reducingtraveltimeon theachievementhighway

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Published on March 15, 2008

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Standards: A Road Map for Reducing Travel Time on the Achievement Highway:  Standards: A Road Map for Reducing Travel Time on the Achievement Highway Presented by: Quality Quinn Quality Quinn, Inc. Equity The Tell Tale Hart by Arthur Rackham:  Equity The Tell Tale Hart by Arthur Rackham TRUE!-nervous-very, dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses-not destroyed-not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How, then, am I mad? Hearken! And observe how healthily-how calmly I can tell you the whole story. Equity The Tell Tale Hart Contd.:  Equity The Tell Tale Hart Contd. It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and night. Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For this gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this! He had the eye of a vulture-a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees-very gradually-I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever. For more information:  For more information www.qualityquinn.com Click on Booking Info Find the date of your presentation Click on Download Presentation! Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INSTRUCTIONAL:  Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INSTRUCTIONAL Direct, explicit instruction Vocabulary and extended word study in Content Areas Substantial increase in Reading Fluency in Content Areas Text Comprehension strategies in Content Areas Effective instructional principles embedded in content Motivation and self-directed learning Text-based collaborative learning Strategic tutoring Diverse texts Intensive writing A technology component Ongoing formative assessment of students Suggested Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INFRASTRUCTURAL:  Suggested Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INFRASTRUCTURAL Extended time for learning Professional development Ongoing summative assessment Teacher teams Leadership A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy:  15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Direct, explicit instruction Effective instructional principles embedded in content Motivation and self-directed learning Text-based collaborative learning Strategic tutoring Diverse texts Intensive writing A technology component Ongoing formative assessment of students * Extended time for learning Professional development * Ongoing summative assessment * Teacher teams Leadership A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program You Can’t Tutor What Hasn’t Been Taught:  You Can’t Tutor What Hasn’t Been Taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught The goal of the teacher is to create an environment that allows every reader to move as quickly as possible to grade level, content area reading:  The goal of the teacher is to create an environment that allows every reader to move as quickly as possible to grade level, content area reading The Challenge:  The Challenge 37% of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the NAEP After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in drop-outs The Challenge:  The Challenge After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially Incomplete beginning reading instruction Serious vocabulary deficit Very limited knowledge of text structure Misconceptions about fluency Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment Three Flavors of Assessment:  Three Flavors of Assessment Summative Assessment = External Reporting Scorekeeping Broad data for identifying specific populations Program evaluation and budget indicators Formative Assessment =Internal Reporting Intervention: Do something differently, immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!) Progress monitoring over time for individual students Data used to plan “next move” for instruction (lesson design --GLM) Getting a Grade =Comfort the troubled, trouble the comfortable Public relations A,B,C,D,F: Coin of the realm The Zone of Proximal Development:  The Zone of Proximal Development Moving readers from their level of success to the appropriate level of difficulty Using Coached Reading to identify the independent reading supports—how does the reader solve her problem? How do you or the materials you employ help? Fluency is not about how fast you read, but what is it that is slowing you down. The Gradual Release Model:  The Gradual Release Model 5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth:  New expectation for ALL learners Interactive learning and discourse for meaning What the brain likes-MULTISENSORY Reading for MATH Analyzing Data Moving from being data rich to analysis poor ELL, Spec. Ed. 5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth 5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth:  5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth Lesson Design Reading Content alignment: vertical and horizontal teaming—ELL, Spec.Ed. Assessment driving differentiated instruction Classroom Management Instruction in terms of minutes Collaboration Whole class, small group, think-pair-share, indep. Grade Level Meetings Agendas, increased frequency, evidence driven Student specific with proofs of instruction/learningThe Role of the Literacy Coach Grade Level Meetings Student specific:  Grade Level Meetings Student specific Find and use ALL data (bring to meeting) Do analysis for strength and weakness Prioritize needs Set goals (what % of sub groups will grow 04-05) Brainstorm specific strategies Results indicators Action Plan The Bones of a Lesson Design:  The Bones of a Lesson Design What do THEY need to learn?:  What do THEY need to learn? Who Are They?:  Who Are They? What Resources are Available?:  What Resources are Available? Assessment:  Assessment Cambridge Model:  Cambridge Model Planning and Preparation Environment Instruction Assessment Leadership The three most important words for the struggling reader::  The three most important words for the struggling reader: VOCABULARY VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-you get it!!!! Five Types of Vocabulary:  Five Types of Vocabulary Listening Vocabulary Thinking Vocabulary Speaking Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary Writing for Success:  Writing for Success Question: “Are people motivated to achieve by personal satisfaction rather than by fame or money?” My view of the idea that it is personal satisfaction rather than money or fame that motivates people to achieve is sometimes wrong because in sports some people do it for personal satisfaction because they love the game and some people do it for the money because it pays well. Student response:  Student response Even though we live in a capitalist society, I still cannot help but believe, despite my own cynicism, that people are more motivated to achieve something for personal satisfaction rather than monetary gains. Five Elements of Reading:  Five Elements of Reading Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Text Comprehension What Spanish and English have in Common:  What Spanish and English have in Common Spanish is 90% Latin English is 67% Latin Both languages are alphabetic Both languages have the same vowels How Spanish and English are Different:  How Spanish and English are Different Spanish is a language of segmentation English is a language blending Spanish has three types of syllables English has six types of syllables English has words that must be learned by sight (sight words are also called high frequency words) What the Research Indicates:  What the Research Indicates Identify the language demands of the content Emphasize academic vocabulary Activate and strengthen prior knowledge Promote oral interaction and extended academic talk Review academic vocabulary and content concepts Registers of Language –R. Payne:  Registers of Language –R. Payne Frozen: Language that is always the same Formal: Standard sentence syntax of work and school. Consultative: Formal register when used with conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less formal. Casual: Language between friends: 400-800 word vocabulary. Non-specific word-choice; non-verbal assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often incomplete. Intimate: Language between lovers or twins. The language of sexual harassment. Vocabulary Instruction:  Vocabulary Instruction Concept vocabulary Big idea words: attrition, populism, hypothesis Context vocabulary Words that have multiple meanings: economy, mine, elements, book, state, set, case Vocabulary structure Words with recognizable Latin cognates: migratory, revolt, spectator Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting What Words to Teach Bringing Words to Life—ROBUST Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen:  What Words to Teach Bringing Words to Life—ROBUST Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen First tier words Words that you wish students knew, hope they can get, but you don’t have time to teach. Second tier words High utility words that they need to know in your class, and everyone else’s. Third tier words Extremely specific words in your content area that require considered, deliberate and in depth instruction. Three Muscles::  Three Muscles: Early Language Experience Phonemic awareness and concept development Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle Decoding muscle Three ways of getting meaning off the page (1)phonics…primary decoding strategy (2)semantics and vocabulary (3) syntax and structure Fluency muscle Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension* Class libraries of high-interest content related articles Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature (fiction or non-fiction) Text Structures:  Text Structures Language Arts:  Language Arts Language Arts:  Language Arts Whose woods these are I think I know: his house is in the village, though. He will not mind me stopping here to watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness bells a shake, to ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound’s the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely dark and deep, but I have promises to keep…and miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep. Science:  Science Science:  Science The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite. In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al2O3 in molten cryolite, Na3AlF6, conducts the current. Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next, etc. Social Studies:  Social Studies 8 Social Studies/History:  Social Studies/History Although The Confederacy represented the Southern states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley, were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe manufacturing community would hopefully provide the much needed supplies. Subordinating conjunctions: since, while, because, although, yet, if, as if, however, etc. Math:  Math Math:  Math The architect and contractor were conferring over the blueprints of the new ten story parking garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two “I” beams, plus one additional beam for each additional floor after the first. Determine the number of “I” beams and show a possible structural configuration. Math Research:  Math Research Embed in real world:make it engaging, generating more questions Create a language rich classroom Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal, highly visual students Draw pictures, create mental images, foster visualization Build from charts, graphs & tables- also, the misinterpretation of data Don’t leave out measurement Let’s Demystify Reading:  Let’s Demystify Reading Three Muscles::  Three Muscles: Early Language Experience Phonemic awareness and concept development Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle Decoding muscle Three ways of getting meaning off the page (1)phonics…primary decoding strategy (2)semantics and vocabulary (3) syntax and structure Fluency muscle Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension* Class libraries of high-interest content related articles Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature (fiction or non-fiction) News Flash!!!!!:  News Flash!!!!! 26 letters and 44 sounds 16 reliable letters, (letters that always sound the same) q,w,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b, 4 that are switch hitters... s,g,c&r 3 that are pests ...a,o,u 3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!…i,e,y Double vowels: oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au Blends: ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl, bl, kl,cr,scr, Vocabulary and Phonics:  Vocabulary and Phonics stench ap-pal-ling de-hu-man-ize in-tro-spec-tion in-e-qui-ty el-e-ments cru-el-ty re-a-li-ty in-hu-man-i-ty in-hu-man col-lab-o-ra-tion e-con-o-my hur-dle shame re-con-struc-tion em-path-y mine Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science :  Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science Con-ser-va-tion bun-dle Ac-cel-er-a-tion state Force base Mass mol-e-cule Grav-i-ta-tion-al force gas-e-ous Ter-min-al vel-o-city Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion Mo-men-tum anthropologically:  anthropologically An-thro-po-log-i-cal-ly australopithecine:  australopithecine Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cine Definition of Comprehension:  Definition of Comprehension Comprehension is defined as: “intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader” (Harris & Hodges,1995) STRATEGIES:  STRATEGIES Clarifying Comparing and contrasting Connecting to prior experiences Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing conclusions) Predicting Questioning the text Recognizing the author’s purpose Seeing causal relationships Summarizing visualizing …an excerpt:  …an excerpt Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 – with only an insouciant topknot and Horton The Elephant’s trunk peeking out – the sculptures frolic on the wide green linking the city library and its four museums that gave wing to the author’s imagination.-- Slide57:  Process for Leadership Challenge the process search for opportunities change status quo Inspiring a shared vision imagine the ideal situation Enabling others to act foster cooperation modeling the way Encouraging the heart to begin the journey -el words:  -el words Towel Trowel Compel Dispel Dowel Repel Bushel Shovel Pummel Level revel travel dishevel Testwiseness: An Important Piece of a Comprehensive Intervention Strategy:  Testwiseness: An Important Piece of a Comprehensive Intervention Strategy On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal, i.e. testwiseness Phonics instruction for those who received “hit-or-miss” decoding during whole language approach; analyze spelling errors Build fluency with an “every day, every child reads at a level of success” approach; assess for oral expression, pace and accuracy Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach science & soc. studies syntax; CRCT high-level comprehension objectives Teaching Comprehension Directly:  Teaching Comprehension Directly Monitor the use of the strategy Offer less coaching as less is called for Ask what strategy they are using & why, therefore bringing the strategy to the student’s awareness Give students continued opportunity to observe more modeling Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for students to interact w/others using a variety of text How do I teach those strategies?:  How do I teach those strategies? Decide which strategy you want to model and which text to use Tell your students which strategy you are going to practice while you read Read the passage to the students modeling the strategy you are using..think aloud During real reading, give your students multiple chances to practice Continue modeling as the genre or text structure changes Give students a chance to practice without your coaching or support Recent Headlines and Quotes:  Recent Headlines and Quotes More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk Exit Exam, Education Week “It will take at least ten years to reach proficiency for all learners”NCLB “adequate yearly progress” President Bush Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta, Heritage Foundation Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education Week Struggling Older Reader:  Struggling Older Reader Incomplete beginning reading instruction Lacks metacognitive strategies Limited prior knowledge Limited word study skills and spelling No text available at level of success No adults modeling reading No history of reading success Five Keys to No Child Left Behind:  Five Keys to No Child Left Behind Vertical team study of 4-9 reading curriculum with evidence of student work Phonemic Awareness &Phonics training for 4th through 9th grade teachers Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest” Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers Slide65:  Process for Leadership Challenge the process search for opportunities change status quo Inspiring a shared vision imagine the ideal situation Enabling others to act foster cooperation modeling the way Encouraging the heart to begin the journey The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by a vowel- In English, there are 6 types:  The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by a vowel- In English, there are 6 types Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel, as in a-bout, i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric, a-vail-a-ble Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty, Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol, con-su-mer, ath-lete Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in in-tro-duc-tion Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle, bi-cy-cle Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent “e”, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone, val-en-tine O-le Que-so Cam-e-ro-nes Grammar IS Syntax:  Grammar IS Syntax The power the lowly preposition The power of the subordinating conjunction Persuasive:  Persuasive State opinion Support with clear evidence or examples Personalize Appeal to the emotions Graphic imagery Structured argument All to action Phoneme Isolation:  Phoneme Isolation Children recognize individual sounds in a word. Teacher: What is the first sound in van? Children: The first sound in van is /v/. Phoneme Identity:  Phoneme Identity Children recognize the same sounds in different words. Teacher: What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? Children: The first sound, /f/, is the same. Phoneme Categorization:  Phoneme Categorization Children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the “odd” sound. Teacher: Which word doesn’t belong? Bus, bun, rug. Children: Rug does not belong. It doesn’t begin with /b/. Phoneme Blending:  Phoneme Blending Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word. Teacher: What word is /b/ /i/ /g/? Children: /b/ /i/ /g/ is big. Teacher: Now let’s write the sounds in big: /b/ /i/ /g/. (Teacher writes big.) Now we’re going to read the word big. Phoneme Segmentation:  Phoneme Segmentation Children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. Teacher: How many sounds are in grab? Children: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds. Teacher: Now let’s write the sounds in grab: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now we’re going to read the word grab. Phoneme Deletion:  Phoneme Deletion Children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. Teacher: What is smile without the /s/? Children: Smile without the /s/ is mile. Phoneme Addition:  Phoneme Addition Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word. Teacher: What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park? Children: Spark. Phoneme Substitution:  Phoneme Substitution Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word. Teacher: The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What’s the new word? Children: Bun. What should be done?:  What should be done? Dedicated developmental reading testing preparedness program 5th through 8th Continued professional development for ALL teachers in reading intervention 5-12 Initiate on-going professional development in science, social studies, and math reading & writing Integrate a “testwiseness” curriculum for state testing programs with strong emphasis on the content areas Reader Response:  Reader Response Review the story Select a sentence or phrase that lingers Write down two reasons for selecting that Share your sentence and reasons w/others Come to consensus Be prepared to share to group What is being done?:  What is being done? Mandatory summer school Same thing, but LOUDER Expensive intervention programs with uneven results Teacher training institutions changing reading requirements Five Steps to Two Years’ Growth for One Year of Instruction:  Five Steps to Two Years’ Growth for One Year of Instruction Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum with evidence of student work Phonics training for 3rd through 8th grade teachers Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest” Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers The Goal: Show Improvement:  The Goal: Show Improvement Growth triggers funding Data is the gatekeeper No improvement: no money Show enough growth to secure funding What will be considered growth? What you can do in the classroom?:  What you can do in the classroom? Discipline Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice. To avoid arguments with parents and students, use the adult voice. Use discipline interventions as an opportunity for instruction. Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the parent voice to change behaviors. Useful References:  Useful References Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Alexander, K. & Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools and children at risk. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.). Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy: Everyday home experiences of urban pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD: National Reading Research Center. Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997). Home and family influences on motivations for reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2): 69:82. Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini, A.D., Galda, L. & Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting school and home: Constructing partnerships to foster reading development in L. Baker, P. Afflerbach & D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing engaged readers in home and school communities, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 21-41. Slide84:  Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A Guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D. Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research: 65(1): 1-21. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: Partnership for Reading. Available: www.nifl.gov. Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income mothers and fathers to share books with young children. The reading teacher 48: 4888-564. Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C., Sanders, M.G., & Simmons, B.S. (1997). School, family and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1993). Activity settings of early literacy: Home and school factors in children’s emergent literacy. In E. Forman, N. Minick, & A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 315-335). New York: Oxford University Press. Slide85:  Gentile, L. M., & McMillan, M.M. (1992). Literacy for students at-risk; Developing critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35, 636-640. Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co. Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of child Health and Human Development. Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is Rocket Science. Wahington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Available online: http://www.aft.org/edissues/rocketscience.htm National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Characteristics of children’s early care and Education programs: Data from, the 1995 National Household Education Surveys (NCES No. 98-128). National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based Assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Available: www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubskey. O’Donnell, M.P., & Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a reader: A developmental instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Slide86:  Oldfather, P. & Wigfield, A. (1996). Children’s motivations for literacy learning in Developing. In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. (pp. 89-113, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading, London: Paul Chapman. Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology 86(1): 54-64. Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C., National Academy Press. Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., & Munsterman, K. (1996). The influence of family beliefs and practices on children’s early reading development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. PP. 3-20. U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start early, finish strong: How to help every child become a reader (America Reads Challenge), Washington, D.C.: author. Available online: http://www.ed.gov.pubs/startearly/ Take Me Out to the Ballgame:  Take Me Out to the Ballgame Take out to the ballgame Take me out to the crowd Buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks I don’t care if I ever get back Let me root, root ,root for the home team If they don’t win it’s a shame For it’s one, two, three strikes you’re out At the old ball game What is fluency:  What is fluency Attaching sounds quickly to letters Blending and segmenting quickly Knowing most of the words you are reading Paying attention Your students the practice :  Your students the practice Give your students the prac-tice, To read with ease and con-fi-dence And wa----tch ac-c-u-ra-cy and Un-der-sta-a-a-n-ding. Soar by: Mo-del flu-et read-ing Do re-pea-ted read-ing Promote phrased read-ing En-list tu-tors (to help) And try readers’ theater in class The Challenge:  The Challenge After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially Incomplete beginning reading instruction Serious vocabulary deficit Very limited knowledge of text structure Misconceptions about fluency Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment

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