refined concept maps, science education, knowledge organization, biology education

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Education

Published on February 11, 2009

Author: meena74

Source: slideshare.net

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Slides of a paper on Refined Concept Maps: A Feasibility Study presented at Episteme-3 conference 2009.

Refined Concept Maps for Science Education: A Feasibility Study Meena Kharatmal Nagarjuna G. {meena,nagarjun}@hbcse.tifr.res.in Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (TIFR), Mumbai, India. Jan 2009

outline Traditional CM and Refined CM  ● Why  RCM?  (rigor  in  scientific  ● knowledge) The study conducted ● Results and Discussion ● Implications for science education ● Jan 2009 2

Traditional  Refined  concept map  concept map  Jan 2009 3

Traditional  Refined  concept map  concept map  Jan 2009 4

Traditional concept map  Refined concept map  Jan 2009 5

Our approach We  assume  that  the  meaning  of  a  ● concept  emerges  from  its  neighbourhood based on the semantics  of the relations Focus  on  linking  words  (relation  ● names) Identify a minimal set of linking words  ● (relation  names)  to  represent  a  given  domain Jan 2009 6

77c  Consists of includes 6r locates bounds surrouds has function Jan 2009 7

Why RCM The knowledge depicted by RCM is shown ● to be closer to that of experts RCM can be used as a tool to develop ● rigor (novice-experts) in scientific knowledge Because it is more affective for science ● education Roots of rigor (Kharatmal & Nagarjuna, 2008) ➔ Jan 2009 8

Some questions Is RCM only for the experts? ● Can RCM be used by the students as well? ● If yes, in what way is RCM useful for students? ● Does the constraint method of RCM hinder the ● scientific knowledge? Is there any loss of knowledge due to ● refinements? Can constraints serve as facilitator or a means ● for a novice to become an expert? Can RCM be feasible for students in classroom ● learning? Jan 2009 9

The study 3 modes of representations: ● DES; TCM; RCM ● 3 homogenous group ● n=32; n=30; n=30 ● Age : 13-14 years, IX std., mixed ● gender School : Local school in Mumbai ● Domain : 'Structure of nucleus' and ● 'Structure of mitochondria' (The Fundamental Unit of Life, NCERT) Jan 2009 10

Tasks for each groups DES ● To write simple sentences : – Describe the structure of nucleus ● Describe the structure of mitochondria ● TCM ● Familiarization of Concept maps. – Draw concept maps on: – Structure of nucleus ● Structure of mitochondria ● Seed concepts provided – Jan 2009 11

Tasks for each groups RCM ● Familiarization of concept maps – Draw refined concept maps on: – Structure of nucleus ● Structure of mitochondria ● Seed concepts and seed relation names  – provided (constraint method) The chapter was already taught in the school ✔ The chapter was read out before the activity for all the three groups ✔ Jan 2009 12

List of Relation names Spatial­inclusion Part­Whole ● ● Surrounded by Consists of / part of – – Enveloped by Composed of – – Located in Contains – – Function Class­inclusion ● ● Has function Includes – – Attributes Examples ● ● Has nature, property Example – – Has size, shape, color Instance of – – Jan 2009 13

Criterion map Jan 2009 14

Criterion map Jan 2009 15

Analysis Concepts (non­redundant) and relations (valid)  ● were scored (for all the 3 modes) Scoring based on the choice of relation names ● Comparison with a criterion map (as a control,  ● based on the textbook) Scoring is proportional to their understanding ● Statistical tests – ANOVA and T­Test ● Jan 2009 16

Jan 2009 17

Discussion What way does rcm affect the  representation of scientific knowledge? more number of accurate expressions, less ● number of incorrect relations Jan 2009 18

Average of raw score D­N­C T­N­C R­N­C D: Description 11 9 11 T-Traditional Concept Maps R-Refined Concept Maps D­N­R T­N­R R­N­R N: Nucleus 7 7 9 M: Mitochorndria The avg score for ● C: Concepts concepts is similar (not D­M­C T­M­C R­M­C R: Relations less) which suggests that 11 9 10 there is no loss in the D­M­R T­M­R R­M­R number of critical 6 7 8 concepts in RCM N=32 N=30 N=30 The avg score for relations is more in number ● in the RCM method which suggests that even with the constraints applied the RCM facilitates in depicting more number of accurate expressions than with the other two modes Jan 2009 19

Discussion Does the constraint method of RCM ● hinder the scientific knowledge? Is there any loss of knowledge due to ● the constraints ? Jan 2009 20

ANOVA Domain Mode N Mean SD Variance SS DF MS F  DES 32 10.88 2.85 8.11 34.29 2 17.14 Nucleus ­­­  TCM 30 9.43 2.16 4.67 574.37 89 6.45 2.66 Concepts RCM 30 10.5 2.54 6.47 608.65 91 DES 32 6.78 2.01 4.05 97.5 2 48.75 Nucleus ­­­  TCM 30 7.37 2.11 4.45 529.24 89 5.95 8.20 * Relations RCM 30 9.2 3.08 9.48 626.74 91 DES 32 11.31 2.81 7.9 70.85 2 35.42 Mitochondria  TCM 30 9.23 3.18 10.12 763.71 89 8.58 4.13 * ­­­ Concepts RCM 30 9.87 2.79 7.77 834.55 91 DES 32 6.09 1.57 2.47 50.71 2 25.36 Mitochondria  TCM 30 7.07 3.06 9.37 501.29 89 5.63 4.50 * ­­­ Relations RCM 30 7.9 2.29 5.27 552 91 * p < 0.05; F Critical = 3.10 Null Hypothesis: There is no change in the number of concepts and number of valid relations in any of the three groups Jan 2009 21

T­test Domain Mode N Mean S.D. t  DES 32 10.88 2.85 2.25 * TCM 30 9.43 2.16 Nucleus ­­­  TCM 30 9.43 2.16 1.75 Concepts RCM 30 10.5 2.54 DES 32 10.88 2.85 0.54 Null Hypothesis: RCM 30 10.5 2.54 There is no change DES 32 6.78 2.01 1.11 in the number of TCM 30 7.37 2.11 concepts and TCM 30 7.37 2.11 Nucleus ­­­  2.6 * number of valid RCM 30 9.2 3.08 Relations relations in any of DES 32 6.78 2.01 3.6 * the two groups RCM 30 9.2 3.08 DES 32 11.31 2.81 2.72 * TCM 30 9.23 3.18 TCM 30 9.23 3.18 Mitochondria ­­­  0.8 Concepts RCM 30 7.77 2.79 DES 32 11.31 2.81 2.03 * RCM 30 7.77 2.79 DES 32 6.09 1.57 1.55 TCM 30 7.07 3.06 TCM 30 7.07 3.06 Mitochondria ­­­  1.19 Relations RCM 30 7.9 2.29 DES 32 6.09 1.57 3.59 * RCM 30 7.9 2.29 * p < 0.05; t Critical = 2.00 Jan 2009 22

RCM was found RCM was found to ● ● to be significant: be non-significant: Relations Concepts ● ● ● Nuclues ● Nucleus ● Mitochondria ● Concepts ● Mitochondria Jan 2009 23

Description mode (30) Is in the, is a, are, has a, contains, consists of, is made up  ● of; Are classified as ● Is bound by, is surrounded by, situated at ● Is present in, is found in the, lies in the, ● Gives, plays  a role, uses the, helps in, protects, provides,  ● helps to carry, allows, is responsible for, are used to make,  controls all the  ­­ ● Is called, are known as, is concerned with, occupies ● Jan 2009 24

Traditional Concept Map mode (47) Are, consists of, contains, have, it has, made up of, can, is,  ● are composed of, are visible as, comprise of, it is Is divided into, are of two types, includes ● Covered with ● Found in, present in, found as, ● Helps in, store, gives information, can be done by, helps  ● through, passes the, provides, stores, allows, prevents,  gives, used by, produces, used for making, makes,  produces, transforms Example ● Is known as, have their own, full form is, also called ● Jan 2009 25

Refined Concept Map mode (7) Consists of / part of ● Includes / divides into ● Surrounded by ● Located in ● Has function ● Example ● Is known as ● Jan 2009 26

When students were free to use any relation names, ● quite a few misconceptions and idiosyncratic ideas were observed such as: “if the nucleus is removed, the protoplasm dries up and the cell dies”; “if mitochondria is removed from the cell, it will not get energy  and will dry & die”; “nucleus contains membrane bound structure called chromatin”;  When the students were provided with the relation ● names, the students depicted knowledge as accurate as possible; statements were more close to the scientific representation --- “nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane” “mitochondria contains DNA, ribosomes” “chromosomes are made of DNA, proteins” Jan 2009 27

Conclusion RCM tool was compared with other modes of representation ● with a homogenous sample and similar tasks RCM did not affect the representation of critical concepts ● RCM does affect the representation of valid relations ● (positively) No difficulty in retrieving and eliciting of knowledge while ● using RCM No loss of knowledge with RCM ● RCM helps in expression of accurate knowledge; & lessens ● the inaccurate expressions The relation names served as facilitator and anchoring ● device (Ausubel) Jan 2009 28

RCM and its implications for science education Jan 2009 29

RCM as a means for a novice on the way of expert Profile of Novice  Profile of Expert Knowledge loose form, uneconomical, cohesive, integrated, parsimony, Structure ambiguous relations unambiguous relations     Knowledge periphery      core concepts                               Organized Refined Concept Maps   Approach superficial principled, accurate, deep Theories concrete, fragmentary, abstract, global, consistent,      inconsistent, particular, diffuse universal, precise Reasoning implicit and intuitive explicit and articulate Networking    poor in interconnetions rich in interconnections                  focus on concepts focus on relations                                                                            repetitive refinements Jan 2009 30

Our hypothesis on conceptual change during the cognitive development of a novice into an expert Conceptual change happens due to re­writing the relationa  ● names (i.e. linking words), and not due to re­writing of the  concept names The number of relation names used decrease progressively  ● The same relation names are consistently used thereby  ● eliminating ambiguity The number of relation names required for a formal  ● representation in a given domain are not only finite but are few The lesser the relation names, the greater is the formal  ● representation Roots of rigor (Kharatmal & Nagarjuna, 2008) ➔ Jan 2009 31

RCM influenced by Knowledge  Piaget ● ● Representation formal learning – Karmiloff-Smith RO, OBO, GO, MBO ● – explicit learning – formally defined  ● representational- – relation names redescription Semantic Network ● Mack & Robinson ● Concept Maps repetitive – ● refinements Object Process  ● Cooke ● Modelling focus on relations – Jan 2009 32

RCM and Conceptual Change models RCM ● Ausubel ● refinements in the relation ● subsumption ● names Carey ● using a lesser number of ● relation names accretion ● during the course of ● subsumption ● development process, knowledge gets added with Mintzes ● more of nodes but with just a strong few relation names ● restructuring as the knowledge gets ● represented in more formal terms, the relation names decrease progressively Jan 2009 33

Claim of RCM for science education during the course of development process, ➢ knowledge gets added with just a few relation names but with more of nodes as the knowledge gets represented in more formal ➢ terms, the relation names decrease progressively thus effectively all the nodes are handled by ➢ minimal relation names parsimony therefore can be redefined in terms of ➢ relation names Jan 2009 34

References Ausubel,  Cooke, Karmiloff­Smith, Kremer,  ● Kharatmal & Nagarjuna, Mack & Robinson,  Mintzes,  Novak,  OBO, RO, Sowa Full reference list available in the paper ● Jan 2009 35

Thankyou meena@hbcse.tifr.res.in nagarjun@gnowledge.org http://okeanos.wordpress.com/publications Jan 2009 36

Jan 2009 37

Jan 2009 38

Comparison of students' and expert's knowledge (relation names) Dimensions Students Expert nucleus is comprised of DNA  nucleus consists of DNA  nucleus contains DNA  nuclues has DNA present inside contain  nuclei  Part-whole nucleus has DNA DNA nucleus contains chromatin chromatin  is  present  inside  the  nucleus chromatin is inside the nucleus  DNA  is  present  in  nucleus consists of genetic material  chromatin Jan 2009 39

Dimensions Students Expert mitochondria  is  a  double­layered  cell  organelle mitochondria  is  a  double  layered  organelle mitochondria  is  a  cylinder  shaped the  inner  membrane  important organelle divides  the  mitochondria  is  a mitochondrion  into  cell  organelle  which two  chambers  or  is  double  layered compartments­outer  Class-inclusion membrane  and inner chamber  Jan 2009 40

Dimensions Students Expert nucleus contains chromosome which are visible as rod shpaed objects nucleus contains entangled mass nucleoli can be called observed inside chromosomes the nucleus which become chromatin rod-like structures associated with when the cell is nucleolus; Spatial­inclusion about to divide nucleoplasm Jan 2009 41

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