space A plan to send men to Mars Why Mars?: Why Mars? Proximity to Earth: ~50 million mi Temperature: -113oC to 7oC Radius: half Earth radius Day: 24.6 hr Year: 2.1 Earth year Tilt: 25o, seasons Timeline for Manned Mars Mission: Timeline for Manned Mars Mission Jan 14, 2004: Vision for Space announced 2004-2009: $200 million per year 2008: Send robot to the Moon 2010: International Space Station finished Divert research to study medical effects of spaceflight on humans Divert $6 billion of NASA’s $15.5 billion budget 2015-2020: Manned flight to Moon After 2020: On to Mars The Trip and its Hazards: The Trip and its Hazards First Stop: Moon: First Stop: Moon First send man to moon with goal of living and working there Then send man to Mars Outpost to prepare for trip to Mars Mission Logistics: Mission Logistics 200 times farther than the Moon 6-9 month trip Each way Not a straight shot, gravitational assist from Moon Fuel to get back Bring hydrogen to react with with carbon dioxide, produce methane and oxygen Martian Dust: Martian Dust Dust storms can engulf the planet Makes it hard to land Not such a problem once on planet, since atmosphere not very dense Larger and rougher than Earth dust Dust can: Scratch lenses Degrade seals Get in equipment Enter lungs Enough Water: Enough Water Estimated launch cost: $10,000 per pound Water takes up space that could be used for other equipment, supplies Stay could be longer than anticipated Ideally find water at landing site For drinking Can be converted to oxygen Water helps protect from radiation Health Risks: Health Risks Lack of Medical Facilities Psychological effects of long isolation Low gravity degrades bone and muscle Radiation Reduced Gravity: Reduced Gravity Negligible gravity between here and Mars 3/8 Earth gravity on Mars Medical Effects Muscle and bone mass depletion Problems regulating blood pressure Solutions “Space Cycle” like centrifuge Up to 7g Radiation: Radiation During trip, no shielding from nearby planets, moons Mars atmosphere 1% as dense as Earth’s 2 1/2 year trip with 6 mo travel each way reaches lifetime exposure limit .3 sievert each way, .4 sievert on Mars, 1-3 sievert lifetime limit Electromagnetic radiation X-ray, visible, UV Particle radiation Cosmic rays Greater long-term risk for cancer, cataracts Solar flares Severe short term illness Solar Flares: Solar Flares High energy particles emitted during intense flares Move at millions of miles per hour Hit the Earth within a day Earth’s magnetic fields shields us Particles with magnetic field aligned a certain way can get through, atmosphere blocks most though Could kill unprotected astronaut Microbial Organisms: Microbial Organisms May be bacteria, viruses in Martian soil, dust Humans might not be resistant Could bring back microbes to Earth where they might replicate, flourish, take over, do damage Rovers sent to Mars may also have brought bacteria there and killed off life Once We Are There: Once We Are There Space Station: Space Station Self-sustaining station more efficient than hauling supplies in the long term Protect from Avg temp: -63oC 95% CO2 atmosphere 800 times Earth’s UV level NASA’s lab at Devon Island, Canada Above Arctic Circle, avg temp: -17oC Rocky, windy Living on Mars: Living on Mars Need food Remote-controlled autonomous greenhouse Powered by wind, sun Pump nutrient water to plants Sensors monitor conditions Could grow food to be ready for astronaut arrival Mars has CO2 atmosphere, day the same length Mars Vehicles: Mars Vehicles ATV-type vehicle for short-range exploration Larger rover to double as shelter when far from base Humvee body Tank tread Scout plane to map terrain Fly in thin atmosphere Unmanned Space Suits: Space Suits Must maintain Earth’s Temperature Pressure Atmosphere Communicate with other astronauts Be able to climb around, explore ~6 hrs Lightweight, rugged, easy to fix The Future: The Future Many Destinations and Goals: Many Destinations and Goals Moon Solar energy Large observatories Asteroids Rich in metals for mining Moons of Jupiter More observatories Beyond Lots to learn along the way “A journey, not a race”
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