regional dialects

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Information about regional dialects

Published on June 17, 2007

Author: Clown


REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS:  REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS by Don L. F. Nilsen SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 1: NEW ENGLAND NAMES:  SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 1: NEW ENGLAND NAMES New England Plymouth Rock New York New Jersey Cambridge, Massachusetts Boston Celtics (Irish) New Amsterdam (Dutch) Harlem New York Knickerbockers Dutch West Indies EASTERN U.S. DIALECTS (Marckwardt and Dillard 280):  EASTERN U.S. DIALECTS (Marckwardt and Dillard 280) SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 2: PENNSYLVANIA NAMES:  SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 2: PENNSYLVANIA NAMES William Penn Pennsylvania Dutch (Deutch) 'thee' 'thy,' 'thine' and 'thou' SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 2: SOUTHERN NAMES IN DELMARVIA:  SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 2: SOUTHERN NAMES IN DELMARVIA Jamestown, Virginia Williamsburg, Virginia The Slave Trade: Charleston, South Carolina; Liverpool, England; and Sierra Leon, West Africa Pidgins and Creoles resulting from 'Maritime English') The development of black English as a pidgin SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 3: THE CUMBERLAND PASS:  SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA # 3: THE CUMBERLAND PASS Scottish and Irish settlements in the South Irish story tellers (the Jack tales like 'Jack and the Beanstalk') NORTHERN, MIDLAND & SOUTHERN EXPANSION WESTWARD (Shuy 294):  NORTHERN, MIDLAND andamp; SOUTHERN EXPANSION WESTWARD (Shuy 294) PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES:  PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES greasy with spoon (noon) creek roof However, wash is not so much regional as rural. PHONOGICAL DISTINCTIONS THAT ARE BECOMING LOST:  PHONOGICAL DISTINCTIONS THAT ARE BECOMING LOST cot-caught witch-which mourning – morning However, pin-pen is remaining stable. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 413) NEW ENGLAND PHONOLOGY:  NEW ENGLAND PHONOLOGY lot (New England) park the car; Cuba-r-is merry – marry – Mary calf (pass, path, dance) Brooklyn: dis, dat, dese, dose, dem SOUTHERN PHONOLOGY:  SOUTHERN PHONOLOGY Mrs. hog (frog, dog, Deputy Dog) south =andgt; souf during =andgt; doin’, and going =andgt; gon, help =andgt; hep test =andgt; tes ring =andgt; rang, boy =andgt; boah, car =andgt; cah POlice SOUTHERN VOCABULARY:  SOUTHERN VOCABULARY chitlins and grits to buy a pig in a poke 'Carry me Back to Old Virginie' CALIFORNIA VALLEY-GIRL & SURFER-DUDE SPEECH:  CALIFORNIA VALLEY-GIRL andamp; SURFER-DUDE SPEECH Rising Inflections (like Australian English) Animated Body Language (like sticking a finger down the throat) Specialized Vocabulary (like 'dude', esp. relating to shopping malls, the beach, and personality types) CANADIAN PHONOLOGY:  CANADIAN PHONOLOGY out and about the house schedule Canadian -eh VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES 1:  VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES 1 What do you fry your eggs in? creeper, fryer, frying pan, fry pan, skillet, or spider What do you call a soft drink? pop, soda, soda pop, or tonic? What do you call a long sandwich containing salami etc.? hero, submarine, hoagy, grinder or poorboy VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES 2:  VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES 2 What do you drink water out of? drinking fountain, cooler, bubbler or geyser How do you get something from one place to another? take, carry, or tote What do you carry things in? a bag, a sack, or a poke How do you speculate? reckon, guess, figgure, figger, suspect, imagine BRITISH-AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION DIFFERENCES:  BRITISH-AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION DIFFERENCES calf, bath, pass, aunt learn, fork, core, brother carry, very secretary, stationery, territory, dictionary, laboratory, necessary, missionary either, neither, potato, tomato clerk, schedule captain, bottle (glottals [in Cockney]) BRITISH-AMERICAN VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES :  BRITISH-AMERICAN VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES girl, cop, hood (of a car), trunk (of a car), suspenders, apartment, elevator, truck, wig, gasoline, bar, line, monkey wrench, television, flashlight, subway bird, bobby, bonnet, boot, braces, flat, lift, lorry, peruque, petrol, pub, queue, spanner, tele, torch, tube BRITISH-AMERICAN STRESS DIFFERENCES:  BRITISH-AMERICAN STRESS DIFFERENCES aluminum applicable cigarette formidable kilometer laboratory secretary (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 413) BRITISH-AMERICAN SPELLING DIFFERENCES:  BRITISH-AMERICAN SPELLING DIFFERENCES cheque centre, theatre colour, honour defence, offence labelled, travelled pyjamas tyre BRITISH EXPRESSIONS TO WATCH OUT FOR :  BRITISH EXPRESSIONS TO WATCH OUT FOR fag or faggot (wood for the fireplace, or cigarette) soliciter (lawyer) to knock someone up (wake them up in the morning) COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG:  COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG apples and pears (stairs) Aristotle (bottle) pig’s ear (beer) Mother Hubbard (cupboard) plates and dishes (Mrs.) GRAMMAR DIFFERENCES:  GRAMMAR DIFFERENCES Double Modals: might could Negative Modals: hadn’t ought Strange Past Participles: larnt Strange Possessive Pronouns: yourn, hisn, hern, ourn, theirn Strange Prepositions: a quarter before eight Strange Conjunctions: unless =andgt; without, lessen, thouten Strange Adverbs: anywheres, nowheres SOCIALLY–VARIABLE LINGUISTIC RULES:  SOCIALLY–VARIABLE LINGUISTIC RULES Minimal Pairs Word Lists Reading Style Careful Speech Casual Speech William Labov Social Stratification of English in New York City FIVE DEGREES OF FORMALITY:  FIVE DEGREES OF FORMALITY Frozen: Prissy Text Book Formal: Most Text Books Consultative: Conversations among Strangers or Large Groups Casual: Conversations among Close Friends Intimate: Conversations among Family Members or Lovers Martin Joos The Five Clocks: HUMOROUS EXAMPLES OF REGIONAL DIALECTS:  HUMOROUS EXAMPLES OF REGIONAL DIALECTS BORSHT BELT HUMOR:  BORSHT BELT HUMOR The Borsht Belt was a chain of hotels in the mountains near New York. These hotels provided entertainment from their guests, most of whom were Jewish vacationers from New York City. DOWN-EAST YANKEE HUMOR:  DOWN-EAST YANKEE HUMOR This humor is taciturn and reluctant. There is a story about Calvin Coolidge. He wqas seated next to a woman at an official White House function. She leaned toward him and confided that someone had bet her that she couldn’t make him say three words. He responded, 'You lose.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 251) Slide29:  While southern and western humor is filled with grammatical errors, New England humor is shown through the use of archaic or old-fashioned words like 'clumb,' 'tonk,' or 'holp.' They make the character sound quaint rather than ignorant. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 251) MINNESOTA & LAKE WOBEGON HUMOR:  MINNESOTA andamp; LAKE WOBEGON HUMOR In Garrison Keillor’s Lake Wobegon, 'all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking and all the children are above average.' Tourists in the upper Midwest chan find the Paul Bunyan Logging Camp. They can find his mail box, and can climb the ladder to drop in their letters. Slide31:  As they travel the roads in Minnesota tourists will also find a huge ear of corn mounted on a water tower, a Jolly Green Giant, an oversized snowman, a huge Uncle Sam, and the 'World’s Biggest Revolver.' Each state of the upper Midwest has its own share of roadside attractions. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 251) SOUTHERN HUMOR:  SOUTHERN HUMOR 'A radio comedian once remarked that ‘the Mason-Dixon line is the dividing line between you-all and youse-guys.' (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 412) People from Alabama feel particularly picked on because they have become the butt of jokes made by talk show hosts, disc jockeys, newspapers cartoonists, columnists and such TV personalities as Conan O’Brien, Bill Maher, and Jon Stewart. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 253) Slide33:  Wayne Flynt, a history professor at Alabama’s Auburn University explained that this is because of Alabama’s trying to 'invent a world consistent with our ideals, and it’s a world that doesn’t exist anymore. We’re trying to squeeze rural values into an urban world.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 253) WESTERN FRONTIER HUMOR:  WESTERN FRONTIER HUMOR The frontier humor of the American West or of Australia tends to be exaggerated: He is so stingy that he sits in the shade of the hackberry tree to save the shade of the porch. His feet are so big that he has to put his pants on over his head. His teeth stick out so far that he can eat a pumpkin through a rail fence. Slide35:  When Slue-Foot Sue married Pecos Bill, Sue insisted on riding his horse, Widow-Maker. Widow-Maker bucked her off and she bounced so high on her spring bustle that she orbited the moon and they had to throw jerky to her to keep her from starving to death. When Pecos Bill died, they marked his grave site with, 'Here lies Pecos Bill. He always lied and always will. He once lied loud. He now lies still.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 128) Slide36:  Joe Barnes was 'sired by a yoke of cattle, suckled by a she-bear and had three sets of teeth and gums for another set.' Nimrod Wildfire was 'a touch of the airthquake. He had the prettiest sister, the fattest horse, and the ugliest dog in the district.' Wirt Staples has 'a shadow that can wilt grass, breat that can poison mosquitoes, and a yell that can break windows. Mike Fink was 'a Salt River roarer, a ring-tailed squealer, half wild horse and half cock-eyed alligator and the rest crooked snags and red-hot snappin’ turtle.' WESTERN COUNTRY HUMOR:  WESTERN COUNTRY HUMOR Country humor is associated with the 'Corn Belt,' and is therefore sometimes called 'corny.' In The Henry Holt Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins, Robert Hendrickson said, 'Corn came to be knowln as what farmers feed pigs and comedians feed farmers.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 250) Slide38:  Jim Garry of Big Horn, Wyoming says that farmers and ranchers are subject to three uncontrollable forces: the weather, the bank, and the government. Therefore, their humor tends to be fatalistic, even though the details change from region to region. It could be based on blizzards, floods or droughts. Garry tells about a guy smiling as he walks away from a bank. The guy says, 'I’ve won! There’s no way I’ll live long enough to have to pay this note off.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 250) Slide39:  Marvin Koller described rural humor as 'down-to-earth' as when a small Oklahoma town each summer sponsors a 'cow chip' throwing contest, and a rural Ohio town has a 'chicken-flying' contest to measure how far a hen will fly when released from her coop. In Vermillion Ohio there is a 'wooly bear' festival to celebrate the amount of 'fur' or 'fuzz' on brown and black caterpillars. This last festival is designed to predict whether the coming winter will be severe or mild. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 251) Slide40:  In the 1940s, country singer and comedian Judy Canova was Republic Studio’s top female star. Her show foreshadowed Hee Haw and she wore clod-hopper shoes and carried a cardboard suitcase. Her hair waqs braided into pigtails. During the 1950s, there was the National Barn Dance featuring Homer and Jethro. Homer played a guitar and Jethro a mandolin, and would crack jokes and then pronounce, 'Oooh, that’s corny!' This phrase later became part of an advertising campaign for cornflakes. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 252) Slide41:  Cousin Minnie Pearl was a favorite on Hee Haw. She told corny jokes, wore a straw hat with a price tag hanging down, and greeted the audience with, 'How-deeee! I’m just so proud to be here!' Hee Haw, and The Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee were the roots of today’s country music industry. Earlier, the Old Southwest had been settled by Scottish and Irish immigrants who had come through the Cumberland Pass and settled in the Ozarks. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 252) Slide42:  ! A nasal twang that imitates the sound of a guitar has long been a feature of country and Western singing, and CB radio. There has also long been a tradition of 'moonshine' humor, as can be seen in these book titles by Lewis Grizzard: The Shoes I Bought and Paid For are Walking Out on Me My Daddy was a Pistol, and I’m a Son of a Gun If You Want to Keep the Beer Real Cold, Put it Next to My Ex-Wife’s Heart Slide43:  !! Drop-Kick Me, Jesus, Through the Goal Posts of Life. Don’t Cry Down My Back, Baby, You Might Rust My Spurs My Wife Ran Off with My Best Friend, and I Miss Him She Stepped on my Heart and Stomped that Sucker Flat Jeff Foxworthy and other redneck comedians on the Comedy Channel continue this tradition. (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 252) Slide44:  !!! Between 1910 and 1920, one-third of all Americans lived on farms, but by the late 1990s fewer than 2 percent did. In a 1997 Wall Street Journal article, ynthia Crossen wrote, 'The record shows the evolution of a people from innocent, hopeful, rural and God-fearing to plugged-in, ironic, inward-looking and dripping with ennui.' (Nilsen andamp; Nilsen 250) Slide45:  References # 1: Blount, Roy. Roy Blount’s Book of Southern Humor. New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 1994. Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. Koller, Marvin R. Humor and Society: Explorations in the Sociology of Humor. Houston, TX: Cap and Gown Press, 1988. Slide46:  References # 2: Labov, William. 'The Study of Nonstandard English' (Clark, 313-320). Leary, James P., ed. Midwestern Folk Humor. 1991. Nilsen, Alleen Pace. 'Labels of Primary Potency.' Living Language. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 145-194. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. Slide47:  References # 3: Marckwardt, Albert, and J. L. Dillard. 'Social and Regional Variation' (Clark, 277-291) Roberts, Paul. 'Speech Communities' (Clark, 267-276) Shuy, Roger. 'Dialects: How They Differ' (Clark, 292-312) . Sonnichsen, C. L. The Laughing West: Humorous Western Fiction, Past and Present. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1988. Winter, Anne. 'Graffiti as Social Discourse.' in Living Language. Ed. Alleen Pace Nilsen. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, 106-111.

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