Regulation of protein and peptide synthesis

100 %
0 %
Information about Regulation of protein and peptide synthesis

Published on January 19, 2016

Author: NeoBio

Source: slideshare.net

1. Regulation of Protein and Peptide Synthesis SEPTEMBER 29, 2015 BY ADMIN (EDIT) The rate-limiting step in translation is initiation and this level therefore serves as the site for translation control. Due to the presence of many steps within the translation initiation process, there are subsequently numerous opportunities also for regulation of this system. A great deal of control is achieved by strong versus weak contexts surrounding AUG start codons, but a great majority of control is also mediated through the phosphorylation of initiation factors. Phosphorylation of initiation factors can lead to either inhibitory or stimulatory effects. In addition, control can also be mediated through the blocking of coding regions due to the presence of protein binding and 5 UTR′ regulatory elements (Weaver, 1999). An example of phosphorylation regulation can be seen in reticulocytes which make hemoglobin. Regulation of their production is at the level of translation initiation. The absence of heme allows the activity of a protein kinase called the heme-controlled repressor HCR to phosphoarylate the eIF-2 subunit, eIF-2alpha, which now can bind more strongly to eIF-2B. This strong complexing interaction subsequently prevents eIF-2B from carrying out its functions, which is to exchange GTP for GDP on eIF-2, thereby inactivating eIF-2. With no GTP exchange, eIF-2 cannot attach initiator tRNA to the 40S ribosomes, thereby halting translation initiation. Interferons, which are anti-viral proteins, also follow a similar pathway to prevent cell growth during a viral infection (Rhoads 1993). By targeting sequences or initiation factors, translation initiation is capable of being controlled through simple mechanisms, such as phosphorylating initiation factors which are critical for initiation. The critical requirement of initiation factors, attributed through their functional domains, can be further understood by looking at their evolutionary progression.

2. Phosphorylation Regulation of Protein Synthesis Phosphorylation regulates the activity of eIF4E-eIF4G complex, eIF4E-binding proteins and eIF4E affinity for eIF4G andthe cap structure. Drugs and infections can also effect this regulatory circuit and thereby affect subsequent translation of mRNA, leading to changes in protein levels (Sachs et al., 1997). Repression of Peptide and Protein Synthesis through 5 -UTR Regulatory′ Elements Non-repressed mRNA. Hairpin and stem loop structures form complementary sequences between the 5 cap and AUG codon, that can interfere with assembly and / or scanning of′ translation initiation. Further stabilization of the stem loop through RNA-binding proteins. Upstream AUG codons that are capable of causing premature initiation, thereby preventing the ribosome from reaching the true start site (Cazzola and Skoda, 2000). Origins of Eukaryotic Initiation Factors is the next article in our research series on peptide and protein synthesis. Click here to view the references and sources related to these essays. Click here for more information about our custom peptide synthesis services

Add a comment

Related pages

Regulation of Protein and Peptide Synthesis | Proteins

You are here: Home / Peptide Synthesis Essays / Regulation of Protein and Peptide Synthesis. ... Phosphorylation Regulation of Protein Synthesis.
Read more

Regulation of Protein Synthesis (6.2) - Hartmut "Hudel ...

Each major step in protein synthesis, except peptide-bond formation itself, ... mRNA masking is a major form of regulation in early embryonic development.
Read more

Regulation of Protein Synthesis by Insulin

REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY INSULIN ... down-regulation of protein kinase C by ... synthetases in the regulation of poly­ peptide chain ...
Read more

Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein ...

AIRWAY BIOLOGY Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelium V. Kh. Khavinson • S. M. Tendler • B. F. Vanyushin ...
Read more

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

The protein synthesis page provides a detailed ... Although the chemistry of peptide bond ... proteins involved in the regulation of ...
Read more

Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein ...

Lung (2014) 192:781-791 DOI I0.1007/s00408-014-9620-7 AIRWAY BIOLOGY Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelium
Read more

Regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion and ...

Regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion and pancreatic Beta-cell ... Gene Expression Regulation; Homeodomain Proteins ... C-Peptide; Eye Proteins;
Read more

Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression and Protein ...

These data suggest that the mechanism of peptide regulation of the gene expression and protein synthesis involves ... of genome peptide regulation ...
Read more

Proteolysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking ...
Read more