Published on February 27, 2014
Referencing for Law: Introduction to OSCOLA Jackie Hanes Learning & Teaching Services Librarian February 2014 www.le.ac.uk
What is referencing? • Proper acknowledgement of another person’s work or ideas, by the way of in-text citations and an end-text reference list.
Why should I reference? • Good academic practice • Evidence to support your arguments • Enable others to follow your work • Avoid plagiarism!
What is plagiarism? • Plagiarism is “literary theft … the action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc, and passing it off as one's own”.1 • Plagiarism is a breach of Senate Regulation 11 the University’s regulations governing student discipline2. • 1. Oxford English Dictionary http://www.oed.com • 2. Senate Regulation 11 http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/sas2/regulations/
When should I reference? • Direct quotation of books/articles • Paraphrasing books/articles • Refer to legislation or case law
Which one is correct? • Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 9th edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013)
What are referencing styles? • Rules that tell you how to reference:– What info to include in a reference – What order the info should be in – How the text should be formatted • Your department will have a preferred referencing style, and will provide their own referencing guidance in your student handbook • Always follow your department referencing style!
OSCOLA page 3 Footnotes • OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style: – Insert a numbered footnote into essay – Add your reference to the footnote
How to create footnotes in Word • In Microsoft Word, type your sentence • Position the cursor at end of the sentence • Click on the References menu • Click on the Insert Footnote icon
OSCOLA page 10 Bibliography 1. Primary sources – legislation – case law • arranged alphabetically by title 2. Secondary sources – books and book chapters – journal articles – other resources • arranged alphabetically by author
Order of author’s name Footnotes: • Firstname Surname Bibliography: • Surname Initial
OSCOLA page 33 Multiple authors • Multiple authors: – 1 author = Author1 – 2 authors = Author1 and Author2 – 3+ authors = Author1 and others • Corporate authors: – If organisation claims responsibility for the work, then cite as a corporate author
OSCOLA page 34 Books • Author(s) | Title of the Book | Edition | Publisher | Year • Title = Capitalise first letter of all major words • Edition = 2nd or later edition (not 1st edition)
Book example Footnote: • Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Webley L, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)
OSCOLA page 35 Book chapter • Author | ‘Title of Chapter’ | in Editor (ed) | Title of the Book | Edition | Publisher | Year • Editors = Use Firstname Surname format in both footnote and bibliography
Book chapter example Footnote: • Philip Handler, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Handler P, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013)
OSCOLA page 37 Journal articles • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | (Year) | Volume | Journal Title or Abbreviation| First Page OR • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | [Year] | Journal Title or Abbreviation| First Page • Does the journal have a volume number:– Yes – use round brackets around the (year) – No – use square brackets around the [year]
Journal article example Footnote: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221 Bibliography: • Virgo G, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221
Journal title abbreviations • Cardiff Index To Legal Abbreviations • http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk/
OSCOLA page 33 Notes on ebooks and ejournals • Electronic books, journal and newspaper articles can be cited as per the hard-copy: • “If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version”
OSCOLA page 42 Newspaper articles • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | Title of Newspaper | Place of Publication | Date | Page OR • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | Title of Newspaper | Place of Publication | Date | < URL > | accessed Date • Date = Format day month year
Newspaper article example Footnote: • Nick Britten and Andrew Hough, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11 Bibliography: • Britten N and Hough A, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11
OSCOLA page 42 Websites • Author(s) | ‘Title of Webpage’ | Title of Website | Date | < URL > accessed Date • Date = Format day month year
Website example Footnote: • David Hart, ‘Freedom of Expression – Nakedness in a Public Place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013 Bibliography: • Hart D, ‘Freedom of Expression – Nakedness in a Public Place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013
OSCOLA page 23 UK legislation: statutes Acts of Parliament: • Short Title | Year – Human Rights Act 1998 Old Acts of Parliament: • Short Title | Year (Regnal Year | Chapter) – Crown Debts Act 1801 (41 Geo 3 c 90)
OSCOLA page 26 UK legislation: statutory instruments Statutory Instrument • Title | Year | SI Year/Number • Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 (Victims’ Code of Practice) Order 2013, SI 2013/2907
OSCOLA page 13 UK case law Cases reported after 2001: • Case Name | Neutral Citation, | Citation • Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457 Cases reported before 2001: • Case Name | Citation | (Court) • Donoghue v Stevenson  AC 562 (HL)
OSCOLA page 16 Neutral citations • Official vendor/media neutral citations • Identify case by year, court and number • http://www.bailii.org/bailii/citation.html Court Neutral Citation Supreme Court [Year] SC number Court of Appeal (Crim) [Year] EWCA Crim number Court of Appeal (Civ) [Year] EWCA Civ number High Court (x Division) [Year] EWHC (x Div) number
OSCOLA page 29 EU legislation: treaties Treaties: • Title | [Year] | OJ Issue/Page – Treaty of Lisbon  OJ C306/01
OSCOLA page 29 EU legislation: other Regulations/Directives: • Type | Number | Title | [Year] | OJ Issue/Page – Council Regulation (EU) 1153/2013 of 15 November 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 147/2003 concerning restrictive measures in respect of Somalia  OJ L306/01
OSCOLA page 30 EU case law • Court of Justice: • Case Number | Case Name | [Year] | Law Report Abbreviation | First Page – Case C-615/11P European Commission v Ryanair Ltd  3 CMLR 39 • In bibliography, reverse order of case number and name
International materials • Use OSCOLA 3rd edition for international law • http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/published/OSCOLA_2 006_citing_international_law.pdf
Speed referencing exercise • 10 items to be referenced in OSCOLA style • 90 seconds only to reference each item • Write the answers in your worksheet • You can use footnote or bibliography style
OSCOLA page 33 Pinpoint – books and articles • Pinpoint to page numbers for quotations:Book: • Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) 25 Journal: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 225
OSCOLA page 24 Pinpoint – legislation • Pinpoint to specific sections of legislation:– Human Rights Act 1998, s 12 section/sections s/ss schedule/schedules sch/schs regulation/regulations reg/regs rule/rules r/rr article/articles art/arts
Pinpoint – case law • Pinpoint to paragraph or page numbers:• Paragraph in judgment – Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457  • Page in law report – Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457, 460-461
OSCOLA pages 5, 7 & 34 Saving your word count • Only provide full citation once - second and subsequent citations can be shortened by either short forms or ibids: • “In subsequent citations of books and articles, cite only the author’s surname and provide a cross-reference to the footnote with the full citation”
Short forms First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) Later citations: • 5 Finch and Fafinski (n1)
Ibid First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) Next citation: • 2 ibid
OSCOLA page 37 ([Brackets]) • OSCOLA uses (round) and [square] brackets • Does the journal/case have a volume number? • Can you find it without knowing the year? – Yes – then the year is in (round) brackets – No – then the year is in [square] brackets
Recommended book on referencing • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013)
Recommended book on OSCOLA • Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)
Recommended tutorial on OSCOLA • Cathie Jackson and Ian Bradley, Citing the Law (2012) https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/oscola/tutorial/
Bibliographic software • EndNote is bibliographic software that can help you with referencing: – Collect and organise your references – Add references in your referencing style – Create bibliographies in your referencing style • It is particularly useful for longer documents, for example dissertations and theses • You must understand OSCOLA to use EndNote
Questions • If you have questions about how to cite specific resources in the OSCOLA style, please email me on firstname.lastname@example.org or telephone 0116 252 2055
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