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Published on March 18, 2008

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Global History Vocabulary #1-56:  Global History Vocabulary #1-56 By: Regina Fojas Mr.Persoff/Period 1 Color-Coding Key:  Color-Coding Key Southeast Asia Middle East Africa East Asia Europe Latin America India General Category U.S.A Euro-Asia Central Europe Slide3:  38th Parallel 1. Southeast Asia 38th Parallel:  38th Parallel Definition The 38th Parallel was the line of latitude that divided North and South Korea before the Korean War. Significance The 38th Parallel was not supposed to be a permanent border. It was used by the USSR and the US during World War II as army borders. However, after the Cold War, North Korea became communist and Southern Korea followed a government influenced by the U.S. which further split the country. Slide5:  95 Theses 2. Europe 95 Theses:  95 Theses Definition The 95 Theses was a document that contained the beliefs and views of Martin Luther about the Catholic Church’s problems, such as sales of indulgences, during the Middle Ages. On October 31, 1517, he put it on the door of a German church called the Castle Church. Significance Martin Luther’s powerful statements was one of the root causes of the Protestant Reformation. He encouraged people to rise against the church and confront them with their wrongdoings. The 95 These was the beginning of a transition in history where the people were not afraid to question their beliefs. Slide7:  Abbasid Dynasty 3. Middle East Abbasid Dynasty:  Abbasid Dynasty Definition The Abbasid Dynasty was the Muslim family who ruled the Islamic Empire from 750-1258 during its Golden Age. Significance The Abbasid Dynasty contributed to the success and the numerous advances of the Islamic Empire during their reign. Discoveries in mathematics and science, and enrichment in art and literature were present throughout this period. The Umayyad Dynasty ruled before the Abbasids from 661-750. Another dynasty that ruled during this time was the Fatimid dynasty (909-1171) in North Africa. Slide9:  abolitionist 4. General Category abolitionist:  abolitionist Definition A person who advocates the elimination of slavery. Significance During the 1800’s England led a movement against slavery and the slave trade. Though, it was one of the first countries to participate in the slave trade, the country passed a bill in 1807 that prohibited slavery in their West Indian colonies. England eradicated slavery in its country permanently in 1833. The movement spread to other countries too. Slide11:  absolute monarchy 5. Europe absolute monarchy:  absolute monarchy Definition System of government where the king or queen holds supreme power over all aspects of governing and taking care of the country. Significance Absolutism was the belief that the king or queen had control over every part of the government and society during the 1500’s to the 1800’s. The rulers believed that through Divine Right, God granted them the power to rule with such great power. After the fall of feudalism, kings and queens gained more strength in ruling as the feudal lords lost power. King Phillip II of Spain was one of the first absolute rulers. He made sure he took care of every little thing about Spain asking for many reports from his advisors. Slide13:  African National Congress 6. Africa African National Congress:  African National Congress Definition ANC was founded in 1912. It is a political group that started as a civil rights group against apartheid in South Africa. Due to its rise in guerilla attacks in the 1960s, the leaders of the organization were arrested and ANC was outlawed. Significance Nelson Mandela is the head of the African National Congress. Despite, being banned during the 1960’s because of increased violence, the organization has gained the support of the South African people and has been a political party since 1994. Mandela was put in prison for over thirty years, was released in 1990 and became president of South Africa too from 1994 to 1999. Slide15:  African Trading Kingdoms 7. Africa African Trading Kingdoms:  African Trading Kingdoms Definition The Ghana, Mali and Songhai were the West African kingdoms that were the controllers of trade in the western Sahara between 700-1500. The major goods traded were gold and salt. Significance The three west African kingdoms flourished during their reign because of the gold-salt trade. As a result of the empire’s success, the people became more interested in science, mathematics, art and literature. In addition, Muslim influence increased achievements in these areas. Timbuktu’s mosques and universities, for example, became major learning centers for philosophers and religious people. Slide17:  Afrikaners 8. Africa Afrikaners:  Afrikaners Definition The Afrikaners or Boers are South African people who have Dutch or French Huguenot ancestry. The Dutch first settled in South Africa in 1652 at the Cape of Good Hope, which was an important trading and refueling center for ships going to Asia during the start of the Industrial Revolution. Significance During the late 20th century, the Afrikaner government allowed apartheid in South Africa, which is a way of segregating races. This was mainly used against the non-Caucasian population of South Africa. In 1806, Britain took over the Cape of Good Hope, which started the unstable relations between the English and the Afrikaners. They fought over the region during the South African War which lasted from 1899 to 1902. Slide19:  Age of Exploration 9. Europe Age of Exploration:  Age of Exploration Definition The Age of Exploration took place during the 1400-1500’s. It was a time period where European nations traveled around the world to find exotic goods and treasure from which the country could become wealthy. Portugal was the country that paved the way for exploration starting with Prince Henry the Navigator, who wanted to find a faster and easier way to get to Asia. Significance The Age of Exploration led to countless overseas trips in search of India and Asia. The European countries competed to see who found their way to Asia. Instead, of reaching Asia, explorers like Christopher Columbus found North and South America, who also had many rich resources. Slide21:  Agrarian Revolution 10. General Category Agrarian Revolution:  Agrarian Revolution Definition The Agrarian Revolution occurred during the Neolithic Age. It was a time when agriculture and farming was introduced to daily life. In addition, it eventually led to better farming methods such as irrigation, and better farming tools like the seed drill, or using horses to plow the field. The Agrarian Revolution was a stepping stone into the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many more advances. Significance As a result of the Agrarian Revolution, nomads had to no longer move from one place to another in search of food. They could settle in one area and provide more than enough food for their family. It caused a change of lifestyle also. This time period evolved with many technological advances, and allowed the people to focus on improving their farming methods. Slide23:  agriculture 11. General Category agriculture:  agriculture Definition Agriculture is the process of preparing a field for crops, harvesting, and raising or domesticating animals for the production of food for eating. (see Agrarian Revolution) Significance After the Agrarian Revolution, nomads could finally establish civilizations of their own. They didn’t have to move from place to place for shelter and food. By planting and cultivating an area of land, and raising animals, a stable food supply was created. 12. Slide25:  Akbar the Great 12. India Akbar the Great:  Akbar the Great Definition Akbar the Great was a Mughal ruler whose reign lasted from 1556 to1605. He was the grandson of Babur, who had created the Mughal Empire. Akbar was known as a liberal leader who tolerated all religions, unified a diverse population, and created stability for India during his reign. Significance Akbar the Great wanted to be an example for his people. In order to show his religious tolerance he married Hindu, Muslim and Christian women. Akbar was also known for his military power. He needed a strong army to protect his lands and to support his conquests. So, he had his army equipped with cannons and other heavy artillery. Akbar also loved arts and literature. He built a large library and other structures with intricate designs that are known as Akbar architecture. He was a emperor that left his mark in Indian history and culture. His son Jahangir succeeded him in 1605. 13. Slide27:  algebra 13. Middle East General Category algebra:  algebra Definition Algebra is one of the crucial branches of mathematics. Its discovery and development began in the Middle East since the first millennium B.C. An Islamic mathematician named al-Khwarizmi was one of the “founding” fathers of algebra. This branch of mathematics that deals with variables, relations and quantity. Significance Without the development of algebra the world would not be where it is today. It was first developed among the Babylonians, who had created a system of math. Algebra was also one of the major achievements of the Islamic Empire, who had refined it based on what the Roman and Greek mathematicians left off on. It replaces unknown numbers with variables that need be solved in order to figure it out. Algebra is a basic, but important part of mathematics that branches out into its own specific subjects. Slide29:  alignment 14. General Category alignment:  alignment Definition Alignment is the way an object balances itself in order to be in line with its surrounding objects. In game-playing, it is the way players and other characters portray their role through morals and values. Significance Alignment was important term during the Scientific Revolution and other times of discovery. Especially in the fields of mathematics and science, inventors and scientists made sure their experiment’s variables were aligned in order to produce effective results. Slide31:  alliance 15. General Category alliance:  alliance Definition An agreement between countries that they will aide or defend one another in times of need or war. They are formed in support of common interests and causes. It also increases the power of the country as they establish peaceful relationships by making allies. Significance Alliances have been an important aspect during times of war and chaos. Or, they have been established when a country needs defense or support in promoting a cause or reform. During World War II, for example, the U.S., Soviet, France, and Britain were the major countries that became allies in fighting against the Axis powers (Japan, Italy and Germany). Slide33:  Allied Powers 16. U.S.A Europe Allied Powers:  Allied Powers Definition In general, allied powers are the countries that have formed alliances together in order to fight the opposing countries or the “enemy.” During World War II, the Allied Powers were the countries that came together to fight against the Axis Powers, who were Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. The United States, the Soviet Union, France and Britain composed the Allied Powers. Significance During many wars throughout history, countries have joined forces and become allies in order to increase their chances of victory or promote common interests. The Allied and Associated Powers of World War I (1914-1918) were also known as the Entente Powers. Several countries made up the Allied Powers- the United States, France, Britain, Russia and Italy were the main countries. During World War II (1939-1945), the Allied Powers were the U.S., Soviet Union, France and Britain. After a victorious battle against the Axis Powers of Germany, Japan and Italy, the Allied Powers help create the United Nations. Slide35:  Amazon 17. Latin America Amazon:  Amazon Definition The Amazon Rainforest is one of the few existing and partially preserved rainforests in the world. It is located in South America and runs through the countries of Brazil, Columbia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, and Suriname. Significance The Amazon is one of the last places on Earth with the most species and variations in plants and animals. However, increasing deforestation, pollution and other harmful activities going on in the rainforest, have caused endangerment of many animals and plants. Many of these species are sensitive to little changes and immediate action against the destruction of this precious rainforest must occur in order to preserve it. Slide37:  Amritsar Massacre 18. India Amritsar Massacre:  Amritsar Massacre Definition The Amritsar Massacre is also known as the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was a terrible event where almost 400 innocent women, men, and children were killed and thousands more injured by the British Army. It occurred on April 13, 1919 in Amritsar, India. The attack was led by General Reginald Dyer, who ordered his soldiers to open fire against the unarmed people, who had only gathered to protest the arrest of their nationalistic leaders and to celebrated Baisakhi Day, a religious holiday. Significance Following the Amritsar Massacre, the Indian people had a change of mind about the British Empire. At first they admired the British for their success in trade and advancements in technology. However, after seeing many of their people die vulnerably and innocently at the hands of the British Army, they decided to revolt against the British control and began to spread nationalistic feelings across the country. This would lead to gaining their independence on August 15, 1947. Slide39:  The Analects 19. East Asia The Analects:  The Analects Definition Written by the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 B.C.), the Analects are composed of Confucius’ values, and views. It also contains the discussions between him and his students. This is the only record of Confucius’ ideas, and was written by his disciples around 479-221 BCE. The collection of writings includes discussion on the Five Basic Relationships and the way a ruler should govern his country to stability. Significance The Analects continue to weave together a majority of Chinese culture. What Confucius believed was his principles became the basic moral values of China. Filial piety, or respect for one’s elders, education, social order and harmony are still a strong cultural values that were proposed by Confucius. Slide41:  ancestor 20. General Category ancestor:  ancestor Definition On a family tree, an ancestor is the relative or parent of another ancestor who someone is descended from. This mutual relative can also be the factor in determining blood relations between relatives. Significance Throughout history, people have used their ancestors to connect their families. It has also supported the theory of why kings and queens came to rule their countries. Divine Right and the Mandate of Heaven were two examples of these theories, which stated that the rulers descended from Gods, which supported why they should have absolute power. Other people also worship their ancestors, who they believe are close to gods. (see ancestor worship) Slide43:  ancestor worship 21. General Category ancestor worship:  ancestor worship Definition Some people believe that their ancestors have god-like abilities after they have passed away. In order to make sure their ancestors’ afterlife is in eternal happiness they make offerings to keep their loved ones content. It shows filial piety. This religious worship is not present in one country, but in different parts of the world. Those who worship their ancestors believe that their deceased relatives have the power to control the things going on in mortal life. Therefore, they can ask for favors or special help in their lives. Significance Throughout history, people in around the world have come to honor their deceased relatives in many different ways that defines ancestor worship is. In some countries there are special holidays in honoring the deceased. People may leave utensils or food they believe their ancestor may need in the afterlife. In China filial piety is an important aspect of their culture. So, the Chinese leave offerings for their ancestors in way of respect. They believe that their loved ones who have passed are their guardian angels. Slide45:  animal 22. General Category animal:  animal Definition Animals are living organisms that have the ability to move, respond to stimuli in their environment and survive by eating other animals. They are not plants or humans, but are multicellular organisms that fall under the Kingdom Animalia. Significance Animals are the forms of living organisms that are not plants or insects. They roamed the Earth for millions of years and have evolved genetically too over time. They are what humans use for survival: to eat, move and sometimes to clothe themselves. At first, humans just hunted them. But later on, domestication increased, which made the role of animals more important. Slide47:  Animism 23. General Category Animism:  Animism Definition Animism is the belief in spirits that use places or objects as their hosts, these things can be living or nonliving. It first appeared during the Paleolithic Age and continued to spread from there. It was probably formed by early man in order to understand the unexplainable, such as sleep or death. Significance Though no an official religion, many of the religions of the world can be traced back to animism. In many countries people have formed their own animistic beliefs that are still strongly followed today. The original or native religion of Japan known as Shinto has many aspects of Animism. It is a religion that worships kami gods, who are the spirits of special places of objects. Ancestor worship is also a part of animism. In North America, it is believed that it is the soul departing from its body that causes the sic ounce weight loss when someone dies. Slide49:  apartheid 24. Africa apartheid:  apartheid Definition Established by the Afrikaners in South Africa during the 20th century, apartheid is policy that segregated the black South Africans from the white South Africans. They were only allowed to go shopping in some stores, eat at certain restaurants, and attend some beaches. There were many other boundaries that limited the lives of the black South Africans, both economically and politically. The natives of South Africa became discriminated and aliens in their own country. This policy was used to gain better control of the country and limited the influence of blacks by not giving them the right of suffrage. Significance Apartheid continued to dominate the South African government and country from 1948-1994. The black South Africans were also forced to live in “homelands.” This meant that for the black South Africans to go to work, they needed passports to enter South Africa. So, they were no longer “citizens” of their country, but “guest laborers.” However, the black South Africans didn’t stand up to their discrimination. In the 1970’s there were many strikes and rebellions against apartheid. As tensions increased between the white and black South Africans, K.W. de Klerck and Nelson Mandela took action. In the early 1990’s they were able to abolish apartheid. Slide51:  appeasement 25. General Category appeasement:  appeasement Definition Appeasement is an agreement made without violence or bloodshed. It is a policy stating through rational discussion and reasoning negotiations can be made peacefully. It is also defined as bringing something to a state of peace and quiet. Significance One of the most important examples of a failure of an appeasement occurred during the 1930’s. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain addressed the appeasement of Adolf Hitler’s German army. Hitler had broken the rules of the Treaty of Versailles by expanding his army. Fearful in starting another European war, Chamberlain gave into Hitler and obeyed his commands. This resulted in strengthening Hitler’s power and leaving many European countries such as France and Belgium vulnerable to attacks by the German army. Slide53:  aqueducts 26. General Category aqueducts:  aqueducts Definition Aqueducts are large man-made structures used to distribute water through a city or town. They are usually built above ground with high arches, and they almost look like bridges. The first construction of aqueducts was in the Middle East and Egypt. The people of these regions started off with irrigation systems in order to transport water to the their farmland through the dry desert. Aqueducts were utilized most notably in the Roman Empire since the 7th century B.C. Significance The aqueducts was a major discovery during the Roman Empire. As the cities grew, so did population. This forced the brilliant Roman engineers to think of a way to bring water to the people. By aqueducts, water could be transported from its source to the many cities in Rome. In the Middle East and Egypt, the people needed to find a way to bring water to their dry lands. Starting with irrigation systems and them evolving into aqueducts, the desert land was able to yield many crops. The aqueducts was not an accidental invention. It had to be created in order to provide for the people. Slide55:  arable 27. General Category arable:  arable Definition Arable is an adjective that describes land that has been plowed or tilled, which is good for farming. As a noun, it is land that is ready to be cultivated. Significance There is about 12 million square miles of arable land on Earth. However, over the years it has become less and less due to development, pollution and other factors. Even during the first signs of civilization, the most arable lands were near the Tigris and Euphrates River, where Mesopotamia was; the Nile River, the Mississippi River, the Yellow River and the Amazon River. Today they are the most arable also. Slide57:  archipelago 28. General Category archipelago:  archipelago Definition An archipelago is a chain of islands. These clusters of islands are formed over millions of years of erosion and deposition. They are surrounded by large bodies of water and are located on hotspots, or places of volcanic or other natural disaster activity. In Greek, archipelago means “chief sea.” This is because, arkhon means leader, and pelagos means sea. Significance Archipelagos are beautiful chains of islands found far out in the sea. Some of examples of countries that are archipelagos are the Bahama Islands, the Philippine Islands, Galápagos Islands and Japan. As stated above, it takes time to form these islands, who are always vulnerable to natural disasters. The Philippines, for example, has experienced volcanic eruptions and many seasonal typhoons. These countries are also usually found near mid-ocean ridges. Slide59:  arid 29. General Category arid:  arid Definition An arid climate is one that has insufficient yearly rains. As a result, these regions are not able to support forests, or is it fit for cultivation. A region of land has an arid climate if its aridity index or rains fall in the range 0.05-0.20. Arid areas usually have extreme temperatures too. Significance Currently, the arid regions in North America and Spain are gradually under desertification. This means that as a result of overdevelopment, and pollution, the arid lands of the following regions have eroded. The destruction of these lands have the soil in poor shape. It is no longer fertile, or compacted well. Immediate action should be taken to save these vital lands of the environment. Slide61:  aristocracy 30. General Category aristocracy:  aristocracy Definition An aristocracy is a form of government ruled by what society deems is the best, or the most privileged group of people. The aristocrats are usually the minority of a population, and are the nobility or the upper class. Significance The term aristocracy was first used by the Greeks. They referred to the soldiers who part of the front line, and led the army into battle. From then on, the word was used to define the “best” men who had some type of high military position such as the families of military leaders during the Middle Ages. Then, in the Middle East the word’s mean changed a little and referred to descendants of the Mohammad, the Prophet. However, the aristocracy was not always looked up to in a positive way. During the French Revolution, the common people became angry with the aristocrats’ oppressive ways that didn’t meet the needs of the country. Slide63:  armistice 31. General Category armistice:  armistice Definition An armistice is a temporary agreement between enemies or fighting countries that halts the violence. It is a truce. Significance One very important armistice in history occurred during World War I. The Allies, who were the U.S., France, Britain, Italy and Russia decided to end the bloodshed and violence. They asked Germany to sign an armistice which ended the four year World War I. This occurred on November 11, 1918. It became a national holiday to celebrate and honor the soldiers that gave up their lives during that war. It is called Armistice Day. Slide65:  Aryans 32. Euro-Asia Aryans:  Aryans Definition The Aryans were a fierce, nomadic tribe from Euro-Asia. They lived in the steppe lands, just like the Mongols. Using their fearless battle skills, they conquered parts of South Asia in Persia and India. The Aryans ruled India from about 1700-1000 B.C. influencing a major part of its culture. Significance Persia, India, Iran and other countries in Euro-Asia connect their ancestry to the Aryans. They were a nomadic tribe that developed the ancient language of Vedic Sanskrit. The Aryans effect is most portrayed by the way they have influenced the culture of India and other South Asian countries, instead of the number of places they conquered. They developed a complex civilization with a social pyramid made of the caturvarnas or “four colors.” The first caste and highest were the Brahmans, then came the warriors and nobles; the merchants and artisans; and finally, the servants. Slide67:  assimilation 33. General Category assimilation:  assimilation Definition Cultural assimilation is the process of adapting and adopting the aspects and ways of the dominant culture in a region. An example of cultural assimilation is when immigrants try to adapt to American culture when they settle in the United States or in any other foreign country. In biology, assimilation is when a nutrient changes into a fluid or solid in living organisms. In addition, when sounds of words or phrases begin to sound identical in linguistics, it is called assimilation. Significance The United States is the land of the immigrants, and over the years these immigrants have assimilated to the American culture. Forms of assimilation include adopting the official language, celebrating the country’s holidays, etc. However, some cultures have had a hard time assimilating in America over the years. Asians, for example, have a language barrier that is sometimes hard to overcome, and have been discriminated against since their arrivals in the 19th to 20th century. Other immigrants’ native culture may be the total opposite of the American culture, which is also hard to get used to. Many immigrants have to face challenges when moving and adapting to a new country. Slide69:  astrolabe 34. Middle East Central Europe astrolabe:  astrolabe Definition The astrolabe is an instrument used to determine the position of the stars and the Sun at different parts of the day. By setting the correct time and date on an astrolabe, the image of the sky is reflected on the astrolabe. This instrument was highly developed by the Islamic scholars and was an important part of solving math problems too. Significance The earliest use and thought of an astrolabe type instrument started in ancient Greece. Apollonius was a philosopher that wrote about astrolabe projection around 225 B.C. His studies were continued by a Roman scholar named Vitruvius and other philosophers that proposed theories about the astrolabe. However, it was in the 8th and 9th century that the Muslim scholars truly refined the invention. The astrolabe was an important instrument for the Muslims who used it to determine the specific times of day in which they should pray. In Islam, it is required to pray about five times a day and an astrolabe could accurately show that, Slide71:  Austro-Hungarian Empire 35. Europe Austro-Hungarian Empire:  Austro-Hungarian Empire Definition The Austro-Hungarian Empire was a dual monarchy established in 1867, by a compromise between Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria and two Hungarian men: Count Adrássay and Francis Deak called Ausgleich. The empire united the Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles Serbs and Italians. Significance After the defeat of Austria during the Austro-Prussian War if 1866, Emperor Francis Joseph lost the North German Federation. Joseph saw his empire in jeopardy. In addition, Hungary who was under the Austrians wanted independence. Joseph decided to name Hungary an independent state, but appointed himself ruler of both Austria and Hungary. So, the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy was created, and united people from many different nations in central Europe. However, the diverse population did not get along for years of unrest, and the spread of nationalistic feelings caused the empire to crumble. Hungary and Austria became independent nation states after World War I. Slide73:  Axis Powers 36. Europe East Asia Axis Powers:  Axis Powers Definition The Axis Powers were one of the alliance groups during World War II. The major countries that composed this group was Germany, Italy and Japan. There were other countries that became part of the group such as Hungary and Romania, but these minor countries may have deserted the Axis powers during the war. They were defeated by the Allied Powers in 1945. Significance The Tripartite Pact was an agreement signed by the leaders of Japan, Italy and Germany on September 27, 1940. It bonded the three major Axis Powers, whom Benito Mussolini named. Mussolini believed that by Italy and Germany joining forces, the other European countries would surround the two countries around the axis they formed. The three leaders of these countries during World War II were Adolf Hitler of Germany, Benito Mussolini, and Emperor Hirohito. Slide75:  ayatollah 37. Middle East ayatollah:  ayatollah Definition Ayatollah is the term for a leader or a person, who is a member of the Shiites, that had excelled in religious law, and other Islamic studies. In Arabic, ayatollah means “sign of God.” It the high rank given to only the most privileged and educated person in philosophy and ethics. Significance There is usually one Grand ayatollah or high ranked religious leader in Iraq and a few in other Islamic countries. These men are the teachers of the seminaries or Hawzas. One of the famous ayatollahs that is still alive is named Naser Makerem Shirazi. He is a native of Iran and has continued to guide Shiite teens through Islam. Unlike many other ayatollahs, he was able to finished his studies in Islam quickly, and started during his teens. Slide77:  Aztecs 38. Latin America Aztecs:  Aztecs Definition The Aztecs built a large empire in the Valley of Mexico around 1200 A.D. They were nomads coming from the northern deserts of Mexico. However, their fierce lifestyle and culture allowed them to gain power and expand their conquered lands. Before them, the Toltecs had conquered that area 900 A.D. The Aztec Empire fell in 1521, leaving the Incan Empire as one of the strongest and longer lasting empires. Significance The Aztecs had three traits that strengthen their empire as a whole. Their religious beliefs united the people and made them loyal to the king. This made it easier to govern the people. Next, a powerful army meant defense from invaders and expansion of the empire. Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec Empire where a busy trade market was established bringing wealth and success. The many beautiful and large temples that are found in Mexico today are the works of the Aztec Empire, which is still an important part of Mexican culture. Slide79:  balance of power 39. General Category balance of power:  balance of power Definition Concerning the relationships between countries around the world, balance of power means that no one country is strong enough to directly influence others. There is equilibrium of strengthen between countries, and is established by the country itself. Within a country’s government, a balance of power refers to how power is distributed among the branches of government if there are any. Significance Internationally, a balance of power defines whether a country will stay in equilibrium with its competing countries, or join with others to increase its power. The world today is not in a balance of powers. Though countries like America, and China are very strong, there are still countries that are just developing and are not as advanced, such as those in Central Europe, South America and Asia. This causes an imbalance of power in the world. The United States is an example of a country that tries to have a balance of powers in the government through a system of checks and balances. There are three main branches of government: the legislative, judiciary and the executive. All of these branches are given equal power, so that powers and decisions can be kept in check. There is no major ruling group. Slide81:  balance of trade 40. General Category balance of trade:  balance of trade Definition A balance of trade is the way countries detect whether their trading is successful or not. Over time, the difference between the amount of good exported and imported are observed. If the amount of goods exported is more than the amount imported, there is a trade surplus which is beneficial for the country. This means that the country is selling more, than buying, which brings more profit. Significance The United States has had a negative trade deficit that has affected the country greatly over the past few years. This may be caused by the larger amount of importing than exporting. Currently, the country buys many its necessary goods from other countries such as oil and raw materials. This causes oil prices and globalization to rise. The U.S. depends on China in manufacturing its goods and trading. Slide83:  Balfour Declaration 41. Europe Middle East Balfour Declaration:  Balfour Declaration Definition The Balfour Declaration is a letter written by Arthur James Balfour to a Zionist supporter named Lord Rothschild on November 2nd, 1917. A Zionist wanted Palestine to become the national motherland of the Jewish people. In the letter Balfour, who was the British foreign secretary tried to address that Britain supported creating a nation for the Jews. Significance Palestine is the holy land of many religious groups. The Palestinians and the Jews have been the two main groups that for years throughout history have fought over this land. The Balfour Declaration was written during World War I, when Britain was in the middle of fighting. Wanting to avoid more chaos, Balfour wrote the letter to try and address issues from both sides of the conflict. However, the letter did not solve any of the problems and tensions between the Jews and the Palestinians continues today. Slide85:  banzai 42. East Asia banzai:  banzai Definition In Japan, banzai is known as a type of battle cry or patriotic cheer. During World War II, a banzai attack was led by the Japanese army against the American troops, when they realized they were going to lose. It was a way of attacking the army not to defeat them, but to fight till their death. Significance In the Japanese culture, dying in war means honor to one’s country and family. Many samurai or Japanese soldiers, who lost in battle committed suicide to preserve that honor. It was believed that if one lost in war, it would bring shame to their family if they continued to live. It was part of the Bushido code of the samurai. During World War II, kamikaze pilots were used to bomb enemy ships, but it also meant crashing to their deaths. At a banzai attack, samurai usually fight to their death, yelling battle cries, knowing they have lost, but are bringing honor to their country. Slide87:  barbarian 43. General Category barbarian:  barbarian Definition A barbarian is a savage, or an uncultured, cruel person. It usually refers to someone who is thought to be of primitive civilization. Significance During times of colonization, many of the Western countries believed that the natives of the colonies they conquered were barbarians. According to Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden,” it was the job of the mother countries, specifically the United States in the poem, to convert these savages and bring them up to the standards of the modern world. This meant converting them to Christianity, changing their lifestyle and diminishing their native culture. Slide89:  barter 44. General Category barter:  barter Definition Before money or capital was created, barter was the way people exchanged goods. An example, is giving a cup of sugar for a stick of butter. Barter is the exchange of goods without payment. Significance During the years of the early civilization on Earth, such as in Mesopotamia and Egypt, money was not involved in getting needed supplies and materials. Instead, people traded what they had for what they needed. Even today, there may be countries that do not have a currency system and rely on barter to obtain their everyday needs. Slide91:  Battle of Britain 45. Europe Battle of Britain:  Battle of Britain Definition From July 10th to October 31st, 1940 the Battle of Britain was fought. The German Luftwaffe and Adolf Hitler believed that in order to weaken Britain was to destroy its air forces. The air forces of Britain are called the Royal Air Force (RAF). Fortunately for the British, the skilled Royal Air Force was able to stand their ground and defeat the Germans. Significance The defeat of the Germans in the Battle of Britain was an important “landmark” during World War II. The Germans wanted to crush Britain by terrorizing and destroying their air forces, but it did not work. Instead, the Germans’ forces were already weakened at some point during the early part of World War II. Slide93:  BCE 46. General Category BCE:  BCE Definition BCE refers to Before the Common Era or Before the Christian Era. Unlike the original notations of B.C. “Before Christ,” BCE was used so that it does not refer to religious symbols like Jesus Christ. Significance There is still debate that the notation B.C.E. is centered around the time of when Jesus Christ was born and died, even though the name is not in the notation. The original system of counting years was created by monk Dionysius Exiguus around 525. Other people believed this “newer” way of referring to the year is just a way of politically correcting it, though it is just a minor issue. Slide95:  Berlin Airlift 47. Europe Berlin Airlift:  Berlin Airlift Definition In June of 1948, the Soviet Union severed all connections of West Berlin to its surrounding countries. The people had no way to get water, food, and supplies. They couldn’t even travel. The Allied Powers helped the people of West Berlin by sending planes that dropped off supplies. The blockade was lifted in May 1949. Significance After World War II, the Soviet Union wanted to keep Germany weak by holding West Berlin hostage. The people suffered as they could not get any supplies. In addition, the Soviet Union thought the Berlin blockade would persuade the Allied Powers to stop trying to unify Germany. However, it just made the U.S. France and Britain get involved more by sending planes that landed every three minutes to Berlin. These planes dropped off food and other supplies. Slide97:  Berlin Wall 48. Europe Berlin Wall:  Berlin Wall Definition The Berlin Wall was built in order to divide the city of Berlin into West and East Berlin. West Berlin was governed by the Allied Powers: the U.S. Britain and France; and East Berlin was ruled by the Soviet Union. The Berlin Wall was built during the Cold War, on August 31, 1961 by the Soviet Union in order to gain better control of its half of Berlin. On November 9, 1989 the East Germans tore down the Berlin Wall. Significance The Berlin Wall caused starvation, closing of businesses and other chaos during the 1960’s. By cutting off the connection to East Berlin, people couldn’t get all of their needs, food or supplies. The Soviet Union used the wall as a way of increasing its power and influence over East Berlin. Instead it caused unrest and stayed up for 28 years, until a a message was spread that people from East Berlin were allowed to cross over. Once the Berlin Wall fell, Germany was united once again. Slide99:  Bhagavad-Gita 49. India Bhagavad-Gita:  Bhagavad-Gita Definition The Bhagavad-Gita or The Gita is the ancient, sacred Sanskrit text of Hinduism. It is composed of over 700 verses of poems and is one of the two important epics of Indian culture called the Mahabharata. In the Bhagavad-Gita a discussion between Krishna and Arjuna is taking place before a war. Significance The Gita was written around 500 to 50 BCE, though the specific year had not been confirmed. This vital piece of literature is an important part of Hindu culture. It about Prince Arjuna, who is doubtful about fighting a war against his loved ones. It is believed to be one of the greatest examples and scriptures of Hindu philosophy. Slide101:  bicameral (legislature) 50. General Category bicameral (legislature):  bicameral (legislature) Definition A bicameral legislature is a legislature that is made up of two houses or chambers. In order to have an effective bicameral, there must be a balance is the needs of the majority and minority addressed. Significance The creation of bicameral legislatures is thought to originate in ancient Sumer and Greece. An example of a country with a bicameral legislature is America, whose legislature is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. In order to pass laws and other bills, a vote is needed from each house to determine whether or not it can be approved. Slide103:  Black Hand 51. Europe Black Hand:  Black Hand Definition The Black Hand, also known as Unification or Death was a secret society. It was an “anti-Austro-Hungarian rule” group that was responsible for the assassination of the Archduke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand in 1914. It was established in 1911, by Serbians. Significance The Black Hand is believed to be one the reasons for the start of World War I. When Austro-Hungary had taken control over Bosnia and Herzegovina, the people of those countries and Serbia were not very happy. Instead they grouped together against their foreign rulers and led Pan-Slavism, movement to unite all the Slavic nations. Slide105:  blitzkrieg 52. Europe blitzkrieg:  blitzkrieg Definition In German, blitzkrieg means “lightening war or flash war.” It was a strategy developed in Germany in the 19th century, where the troops quickly attack the enemy using superior weapons. The goal was to prevent the enemy from having time to fight back. Significance The German army decided to rest their new strategy during the Spanish Civil War and their defeat of Poland in 1939. Its result was successful because Poland was crushed, and in Guernica, Spain many were killed because of the constant bombing. Using their air forces and army, Germany bombarded their enemy, until there was no more to destroy, nor could the army retaliate. Slide107:  block printing 53. East Asia General Category block printing:  block printing Definition Block printing was one of the earliest forms of printing that originated in Asia. It was done by carving letters, or characters into pieces of wood, dipping them into ink and applying them onto paper. It was a type of stamping method that was used in China before 220. Significance Block printing was a major advancement in civilization. It allowed people to record history, poems, philosophies and other things. In India, block printing was used to create the beautiful designs on silks that were traded with other countries. In China and other Asian countries where characters are used, block printing made writing letters or major events easier by quick stamping. One did not have write out all the intricate characters. Slide109:  boat people 54. General Category boat people:  boat people Definition Boat people is a term that defines refugees or illegal immigrants, such as those in the Vietnam War that who used old, beaten down boats to escape oppression and communism from their native countries. Unfortunately, many of these people risk their lives because looters can attack them, starvation can kill them, and other countries may not welcome them. Significance The word boat people was coined during the Vietnam War, when many refugees wanted to escape the communism of their country. In overcrowded boats they tried to travel to Australia or other westernized countries for help. Unfortunately, some governments are always sympathetic and reject them. It has been an issue for the past few years, for countries like America, where people from Cuba, and Haiti try to enter the U.S. on boats. People from Albania and Morocco also do the same thing, trying to get into Spain and Italy. Slide111:  Boer 55. Africa Boer:  Boer Definition A Boer is a person who is a citizen of Transvaal, the Orange Free State or South Africa. Their descendents must be Dutch or French Huguenot. They are also known as Afrikaner. (See Afrikaner) Significance During the Industrial Revolution, the Boers made up a large percentage of the population in Cape Colony, which is at the top of South Africa. The Cape Colony was an important landmark for ships heading towards Asia, who’d dock there to refuel or trade goods. The Boers had great control over this area, and established unjust rules that segregated the native Africans from the Boers. They also allowed the practice apartheid. Slide113:  Boer War 56. Africa The Boer War:  The Boer War Definition The Boer War in South Africa was fought from 1899 to 1902. It was battle for the Orange Free State and Transvaal, or the South African Republic between the British and the Boers. The Boers claimed these two republics their own, and this inevitably led to war. This was the second of wars between the British and Boers, but the British emerged victorious in 1902 gaining the Orange Free State and Transvaal. Significance As Great Britain gained more colonies in South Africa, they decided to step into the lands of the Boers, or those of Boer influence, like the Orange Free State. The British Empire wanted to expand. However, the Boers did not give up their surrounding lands without a fight. Over the next two years Boer guerilla fighters attacked the British settlements, but Lord Horatio Kitchener, the Chief of Staff of Britain in South Africa fought back. In May of 1902, the war ended by the Treaty of Vereeniging, adding Orange Free State and Transvaal to the British Empire..

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