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Information about ReidPresentation

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Prudenza


CLANDESTINE DRUG LABS:  CLANDESTINE DRUG LABS Potential Public Health Hazards of Chemically-Contaminated Properties and Regulatory Responses Presented By Brian K. Reid, MS, LEHS Salt Lake Valley Health Dept. The Salt Lake Valley Health Department:  The Salt Lake Valley Health Department Part I: Lab Identification:  Part I: Lab Identification Basics of Meth Production or You might be a tweeker if….. Methamphetamine:  Methamphetamine Toxicity: Moderate Flammability: Low Reactivity: Very Low Powerful CNS stimulant Highly addictive Usually smoked or injected “High” lasts longer than cocaine Prescribed for weight loss, ADD-type behaviors Production of Methamphetamine:  Production of Methamphetamine Relatively easy – “If you can bake cookies, you can make meth” Most common method in Utah uses phosphorus, ephedrine, and iodine (“red, white, blue”) Precursors mixed together, product is extracted, precipitated, then purified Purity and yield depend on quality of reagents and skill of cook First Component: Red:  First Component: Red Refers to red phosphorus Brownish-red powder Can burn or explode under the right conditions Extracted from matchbook striker plates or road flares Red Phosphorus:  Red Phosphorus Chemical Formula: P Toxicity: Low (unless contaminated with yellow phosphorus) Flammability: Low Reactivity: Low Extracted from matchbook striker plates, road flares Primary reagent of meth production Will convert to yellow (white) phosphorus when heated Extraction of Red Phosphorus :  Extraction of Red Phosphorus Isopropyl Alcohol:  Isopropyl Alcohol Chemical Formula: C3H7OH Toxicity: Moderate Flammability: High Reactivity: Very Low Also known as “rubbing alcohol” Used to extract red phosphorus from matchbook striker plates (dissolves the glue that holds it on) Second Component: White:  Second Component: White Refers to ephedrine or pseudoephedrine White or off-white powder (sometimes pink if extracted from cold pills) Mild stimulant, extracted from the ephedra plant May be extracted from cold pills or obtained as pure tablets Methyl Alcohol:  Methyl Alcohol Chemical Formula: CH3OH Toxicity: Low Flammability: High Reactivity: Very Low Known as “wood alcohol”, ingredient in “Heet” gas line antifreeze Ingestion or inhalation in sufficient amounts can cause blindness Used to extract ephedrine from cellulose binder in cold pills Third Component: Blue:  Third Component: Blue Refers to iodine crystals Blue-gray in appearance, almost like lead pellets May be obtained pure or extracted from disinfectant solution Used as a disinfectant in livestock operations Leaves distinctive, yellow-blue or brown stains on surfaces Iodine/Hydriotic Acid:  Iodine/Hydriotic Acid Chemical Formula: I2/HI Toxicity: High Flammability: Very Low Reactivity: Moderate (oxidizer) Upper respiratory tract/mucous membrane irritant Corrosive, oxidizer Stains surfaces easily Volatile (crystals can emit vapors) Vapor can be fatal in low concentrations Iodine (“Blue”):  Iodine (“Blue”) Slide20:  Spray Starch Test Results What Does a Lab Look Like?:  What Does a Lab Look Like? Labs Can be Set up Anywhere:  Labs Can be Set up Anywhere Finished Product:  Finished Product Chemical Hazards of Production:  Chemical Hazards of Production Toxic gases produced that can cause death or injury (phosphine is the most deadly) Flammable chemicals used in process Corrosive chemicals such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid used for extraction Chemicals may condense on surfaces Unknown hazards from meth by-products Phosphine Gas:  Phosphine Gas Chemical formula: PH3 Toxicity: High Flammability: Extreme Reactivity: Very Low Primary route of toxicity is by inhalation Causes lung edema, asphyxia Heavier than air, collects in low places Waste gas vented into “death bags” “Death Bag”:  “Death Bag” Corrosive Materials:  Corrosive Materials Change pH of reaction mixture, which in turn changes solubility of methamphetamine Used to precipitate drug from reaction mixture Can pose a significant contact hazard if residue is not removed or neutralized Purification of Meth:  Purification of Meth Sodium hydroxide (lye) added to reaction to change acidity Organic solvent (kerosene, ether) added to extract product Hydrochloric acid added to precipitate drug Drug is removed, purified with acetone, then dried Sodium Hydroxide:  Sodium Hydroxide Chemical Formula: NaOH Toxicity: High Flammability: Very Low Reactivity: Low Also known as lye, main ingredient in drain cleaning solutions Used to convert meth into an oil-soluble form Contact with solution or powder can cause burns Kerosene:  Kerosene Chemical Formula: C13H28 to C16H34 Toxicity: Low Flammability: Moderate Reactivity: Very Low Commonly used in reaction to extract meth oil Does not evaporate as quickly as other solvents Long-term exposure does not appear to cause significant health problems Sulfuric Acid:  Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula: H2SO4 Toxicity: High Flammability: Very Low Reactivity: Moderate (water reactive) “Battery Acid”, obtained from auto parts stores Very strong acid, causes severe burns on contact with skin or eyes Mixed with table salt to produce HCl gas, which causes meth in mixture to “salt out” Hydrochloric Acid:  Hydrochloric Acid Chemical Formula: HCl Toxicity: High Flammability: Very Low Reactivity: High “Muriatic acid”, used to maintain pH of pools Gives off a sharp, strong vapor that can cause severe respiratory distress Very strong acid, reacts with metals, fabrics Acetone:  Acetone Chemical Formula: C3H6O Toxicity: Low Flammability: High Reactivity: Very Low Common solvent in meth production, used to “clean” final product Highly volatile, evaporates quickly Potential for Exposure:  Potential for Exposure Meth is not volatile at normal temperatures; does not evaporate Vapor/fumes form during production and smoking, can condense on walls, ceilings Dust forms while drying and processing product Reaction mixture may “boil over” and splash on walls, floors, ceiling Residue levels may be close to prescribed dosage, can remain for years afterward Other Ways to Cook Meth:  Other Ways to Cook Meth “Nazi” or “Cold cook” method Uses ephedrine, ammonia, and sodium or lithium metal Fast, efficient Requires supplies of anhydrous ammonia, rarely seen in Utah “P-2-P” or “Biker” method Combines phenyl-2-propanone and methylamine Very slow, difficult Older, “obsolete” method May be used by some cooks Part II: Health Department Response to Meth Labs:  Part II: Health Department Response to Meth Labs Overview of the Salt Lake Valley Health Department’s Chemically Contaminated Properties Regulation What Can the Health Department Do?:  What Can the Health Department Do? Section 26A-1-114 of Utah Code 1) A local health department may:      (a) enforce state laws, local ordinances, department rules, and local health department standards and regulations relating to public health and sanitation,…;      (b) establish, maintain, and enforce isolation and quarantine, and exercise physical control over property and over individuals as the local health department finds necessary for the protection of the public health Health Department Regulations:  Health Department Regulations Originally decontamination was mandated by Salt Lake Valley Health Regulation #3-5.14 Did not outline or mandate any process for decontaminating property or record-keeping Health Dept Reg. #3-5.14:  Health Dept Reg. #3-5.14 5.14 Prevention of Toxic Substances Required. Every owner of a dwelling or dwelling unit shall provide and maintain the dwelling or dwelling unit free of health hazards due to the presence of toxic substances, including lead based paint. Health Dept Regulation #32:  Health Dept Regulation #32 Specifically addresses chemically-contaminated properties Mandates certain steps in decontamination process Requires sampling and testing for certain chemical residues to verify property is decontaminated Adopted July 12, 2001, took effect August 1st How is Process Started?:  How is Process Started? Health Department receives complaint from individual or referral from Law Enforcement HD representative performs a preliminary assessment of property Property is closed to entry or released to owner, based on likelihood of contamination and other evidence Closed to Entry Placard:  Closed to Entry Placard Closed to Entry Restrictions:  Closed to Entry Restrictions No one may enter house without specific permission of Health Department Contractors may enter to do sampling or an assessment of property for estimates Other persons (owner, occupant) may be given permit letter specifying time of entry or are accompanied by health inspector Chemical Warning Placard:  Chemical Warning Placard Warning Placard Restrictions:  Warning Placard Restrictions No Restrictions -- Property is still open to entry and occupancy An assessment of chemical contamination (sampling) is required before placard may be removed Owner’s Responsibilities:  Owner’s Responsibilities Owner has option of doing work personally, or may hire a listed contractor If owner chooses to decontaminate themselves, they must follow the guidelines in Regulation #32 After decontamination, owner certifies that property is safe to occupy Contractor Responsibilities:  Contractor Responsibilities Do a pre-decontamination site assessment Submit a written work plan Post-decontamination site assessment Testing for chemical residues Written final report Decontamination Process:  Decontamination Process Work Plan Application Permit Decontamination Sampling Sampling for Contamination:  Sampling for Contamination Several samples taken throughout house to detect meth residue Samples are “swiped” from an area 10 cm by 10 cm (roughly 4 inches by 4 inches) Samples submitted to laboratory for analysis, expressed as total meth per 100 sq cm surface area Sampling for Meth Residue:  Sampling for Meth Residue Testing and Standards:  Testing and Standards Only methamphetamine residue test required, unless house is demolished or all contaminated surfaces are removed Allows up to 100 nanogram (ng, one-billionth gram)/100 square centimeters of surface area 5-6 tests per contaminated structure required Other tests (mercury, lead, VOC’s) may be required, based on production method used Final Report:  Final Report Includes outline of decontamination Describes the process and materials used to decontaminate Includes copies of test results Owner signs release form certifying property is safe Advantages of New System:  Advantages of New System Uniform process mandated Testing results provide tangible evidence of decontamination Reports provide valuable documentation Testing provides data regarding efficacy of decontamination methods Concerns about our Regulation:  Concerns about our Regulation Health Department is not informed about all contaminated properties No data available on long-term effects of low-level, long-term exposure to meth No uniform Federal or State standards on cleanup Properties are only sampled, significantly-contaminated areas may remain if not decontaminated properly No certification or special training required for contractors Contractors use different processes HOUSE BILL 123:  HOUSE BILL 123 Requires law enforcement to notify local Health Department of clandestine labs Requires local Health Departments to become involved in the decontamination process Requires contractor certification “What If I Don’t Want to Decontaminate my Property?”:  “What If I Don’t Want to Decontaminate my Property?” Testing allowed at start of process If under limits, property is not considered to be significantly contaminated, no action required Property may be left contaminated if secured from unauthorized entry Criminal sanctions if owner allows occupancy of an unsafe property Health Dept. Reg. #32-22.1:  Health Dept. Reg. #32-22.1 Any person who is found guilty of violating any of the provisions of these rules and regulations, ether by failing to do those acts required herein or by doing a prohibited act, is guilty of a class B misdemeanor, pursuant to Section 26-24-22, Utah Code Annotated, 1953, as amended. If a person is found guilty of a subsequent similar violation within two years, he is guilty of a class A misdemeanor, pursuant to Section 26-24-22, Utah Code Annotated, 1953, as amended. Part III: Understanding the Relative Health Hazards of Meth Labs :  Part III: Understanding the Relative Health Hazards of Meth Labs Public Health Concerns:  Public Health Concerns Houses with clandestine labs are often dirty, in poor condition Floors, walls, ceilings may be contaminated with chemical residues; contamination may be spread throughout the house by occupants Chemical wastes may be stored or dumped on the property Unsanitary Conditions:  Unsanitary Conditions Weapons found at lab sites:  Weapons found at lab sites Pornography and Sexual Materials:  Pornography and Sexual Materials Drug Paraphernalia:  Drug Paraphernalia Meth Labs in Salt Lake County:  Meth Labs in Salt Lake County Number of Labs Reported to SLVHD:  Number of Labs Reported to SLVHD How Dangerous Are Meth Labs?:  How Dangerous Are Meth Labs? It all depends on: Who you are Where you are What you are doing When you are doing it How long you are doing it How much chemical is present Hazard Depends on Situation:  Hazard Depends on Situation Contamination in most former meth labs is restricted to low levels of residue Houses are not considered hazardous waste sites under EPA or State hazardous waste regulations “Cooking” meth in a house poses different hazards than occupying the house afterwards Acute vs. Chronic exposure:  Acute vs. Chronic exposure Acute: Exposure which occurs over a short time. High doses usually required to cause an effect Chronic: Exposure which occurs over the space of months to years, usually involves lower amounts of toxicant. How Much Meth is Present?:  How Much Meth is Present? Prescribed dose of methamphetamine HCl is 5 milligrams (mg) orally, twice daily (5 mg = 5,000,000 nanograms) Average meth level on sampled surfaces in labs is 33,143 nanograms (ng) per 100 cm2 surface area; range is from 30 ng to 771,000 ng/100 cm2 (total of 18 properties sampled) Sampling before decontamination is not required under new regulations How Much Meth is Left?:  How Much Meth is Left? Average meth residue level after first decontamination is 2,389 ng/100 cm2, range is 10 ng to 59,000 ng/100 cm2 (total of 34 properties sampled) Additional decontamination often required to remove remaining residue Part IV: Real World Application:  Part IV: Real World Application Case Studies of Actual Labs Decontaminated Under the New Regulation Example Case #1:  Example Case #1 House that new owner suspected to be a meth lab, due to neighbor reports No contamination noted during initial assessment Iodine “bled” through paint months after initial inspection, new inspection of house 18 months later found extensive iodine staining Results:  Results Tests showed elevated levels of methamphetamine throughout house Highest level was 56,000 ng/100 sq cm in room where staining was heaviest Contractor completely gutted most of the house, due to extensive iodine staining Conclusions:  Conclusions Iodine staining was most prevalent in basement laundry room Humidity from washer may have helped “draw out” the iodine residue under the paint Elevated meth residue levels were discovered at least 18 months after any cooking occurred Case Example #2:  Case Example #2 Large house recently occupied by new owners Owners received reports of drug manufacturing by previous owners Property was assessed by a listed contractor, some suspected iodine stains found Owners had two different contractors sample property Results:  Results All four samples taken by contractors for testing were below the limit of 100 ng/100 sq cm Suspected stains were determined not to be iodine, no other obvious signs of contamination were noted Conclusions:  Conclusions Owners completely cleaned the house prior to moving in; they may have unwittingly decontaminated the house at that time Case Example #3:  Case Example #3 Large lab was found in storage unit; unit measured about 10 ft by 30 ft Preliminary sample in unit revealed methamphetamine levels above 29,000 ng Contractor who assessed property noticed a 2-inch gap between the walls and the ceiling and a tube placed in the gap on one side Health Department required sampling of adjacent units to determine extent of contamination Gaps and Vent Tube:  Gaps and Vent Tube Results of First Round:  Results of First Round Samples showed methamphetamine levels of over 10,000 ng and 9,000 ng in adjacent units These units also had gaps in walls, raising possibility of contamination in adjacent units Health Department required sampling of these units to determine contamination Results of Second Round:  Results of Second Round All adjacent units had levels of methamphetamine significantly above the regulatory limit Gaps were found in all walls in all the units, allowing any vapors from process to spread throughout the complex Owner will sample adjacent units Layout of Storage Units:  Layout of Storage Units Conclusions:  Conclusions Contamination was found several units not adjacent to the unit that was used as a lab The gaps between the walls and ceiling and the tube allowed the heated reaction vapor to spread to other units Sampling revealed a total of 15 units that required decontamination Case Example #4:  Case Example #4 Large, older house with basement and detached garage Mother (owner) lived upstairs, adult children (meth cooks) lived downstairs Lab was found in garage, lab equipment and glassware were found in a basement bathroom No evidence of contamination was noted in upstairs portion of house Lab Setup and Glassware:  Lab Setup and Glassware Results:  Results Investigation revealed that mother was unaware of cooking in house Preliminary sample from upstairs kitchen was negative; downstairs samples all revealed significant contamination House had a single heating system, samples were taken upstairs near vents Low levels of contamination were found upstairs near the heating vents Results of Preliminary Sampling:  Results of Preliminary Sampling Conclusions:  Conclusions Meth dust or vapor from the cooking process probably was circulated through the house by the furnace fan Affected areas upstairs were decontaminated as well as rooms in basement Real World Research:  Real World Research Dr. John Martyny of National Jewish Medical Center, Denver, CO Measured levels of chemicals before, during, and after meth production in the crime lab and in suspected clandestine labs Research included a test cook in an abandoned house with real-time measurements Results:  Results Levels of hydrochloric acid and iodine vapors, and phosphine significantly exceeded TLVs, STELs, and ceiling limits during cooking Vapors rapidly dissipated after cooking Significant quantities of meth residue were detected on clothing of some responders Significant amounts of meth residue were found on walls, floors, ceilings Lessons Learned:  Lessons Learned Meth and iodine vapor can migrate throughout a structure, and significantly contaminate surfaces in rooms not used for cooking High levels of meth residue may be present without obvious signs of contamination Iodine can “bleed” through paint months or years after initial contamination Proper decontamination of property can remove almost all chemical residues 8 YEARS OF METH USE:  8 YEARS OF METH USE BEGINNING AND END:  BEGINNING AND END

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