Published on February 24, 2014
FAO Regional Conference for the Near East Thirty-Second Session 24 – 28 February 2014, Rome, Italy Regional Water Scarcity Initiative Towards a Collaborative Strategy Agenda Item 10: NERC/14/5 NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The context Per capita fresh water availability = 1/6 of world average has decreased by 2/3 over the last 40 years it is expected to decrease of further 50% by 2050 t yp Eg Major drivers population Iran growth (+ consumption pattern) climate NERC-32 change For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region an ud S q Ira Algeria Morocco
Climate change is expected to accentuate the already severe shortage of water availability rainfall reduction (and unpredictability) increasing the crop water requirements runoff NERC-32 (Milly et al., 2005) ≈ year 2050 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Over 60% of water resources in the Region flows from outside national and regional boundaries Groundwater has been the basis for the rapid growth in the Arabian Peninsula, but now Countries are facing excessive groundwater depletion Competition for water between all sectors is accelerating NERC-32 Degradation of water quality is mounting For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The Near East and North Africa, already one of the most water scarce Regions in the world, may be facing over the coming years the most severe intensification of water scarcity in history Water is the binding constraint for Agriculture, as this sector uses already > 85% of available fresh water resources in the region Therefore, Agriculture in all NENA will be the sector suffering most from water scarcity, with major consequences for food security and the rural economy NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The challenges ahead Agriculture, an important socio-economic sector in several countries of the region, will be required to: substantially increase sustainably its overall ‘productivity’ (food, income, employment, etc.) reduce its water share The food crisis of 2008, with soaring of food prices and subsequent volatility, has impacted several countries in the NENA Region as most of them import a large share of their food needs, particularly cereals Evidently, Countries in NENA are reconsidering in perspective their food and agricultural policies with much closer scrutiny on National production capacity to mitigate their vulnerability to food import NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The implications for further pressure on water resources are significant The revision of food and agricultural policies needs to find an optimal balance between internal production, trade, storage and social protection measures, vis-à-vis the optimal balance between ‘actual’ and ‘virtual’ water budget Furthermore, policy revisions will necessarily be cross-sectoral due to the multiple-function and multiple-use of water, with allocation strategies that need to ensure their alignment with the imperative of making the best use of each single drop of water In short, further improvement in sustainable agricultural water management is not a choice, …it is an imperative NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The response …much has been achieved in recent years NENA countries have in fact progressed on many fronts: developed a higher proportion of their available water resources have constructed more water storage per capita than any other region in the world improved agricultural water management to raise productivity improved markets applied principles of IWRM progressive transition from supply to demand management NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
NENA is a global leader in pressurized irrigation progressive decentralization of irrigation agencies towards WUA and farmers organization …and all this has had a few positive results Agriculture growth over the last 25 years averaged ≈ 2% per year more farmers brought into the market household-level food security strengthened dependence on subsistence crops reduced much agriculture is market-oriented and commercialized NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
…but much more remains to be done there still is significantly low agricultural water productivity (e.g., rainfed farming) and efficiency (e.g., irrigated agriculture) although the quality of planning and public investment has improved, capital-intensive, supply-driven investments, featuring a ‘top down’ engineering approach is still dominant collective irrigation systems require extensive modernization Water Users Associations in NENA are weaker than any other Region non-conventional water resources still mostly untapped groundwater resources management is lacking effective governance NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Climate Change responses are not yet properly incorporated in the water resources management water valuation and allocation criteria are still limited efficiency along the food value chain is low (food waste and losses) a regional and national vision for the future and related scenario analysis are missing mounting water scarcity in the Region requires a comprehensive reform and innovative approaches to further improvement in sustainable agricultural water management NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
…summarizing NENA countries have recognized that water scarcity will escalate and that available water resources must be planned more strategically and managed more efficiently and sustainably than ever before This involves actions: at National level, to put in place instruments for optimal water allocation between sectors for an efficient and sustainable water resources management at Agricultural-sector (and local) level, to ensure that water allocated to agriculture is used efficiently and productively NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The Water Scarcity Initiative The Regional Initiative on Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa (WSI) has been established by FAO to support countries in identifying, adopting and implementing evidencebased policy-decisions, sound governance and institutions, cost-effective water investments and best management practices that can significantly improve agriculture productivity and food security in the region The initiative is premised on the principle that in a so complex field as agricultural water management, and in the enormous diversity of situations across the NENA region, there is a strong advantage in seeking structured ways and means beyond the national level, to better understand challenges and potentials, to learn from each-other experiences, to innovate and scale up successful cases. NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The pilot phase Launched in June 2013, was planned to have two major products: a Regional Collaborative Strategy on sustainable agriculture water management for food security a Regional Partnership to support countries in implementing the Collaborative Strategy Six countries (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and Yemen) applying the initial analytical framework of the WSI: ‘water accounting’ (availability, use and projections) ‘food supply cost curve’ (identification and ranking options for future food supply and related economic and water costs) ‘gap analysis’ (investigating policies, governance and performance of agriculture water management) Work to be completed within the first semester of 2014 NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The Regional Collaborative Strategy The Regional Collaborative Strategy will complement existing initiatives in the Region and will seek structured mechanisms to address water scarcity beyond the national level A Regional Collaborative Strategy could: set up a continuing process for research studies, experience and knowledge sharing bring all sector professionals across NENE into regular exchanges and updates Highlight, adapt and scale up best practices across the region The Regional Collaborative Strategy was discussed at the Land and Water Days held in Amman, Jordan (15-18 December, 2013) by over 230 participants, including 80 experts from 15 countries and 16 international and regional institutions. NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
The partnership pledge We, Agencies, Organizations and Institutions working in the NENA, ACSAD, AOAD, AWC, CEDARE, DRC, ESCWA, FAO, GIZ, ICARDA, ICBA, IFAD, IWMI, LAS, NWRC-Egypt, UNESCO, WB and WFP……… Declare our strong interest and willingness to work together, drawing on our collective knowledge and resources, in an effective, action-oriented and result-based Regional Partnership, to support the implementation of relevant collaborative strategies, (e.g., the ‘Arab Water Security Strategy’, the ‘Arab Strategy for Sustainable Agricultural Development’, etc.), assisting the Countries of the Region to cope with water scarcity, manage sustainably their land and water resources and meet their sustainable development goals NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Focus Areas of Work • Strategic planning & policies of water resources for water and food security (adopting a water-food-energy nexus approach) • Strengthening/reforming governance at all levels • Improving water management, performances and productivity in major agricultural systems (rainfed and irrigated) and in the food chain • Managing the water supply through reuse, recycling and adaptation to climate change • Building sustainability, with focus on ground water, pollution and soil salinity • Benchmarking, monitoring and reporting on water use efficiency and productivity NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Keeping the relevance at scale At regional level: develop an action plan for the implementation of the Collaborative Strategy between countries, giving priority to existing Regional strategies (e.g., Arab Water Security Strategy) promote south-south cooperation and support the establishment of a Regional Trust Fund for the NENA implement ‘facilities’ to serve countries in their national work, e.g., benchmarking, climate change impact assessments, scenario analysis for future development trajectories At national level: support countries translate the regional agenda into national action plans for sustainable agriculture water management provide adequate support for the action plans implementation, in collaboration with strategic Partners NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Elements of innovation • Evidence-based approaches • Farmers as full partners (commercial operator and ultimate manager of soil and water) • Involvement of private sector ( food value chain, technology) • Effective synergies in innovation and learning (from farmer-tofarmer exchange of solutions, practitioners as main actors) • Tailored, action-oriented and result-based partnership • An inclusive approach to change NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Guidance sought from NERC-32 The conference may wish to: •support the regional initiative on water scarcity •welcome the efforts and actions undertaken by FAO and Partners to develop a regional collaborative strategy on sustainable water management for food security •provide guidance on priority areas for action under the regional initiative on water scarcity to be considered in the PWB 2014-2015 and the MTP 2014-2017 •invite countries to formulate national action plans and to support the formulation of a regional action plan to implement the regional collaborative strategy NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
Thank You http://neareast.fao.org NERC-32 For a Resilient and a Food Secure Region
his paper summarizes the main themes and recommendations of the document Regional Water Scarcity Initiative: Towards a Collaborative Strategy prepared as ...
This paper summarizes the main themes and recommendations of the document Regional Water Scarcity Initiative: Towards a Collaborative Strategy prepared as ...
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