Redesigning cassava for tomorrow's demands Asia Clair Hershey

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Information about Redesigning cassava for tomorrow's demands Asia Clair Hershey

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: CIAT

Source: slideshare.net

Redesigning Cassava for Tomorrow’s Demands

Global trends for world’s most important food crops Change in 30 years, to 2009 (%) Production Harvested Yield area Cassava Maize Rice Wheat Millet Potato Barley Sorghum Sweet potato Oats Source: FAOSTAT 2012 101 95 81 61 32 10 -3 -5 -22 -45 44 29 14 -1 -5 -5 -35 -1 -27 -60 40 52 60 63 39 12 48 -4 6 37

. Typical Agro- and Market Environment for Cassava • • • • • Low soil fertility Drought-prone areas Sloped lands Low access to roads and markets Product options limited in many areas

But the crop also can respond to good management to produce very high yields

Cassava for modern times Opportunities • • • Resilience in multiple environments Diverse new market options Under-exploited genetic diversity Challenges • • • • • Uncertainties of climate change Soil fertility maintenance and erosion control Pest and disease management Production systems for clean planting material Trait development tailored to new markets

Is cassava the answer for climate change adaptation? Based on the EcoCrop model: Cassava will respond positively in many current regions of planting Ceballos et al. 2011 Jarvis et al. in press

The genebank: Our main source of genetic variability More than 6,000 accessions plus 1000 acessions of 30 wild species

Frequency of major cassava pests across continents Pest category Americas Africa Whiteflies Mealybugs Root mealybugs Mites Scale insects White grubs Termites Thrips Leafhoppers Grasshoppers Shootflies Stemborers Lacebugs Burrower bugs Hornworm Tiger moth Army worm Gall midge Dried cassava Asia 11 6 2 30 8 6 2 5 3 2 3 12 4 3 2 2 3 1 5 Total 3 3 2 13 7 3 2 1 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 6 0 15 3 5 1 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 110 48 47

Challenges and risks of intensifying cassava production Low intensity, stable traditional production Bacterial Blight in southern Brazil: results of poorly planned rapid scale-up

Preparing for new challenges of biotic constraints Climate change models suggest that the greatest impact on cassava will be from biotic constraints, and much less from abiotic (drought; higher temperatures)

A recent example of new pest introduction Cassava Mealybug in Thailand, March 2010

Anagyrus lopezi

Asia: Cassava Witches’ broom  Identification and characterization  Monitoring of spread and impact  Training 14 Asian scientists  Implementation and validation of management strategies  Kit development for on-farm detection

CIAT Roles 1. RISK ASSESSMENT: Lead a global assessment of threats from cassava pests 2. SURVEILLANCE: Establish comprehensive surveillance and monitoring with national and international partners 3. MANAGEMENT: Establish or strengthen core capacities to meet global pest management needs 4. CAPACITY BUILDING: sustainable capacity to respond to pest challenges

Value-added traits for new markets • Amylose-free (waxy): multiple food and industrial applications • Small granule starch: rapid hydrolysis for ethanol industry • High β-carotene: for Vitamin A deficit areas • Forage varieties: adding an animal component into small-holder systems

Some characteristics of cassava starch important for the food industry Source Maize Rice Potato Cassava Waxy maize Waxy Rice Waxy Potato Waxy Cassava Storage stability (4°C) * *** * *** *** *** ** *** Freeze/thaw stability (18°C) * * * ** ** *** ** *** Clarity * * *** ** ** * *** *** Taste Cereal Cereal None None Cereal Cereal None None • = low acceptability ** = medium acceptability *** = high acceptability Source: Sánchez T., Dufour D., Moreno I. X., Ceballos H. (2010). Comparison of Pasting and Gel Stabilities of Waxy and Normal Starches from Potato, Maize, and Rice with Those of a Novel Waxy Cassava Starch under Thermal, Chemical, and Mechanical Stress. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58, 5093–5099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf1001606

Introduction of an animal component into smallholder systems is one of the best ways to improve household nutritional status • Direct feeding of surplus root production • Feeding of leaves and young stems • Feeding of residues of processing (peels, fiber, starch residues)

Progress in breeding for total carotenoids content (A nutritional goal of 15 µg/g established in 2005)

Progress in breeding for total carotenoids content (A nutritional goal of 15 µg/g established in 2005) 30 TCC (µg/ g) 25 y = 2.346x + 8.6995 R2 = 0.7763 Maximum 20 15 Average 10 5 Minimum 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year 2009 2010

Some current projects in molecular analysis High b-Carotene Whitefly resistance Tolerance to post-harvest deterioration Drought tolerance

Summary: Cassava’s Redesign o Transition from low-value commodity crop to diverse and higher level value chains o Protect the crop from the current biotic threats trans-boundary movement o High yielding and high quality varieties o Management systems to reduce production costs (e.g. labor use) o Integrate molecular and traditional breeding approaches o Adapt to climate change (pests and diseases, practices to conserve soil water) o Policies and systems that provide better income while protecting the environment Train a new generation of scientists!

Working together for a New Future for cassava growers in Asia -- through a growing interdisciplinary team in Hanoi with close linkages to CIAT-Colombia

CIAT: Science to Cultivate Change Follow us: Website: www.ciat.cgiar.org Blog: www.ciatnews.cgiar.org/en/ http://twitter.com/ciat_ http://www.facebook.com/ciat.ecoefficient

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