Published on February 27, 2014
Referencing for Law: Introduction to OSCOLA Jackie Hanes Learning & Teaching Services Librarian February 2014 www.le.ac.uk
What is referencing? • Proper acknowledgement of another person’s work or ideas, by the way of in-text citations and an end-text reference list.
Why should I reference? • Good academic practice • Evidence to support your arguments • Enable others to follow your work • Avoid plagiarism!
What is plagiarism? • Plagiarism is “literary theft … the action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc, and passing it off as one's own”.1 • Plagiarism is a breach of Senate Regulation 11 the University’s regulations governing student discipline2. • 1. Oxford English Dictionary http://www.oed.com • 2. Senate Regulation 11 http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/sas2/regulations/
When should I reference? • Direct quotation of books/articles • Paraphrasing books/articles • Refer to legislation or case law
Which one is correct? • Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 9th edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013)
What are referencing styles? • Rules that tell you how to reference:– What info to include in a reference – What order the info should be in – How the text should be formatted • Your department will have a preferred referencing style, and will provide their own referencing guidance in your student handbook • Always follow your department referencing style!
OSCOLA page 3 Footnotes • OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style: – Insert a numbered footnote into essay – Add your reference to the footnote
How to create footnotes in Word • In Microsoft Word, type your sentence • Position the cursor at end of the sentence • Click on the References menu • Click on the Insert Footnote icon
OSCOLA page 10 Bibliography 1. Primary sources – legislation – case law • arranged alphabetically by title 2. Secondary sources – books and book chapters – journal articles – other resources • arranged alphabetically by author
Order of author’s name Footnotes: • Firstname Surname Bibliography: • Surname Initial
OSCOLA page 33 Multiple authors • Multiple authors: – 1 author = Author1 – 2 authors = Author1 and Author2 – 3+ authors = Author1 and others • Corporate authors: – If organisation claims responsibility for the work, then cite as a corporate author
OSCOLA page 34 Books • Author(s) | Title of the Book | Edition | Publisher | Year • Title = Capitalise first letter of all major words • Edition = 2nd or later edition (not 1st edition)
Book example Footnote: • Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Webley L, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)
OSCOLA page 35 Book chapter • Author | ‘Title of Chapter’ | in Editor (ed) | Title of the Book | Edition | Publisher | Year • Editors = Use Firstname Surname format in both footnote and bibliography
Book chapter example Footnote: • Philip Handler, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013) Bibliography: • Handler P, ‘Legal History’ in Dawn Watkins and Mandy Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge 2013)
OSCOLA page 37 Journal articles • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | (Year) | Volume | Journal Title or Abbreviation| First Page OR • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | [Year] | Journal Title or Abbreviation| First Page • Does the journal have a volume number:– Yes – use round brackets around the (year) – No – use square brackets around the [year]
Journal article example Footnote: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221 Bibliography: • Virgo G, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221
Journal title abbreviations • Cardiff Index To Legal Abbreviations • http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk/
OSCOLA page 33 Notes on ebooks and ejournals • Electronic books, journal and newspaper articles can be cited as per the hard-copy: • “If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version”
OSCOLA page 42 Newspaper articles • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | Title of Newspaper | Place of Publication | Date | Page OR • Author(s) | ‘Title of Article’ | Title of Newspaper | Place of Publication | Date | < URL > | accessed Date • Date = Format day month year
Newspaper article example Footnote: • Nick Britten and Andrew Hough, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11 Bibliography: • Britten N and Hough A, ‘It’s him: Richard III rises from the grave’ Daily Telegraph (London, 5 February 2013) 11
OSCOLA page 42 Websites • Author(s) | ‘Title of Webpage’ | Title of Website | Date | < URL > accessed Date • Date = Format day month year
Website example Footnote: • David Hart, ‘Freedom of Expression – Nakedness in a Public Place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013 Bibliography: • Hart D, ‘Freedom of Expression – Nakedness in a Public Place’ (UK Human Rights Blog, 31 October 2013) < http://ukhumanrightsblog.com > accessed 15 November 2013
OSCOLA page 23 UK legislation: statutes Acts of Parliament: • Short Title | Year – Human Rights Act 1998 Old Acts of Parliament: • Short Title | Year (Regnal Year | Chapter) – Crown Debts Act 1801 (41 Geo 3 c 90)
OSCOLA page 26 UK legislation: statutory instruments Statutory Instrument • Title | Year | SI Year/Number • Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 (Victims’ Code of Practice) Order 2013, SI 2013/2907
OSCOLA page 13 UK case law Cases reported after 2001: • Case Name | Neutral Citation, | Citation • Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457 Cases reported before 2001: • Case Name | Citation | (Court) • Donoghue v Stevenson  AC 562 (HL)
OSCOLA page 16 Neutral citations • Official vendor/media neutral citations • Identify case by year, court and number • http://www.bailii.org/bailii/citation.html Court Neutral Citation Supreme Court [Year] SC number Court of Appeal (Crim) [Year] EWCA Crim number Court of Appeal (Civ) [Year] EWCA Civ number High Court (x Division) [Year] EWHC (x Div) number
OSCOLA page 29 EU legislation: treaties Treaties: • Title | [Year] | OJ Issue/Page – Treaty of Lisbon  OJ C306/01
OSCOLA page 29 EU legislation: other Regulations/Directives: • Type | Number | Title | [Year] | OJ Issue/Page – Council Regulation (EU) 1153/2013 of 15 November 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 147/2003 concerning restrictive measures in respect of Somalia  OJ L306/01
OSCOLA page 30 EU case law • Court of Justice: • Case Number | Case Name | [Year] | Law Report Abbreviation | First Page – Case C-615/11P European Commission v Ryanair Ltd  3 CMLR 39 • In bibliography, reverse order of case number and name
International materials • Use OSCOLA 3rd edition for international law • http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/published/OSCOLA_2 006_citing_international_law.pdf
Speed referencing exercise • 10 items to be referenced in OSCOLA style • 90 seconds only to reference each item • Write the answers in your worksheet • You can use footnote or bibliography style
OSCOLA page 33 Pinpoint – books and articles • Pinpoint to page numbers for quotations:Book: • Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn Oxford University Press 2013) 25 Journal: • Graham Virgo, ‘Why Study Law: the Relevance of Legal Information’ (2011) 11 LIM 221, 225
OSCOLA page 24 Pinpoint – legislation • Pinpoint to specific sections of legislation:– Human Rights Act 1998, s 12 section/sections s/ss schedule/schedules sch/schs regulation/regulations reg/regs rule/rules r/rr article/articles art/arts
Pinpoint – case law • Pinpoint to paragraph or page numbers:• Paragraph in judgment – Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457  • Page in law report – Campbell v MGM  UKHL 22,  2 AC 457, 460-461
OSCOLA pages 5, 7 & 34 Saving your word count • Only provide full citation once - second and subsequent citations can be shortened by either short forms or ibids: • “In subsequent citations of books and articles, cite only the author’s surname and provide a cross-reference to the footnote with the full citation”
Short forms First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) Later citations: • 5 Finch and Fafinski (n1)
Ibid First citation: • 1 Emily Finch and Stefan Fafinski, Legal Skills (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) Next citation: • 2 ibid
OSCOLA page 37 ([Brackets]) • OSCOLA uses (round) and [square] brackets • Does the journal/case have a volume number? • Can you find it without knowing the year? – Yes – then the year is in (round) brackets – No – then the year is in [square] brackets
Recommended book on referencing • Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite them right: the essential referencing guide (9th edn, Palgrave Macmillan 2013)
Recommended book on OSCOLA • Lisa Webley, Legal Writing (3rd edn, Routledge 2013)
Recommended tutorial on OSCOLA • Cathie Jackson and Ian Bradley, Citing the Law (2012) https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/oscola/tutorial/
Bibliographic software • EndNote is bibliographic software that can help you with referencing: – Collect and organise your references – Add references in your referencing style – Create bibliographies in your referencing style • It is particularly useful for longer documents, for example dissertations and theses • You must understand OSCOLA to use EndNote
Questions • If you have questions about how to cite specific resources in the OSCOLA style, please email me on email@example.com or telephone 0116 252 2055
Holmesglen LC 14-Feb-2014 Q: ... Referencing Guide (version 2) ... Learning CommonsWebsiteoriginals for sitereferencing v2.0 2014.docx
Last updated: 25 Feb 2014. Table of Contents BTW1042 Malaysian business law ... students are required to follow the referencing guide in the
... 27 Feb 2014. Table of Contents ... Referencing requirements ... BTP3650 Sports law and policy ...
Impact of the Companies Act 2014 on the Annual Report and Statutory Financial ... of referencing ... Feb 16 Irish Tax Reports 2014/15 ...
... referencing using the ... breaking news the oh law firm | ... chogenriron japanese m kaku / download china illustrations illustrations feb 2011 /
... Faculty of Law 1 Procedures Relating to Written Work ... Faculty of Law Approved and commenced Feb, 2014 Review by Feb, ... 3.4 Referencing ...
conducted on November 12, 2014 in this proceeding; ... Attorney At Law P.O. Box 608 311 West Main Street Grayson, KENTUCKY 41143 Patrick C Woods
Offered in Summer Session 2014 First ... Students commencing their legal studies in Semester Two are expected to undertake Foundations of Australian Law ...
Referencing - The Harvard System ... Available: Elsevier/ScienceDirect/ O304-3959(98)00101-8, [8 Feb 1999]. ... (2001) Harvard referencing, [Online], ...
... Education and Law Group School/Department Student Type Levels of ... Referencing : 1 ... Summer Semester 2014 (Jan-Feb) ...