Reconstruction Of The South Chap17

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Published on February 16, 2008

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Reconstruction after the Civil War
Middle School American History
Grades 6-8

Reconstruction of the South American History Chapter 17

The End Results 258,000 Confederates died in the war Most were adult males South’s economy & society needed rebuilding Civil War in Pictures

258,000 Confederates died in the war

Most were adult males

South’s economy & society needed rebuilding

Civil War in Pictures

Reconstruction

Reconstruction

Everybody had a plan … Lincoln’s 10% plan 10% of states voters vowed loyalty to Union Form a new government & constitution No slavery

Lincoln’s 10% plan

10% of states voters vowed loyalty to Union

Form a new government & constitution

No slavery

Lincoln Was Soft on the South Punishment served no useful purpose Offered amnesty/swear loyalty Not to Confederate leaders Right to vote to African Americans Educated or served in Union Army Would force “equal rights” in Southern states

Punishment served no useful purpose

Offered amnesty/swear loyalty

Not to Confederate leaders

Right to vote to African Americans

Educated or served in Union Army

Would force “equal rights” in Southern states

Some jumped in quick Louisiana, Arkansas & Tennessee agreed in 1864 Lincoln’s congress refused to let it occur

Louisiana, Arkansas & Tennessee agreed in 1864

Lincoln’s congress refused to let it occur

Plan 2- Those Radical Republicans! Thought Lincoln was too mild Congress should decide the South’s fate Refused to let the 10% plan work

Thought Lincoln was too mild

Congress should decide the South’s fate

Refused to let the 10% plan work

The Wade-Davis Bill July 1864 50% swear loyalty to Union Only males who never took arms against the North could vote on new state congress & constitution Former Confederates – no public office No slavery Lincoln refused to sign this into law

July 1864

50% swear loyalty to Union

Only males who never took arms against the North could vote on new state congress & constitution

Former Confederates – no public office

No slavery

Lincoln refused to sign this into law

Freedmen’s Bureau-What was life like for African Americans Helped African Americans freed from slavery Established- March 1865 Food, clothes, medical services Established schools Established universities Howard, Atlanta, Fisk Helped them acquire land http://www.freedmensbureau.com/

Helped African Americans freed from slavery

Established- March 1865

Food, clothes, medical services

Established schools

Established universities

Howard, Atlanta, Fisk

Helped them acquire land

http://www.freedmensbureau.com/

Watch your back! President Lincoln Assassinated 5 days after Civil War ended Ford’s Theater John Wilkes Booth “Your name is Mud”

President Lincoln Assassinated

5 days after Civil War ended

Ford’s Theater

John Wilkes Booth

“Your name is Mud”

Ford’s Theater

Lincoln Memorial

A New President Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President Not quite as “gentle” as Lincoln Punishment in order No desire to help African Americans

Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President

Not quite as “gentle” as Lincoln

Punishment in order

No desire to help African Americans

Johnson’s Plan Restoration

Restoration

Amnesty – swore an oath to the Union High ranking officials had to do it personally Appointed governors Only pardoned, whites could vote No equal rights for blacks, no voting Left it up to individual states to “manage their freed people”

Amnesty – swore an oath to the Union

High ranking officials had to do it personally

Appointed governors

Only pardoned, whites could vote

No equal rights for blacks, no voting

Left it up to individual states to “manage their freed people”

No slavery Denounce secession Ratify the 13 th Amendment Abolished slavery End of 1865 most of the South was “restored”

No slavery

Denounce secession

Ratify the 13 th Amendment

Abolished slavery

End of 1865 most of the South was “restored”

Whose Plan Was Right? There were 3 plans 10% Plan Wade Davis Plan The “Restoration”

There were 3 plans

10% Plan

Wade Davis Plan

The “Restoration”

Divide yourselves into 3 equal groups What are the characteristics of each plan? Defend your plan and the correct one

Divide yourselves into 3 equal groups

What are the characteristics of each plan?

Defend your plan and the correct one

South “Restored” but not settled Struggle in Washington D.C. Congress did not want to readmit southern states on Johnson’s terms felt it robbed the Union of it’s victory treatment of African Americans not improving Ku Klux Klan emerged terrorized African Americans in the South– burning houses, churches, schools, rioting and murder

Struggle in Washington D.C.

Congress did not want to readmit southern states on Johnson’s terms

felt it robbed the Union of it’s victory

treatment of African Americans not improving

Ku Klux Klan emerged

terrorized African Americans in the South– burning houses, churches, schools, rioting and murder

Black Codes passed by southern states aim to control freed men, women children enable plantation owners to exploit them as workers reincarnation of the “slave codes”

passed by southern states

aim to control freed men, women children

enable plantation owners to exploit them as workers

reincarnation of the “slave codes”

Examples of the Code– Slavery in Disguise could be arrested for not having a job forced to work for plantation owner to pay off the fine some laws refused to let them own or rent farms orphaned babies were taken as unpaid apprentices

could be arrested for not having a job

forced to work for plantation owner to pay off the fine

some laws refused to let them own or rent farms

orphaned babies were taken as unpaid apprentices

Civil Rights Act of 1866-passed by Congress full citizenship to African Americans Federal government could intervene in state affairs overturned black codes contradicted the Dred Scott Case– African Americans were not citizens

full citizenship to African Americans

Federal government could intervene in state affairs

overturned black codes

contradicted the Dred Scott Case– African Americans were not citizens

President Johnson says no way! Vetoes both the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Amendment did not represent ALL states Congress had enough votes to override Rift between Congress and President grew

Vetoes both the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Amendment

did not represent ALL states

Congress had enough votes to override

Rift between Congress and President grew

14 th Amendment of 1866 Congress passed to ensure Civil Rights Act did not get overturned Full citizenship to anyone born in the USA No state could take away ones life, liberty or property without “due process” all had “equal protection” of the laws

Congress passed to ensure Civil Rights Act did not get overturned

Full citizenship to anyone born in the USA

No state could take away ones life, liberty or property without “due process”

all had “equal protection” of the laws

voting was granted only for men white men Southern states had to ratify it to gain entry to the Union Only Tennessee ratified it delayed adoption of amendment until 1868

voting was granted only for men

white men

Southern states had to ratify it to gain entry to the Union

Only Tennessee ratified it

delayed adoption of amendment until 1868

New Players in Congress Election time for Congress Johnson rallied for rejection of Amendment from North and South campaigned against the Republicans Republicans gained control of congress created their own “reconstruction plan”

Election time for Congress

Johnson rallied for rejection of Amendment from North and South

campaigned against the Republicans

Republicans gained control of congress

created their own “reconstruction plan”

Radical Reconstruction Congress was in control could override any veto that Johnson issued 10 remaining states that did not accept 14 th amendment divided into 5 districts under authority of a military commander African American males allowed to vote former Confederate leaders could not hold office

Congress was in control

could override any veto that Johnson issued

10 remaining states that did not accept 14 th amendment divided into 5 districts

under authority of a military commander

African American males allowed to vote

former Confederate leaders could not hold office

How to get back in… ratify the 14 th amendment submit new constitutions for approval 2 nd Reconstruction Act– registered new voters and prepared states for new state constitutional conventions

ratify the 14 th amendment

submit new constitutions for approval

2 nd Reconstruction Act– registered new voters and prepared states for new state constitutional conventions

Johnson and Congress Spar Congress passed laws to limit the powers of the president Tenure of Office Act didn’t allow the President to remove government officials without Senate approval Johnson tests the act suspends the Secretary of War without approval Appointed commanders to southern districts that congress opposed

Congress passed laws to limit the powers of the president

Tenure of Office Act

didn’t allow the President to remove government officials without Senate approval

Johnson tests the act

suspends the Secretary of War without approval

Appointed commanders to southern districts that congress opposed

Impeach, Impeach, Impeach House of Representatives vote to impeach accused him of misconduct trial lasted 3 months both sides argued back and forth saying it was just politically motivated 35-19 to convict. 1 vote short of 2/3rds majority

House of Representatives vote to impeach

accused him of misconduct

trial lasted 3 months

both sides argued back and forth saying it was just politically motivated

35-19 to convict. 1 vote short of 2/3rds majority

New Election, New President 1868 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant– Republican Horatio Seymour– Democrat Grant won; also received 500,000 African American votes in the South

1868 Gen. Ulysses S. Grant– Republican

Horatio Seymour– Democrat

Grant won; also received 500,000 African American votes in the South

15 th Amendment– 1869 prohibited state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any MALE citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

prohibited state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any MALE citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

The South During Reconstruction 3 groups in the South African Americans white Southerners– supported Republicans white settlers from the North

3 groups in the South

African Americans

white Southerners– supported Republicans

white settlers from the North

Group 1– African Americans important in politics population– helped with Republican victories held some positions in political office at state level national level had more Hiram Revels– senator Blanche K Bruce former runaway slave established a school for African Americans became superintendent of schools in MS senator in US senate

important in politics

population– helped with Republican victories

held some positions in political office at state level

national level had more

Hiram Revels– senator

Blanche K Bruce

former runaway slave

established a school for African Americans

became superintendent of schools in MS

senator in US senate

Scalawags and Carpetbaggers Not everyone got on the same page Some southerners didn’t want to secede agreed with Republicans of the North non-slave holding farmers businessmen Called Scalawags

Not everyone got on the same page

Some southerners didn’t want to secede

agreed with Republicans of the North

non-slave holding farmers

businessmen

Called Scalawags

 

Northerners moved South to make a new life called– Carpetbaggers doctors, lawyers, teachers, former Union soldiers

Northerners moved South to make a new life

called– Carpetbaggers

doctors, lawyers, teachers, former Union soldiers

Resistance to Reconstruction Some white Southerners could not let go of old ways wouldn’t let ex-slaves leave refused to rent land to ex-slaves stores refused to grant credit employers would not hire them used fear to keep them in line

Some white Southerners could not let go of old ways

wouldn’t let ex-slaves leave

refused to rent land to ex-slaves

stores refused to grant credit

employers would not hire them

used fear to keep them in line

Ku Klux Klan formed in 1866 wore white sheets and hoods “midnight rides” Jackson county FL– 150 in 3 years keep from voting

formed in 1866

wore white sheets and hoods

“midnight rides”

Jackson county FL– 150 in 3 years

keep from voting

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

Some Improvements Education whites and African Americans created their own schools Freedmen’s bureau helped teachers from North came South by 1870 50% white kids and 40% African Americans in public school; segregated

Education

whites and African Americans

created their own schools

Freedmen’s bureau helped

teachers from North came South

by 1870 50% white kids and 40% African Americans in public school; segregated

Sharecropping rented land; crude shack seeds, tools, mule % of crop back to landowner not much left in the end not much better than slavery

Sharecropping

rented land; crude shack

seeds, tools, mule

% of crop back to landowner

not much left in the end

not much better than slavery

End of Reconstruction Both sides growing weary; ready to move on wanted “reconciliation” Amnesty act– 1872 pardoned most Confederates vote and hold office changed the political balance– Democrats

Both sides growing weary; ready to move on

wanted “reconciliation”

Amnesty act– 1872 pardoned most Confederates

vote and hold office

changed the political balance– Democrats

Democrats take control easily took control in white states Ku Klux Klan helped gain democratic control in heavily African American populated states

easily took control in white states

Ku Klux Klan helped gain democratic control in heavily African American populated states

Republicans had their own problems scandals top government officials unfair business deals accepting bribes threatening to withhold tax money vice-president; secretary of war democrats won control of the house

scandals

top government officials

unfair business deals

accepting bribes

threatening to withhold tax money

vice-president; secretary of war

democrats won control of the house

Getting out while the getting is good… 1876 election Grant does not run for another term Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D) Tight election 1 electoral vote (20 disputed votes) commission– 7 from each party; 1 independent Hayes wins

1876 election

Grant does not run for another term

Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D)

Tight election

1 electoral vote (20 disputed votes)

commission– 7 from each party; 1 independent

Hayes wins

 

Compromise of 1877 deal made to settle election dispute democrats wanted to fight the verdict more aid to the region withdraw troops from Southern states Democrats will maintain African/American rights

deal made to settle election dispute

democrats wanted to fight the verdict

more aid to the region

withdraw troops from Southern states

Democrats will maintain African/American rights

Hayes: no friend to the African American “…your rights and interests would be safer if this great mass of intelligent white men were left alone by the general government” states would deal with the “African American” issue alone. Reconstruction was over

“…your rights and interests would be safer if this great mass of intelligent white men were left alone by the general government”

states would deal with the “African American” issue alone.

Reconstruction was over

More changes in the South; not all good Democrats in control Redeemers save the south from republican rule adopted conservative ways stopped many social programs schools lowered taxes less public spending

Democrats in control

Redeemers

save the south from republican rule

adopted conservative ways

stopped many social programs

schools

lowered taxes

less public spending

The South’s Economy lags behind the nation industrialization slow Rise of “New South” Henry Grady led the cause coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, lumber rise of textile mills; Northern companies moved south James Duke developed the tobacco manufacturing

lags behind the nation

industrialization slow

Rise of “New South”

Henry Grady led the cause

coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, lumber

rise of textile mills; Northern companies moved south

James Duke developed the tobacco manufacturing

industry grew (not as fast as North) workers worked hard, long hours cheap wages kids too RR boom

industry grew (not as fast as North)

workers worked hard, long hours

cheap wages

kids too

RR boom

A divided society 15 th Amendment allowed African Americans the right to vote Southern states looked for loop holes poll tax– had to pay before you could vote literacy test– read & explain constitution grandfather clause– if father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction; didn’t have to pass literacy test African American voting declined

15 th Amendment allowed African Americans the right to vote

Southern states looked for loop holes

poll tax– had to pay before you could vote

literacy test– read & explain constitution

grandfather clause– if father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction; didn’t have to pass literacy test

African American voting declined

Ending thoughts Some good things occurred Some not so good for the African American “ The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B. Du Bois

Some good things occurred

Some not so good

for the African American

“ The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B. Du Bois

Jim Crow Laws 1890’s– segregation was prominent Laws required separation in most public places Plessy vs. Ferguson separate section on train access to public facilities = to whites kept segregation in south for 50 years were really not equal

1890’s– segregation was prominent

Laws required separation in most public places

Plessy vs. Ferguson

separate section on train

access to public facilities = to whites

kept segregation in south for 50 years

were really not equal

 

 

 

 

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