Published on December 2, 2013
Reconnaissance Satellite & It’s importance By Shakir hussain B.E-VIII
Contents • • • • • What is Reconnaissance Satellites It’s Types It’s Importance in war Disadvantages The KH-11 Satellite
What is Reconnaissance Satellite • It is a satellite that is used provide intelligence information on the military activities of foreign countries. • It can detect missile launches or nuclear explosions. • This satellite can catch and record radio and radar transmissions while passing over any country.
Types Of Reconnaissance Satellite • Reconnaissance Satellite can be divided as following – Image intelligence (IMINT) or photosurveillance satellites – Signal intelligence (SIGINT) or ferret satellites – Early warning satellites – Measurement and signature intelligence – Nuclear explosion detection satellites
Image intelligence (IMINT) Satellites • Image intelligence satellites provide detailed high resolution images and maps of geographical areas, military installations and activities, troop positions and other places of military interest. • They are generally placed in low, near-polar orbits at altitudes of 500–3000 km as they take high resolution close-up images. • Due to large atmospheric drag at these altitudes, image intelligence satellites generally have small lifetimes of the order of a few weeks.
SIGINT Satellites • Interception and decryption of governmental, military and diplomatic communications transmitted by radio. • Interception of ESM (electronic support measure) signals that characterize the operating modes of the higher command organizations, installations of air defence, missile forces and also the combat readiness of foreign armed forces. • Reception of telemetry signals during ballistic missile tests. • Relay of radio messages from CIA agents in foreign countries.
Early Warning Satellites • Early warning satellites constitute a significant part of military systems. They provide timely information on the launch of missiles, military aircraft and nuclear explosions by the enemy. • This information enables them to ensure treaty compliance as well as provide an early warning of missile attack for appropriate action.
Measurement and signature intelligence • This satellite is used to detect, track, identify or describe the signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. • This often includes radar intelligence, acoustic intelligence, nuclear intelligence, and chemical and biological intelligence. • “measurement" relates to the finite metric parameters of targets. • "Signature" covers the distinctive features of phenomena, equipment, or objects as they are sensed by the collection instrument(s)
Its Importance • Reconnaisance satellites or spy satellite have become a very important factor in war and rescue operation • It provides information of sensitive areas. • It provide position of Enemy, army patrol and there strategy.
Its Importance • These satellites played key role in Vietnam war, Iraq war and the raid of capturing usama bin laden. • Developed countries like America uses spy satellites with colloboration of cellular companies to track and capture position of suspects.
Disadvantages • It may provide wrong results • It can be hacked and it has been hacked several times. • Man made mistakes result in worse condition. – In 2010 Three US special force soldier were killed by drone attack by there mistake in afghanistan. • Violation of Individual Rights • Risk of Abuse
The KH-11 satellites • The KH-11 KENNAN was spy satellite launched by US in 1976. • It was first American spy satellite to use electro optical digital imaging, and create a real-time optical observation capability. • Typically used to take overhead photos for military missions
The KH-11 satellites • It’s design was leaked and then were officially revealed by NASA. • It contained telescopes with high tech lightweight mirrors. • The optics were designed for looking at objects on Earth to provide up to 3.9 inch resolution from 200 mi. altitude or higher.
Soviet ships under construction at the Nikolaev shipyard on the Black Sea. Chinese jet bomber Image taken by an KH-11
Future of Spy Satellites • Private companies like DigitalGlobe and GeoEye have started providing spying services commercially. • NRO(Natioanl Reconnaisance Office) have stated to develop satellites with more power full satellites having – Nano-RAM Memory, – Third-generation lithium ion batteries – high-efficiency solar cells.
References • Keyhole Satellites – http://www.howstuffworks.com/question529.htm – http://www.space.com/13287-secret-spy-satellite-designer-revealslifes-work.html – http://www.americaspace.com/?p=20825 • Reconnaisance Satellites and its types – – – Chapter No 14 AK Maini http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconnaissance_satellite http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MASINT • Importance and Disadvantages – – http://www.popsci.com/category/tags/membrane-optics http://www.matthewaid.com/post/33496610696/1969-evaluationof-the-importance-of-reconnaissance • Future of Spy Satellites – – http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/20/us/politics/spy-satellite-clashfor-military-and-intelligence-officials.html?pagewanted=2 http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/09/new-space-gear/
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