Published on February 18, 2014
Reconciling Rhythms: Plans and Temporal Alignment in Collaborative Scientific Work Stephanie B. Steinhardt firstname.lastname@example.org Steven J. Jackson email@example.com Jackson Pollock “Autumn Rhythms.” Image: Gallery Intell
We work on time. ● Orlikowski, W. J., & Yates, J. A. (2002). It’s About Time : Temporal Structuring in Organizations. Organization Science, 684–700.
Obviously. Paul Klee “Redgreen and Violet-Yellow Rhythms.” Image: Met Museum
Rhythms Rhythm Temporal patterns and regularities that stem from and in turn help to frame and support ongoing forms of action in the world: • • • • Supports regularities of practice Unfolds in predictable and routinized ways Establishes structures of convention and expectation Allows actors to mesh and coordinate otherwise disparate temporal flows • Organizes time: shaping and framing our work and personal lives in some form of navigable order ● Jackson, S. J. S. J., Ribes, D., Buyuktur, A., & Bowker, G. C. G. C. (2011). Collaborative rhythm: temporal dissonance and alignment in collaborative scientific work. In Proceedings of the ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work (pp. 245–254). New York, New York, USA: ACM. Matt Phillips “Guitar.” Image: Daily Serving
● ● Suchman, L. (2007). Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Star, S. L. (1999). The Ethnography of Infrastructure. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(3), 377–391.
Methods • Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) • 30 in-person and 10 remote semi-structured interviews, ranging from one-two hours in length • Scientists, engineers, NSF officers, PIs, program managers, staff, crew • November 2012 – September 2013 • Laboratories: • • • • • • • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (OOI) University of California San Diego, Scripps (OOI) Rutgers University (OOI) Oregon State University (OOI) University of Washington (OOI) Offices in New Jersey (external) Cornell University (external) • Grounded Theory approach [cf. Strauss, Corbin, Glaser]
Traditional Rhythms of Ocean Science • • • • • • • • • Time to build, position and deploy tools (biographical, infrastructural) Academic calendar (organizational) Tenure process (biographical, organizational) Publication deadlines (organizational) Soft money grant schedules (organizational) Navy ship availability (infrastructural) Crew availability (infrastructural, biographical) Fisherman and fishery involvement in the area (organizational) Events in nature (phenomenal)
“The Instrumented Ocean” Ocean Observatories Initiative. Image: Scientific American
New Rhythms of Ocean Science - Larger collaborative networks (infrastructural) - Industry purchased instruments and procurement processes (infrastructural, organizational) - Real-time public data (biographical, infrastructural) - Long term and continuous data collection (infrastructural) - Maintenance cruises substitute research cruises (infrastructural, biographical)
Planning vs. Everyday Practice ● ● ● Certeau, M. de. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press. Scott, J. C. (1999). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Suchman, L. (2007). Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Unprecedented Rhythms ● ● ● ● The relationship between research responsibilities and facility building for the MREFC planning process Activities related to managing public attention and scrutiny of the initaitive Long-term funding brought by a facility unlike the predominant soft money structure of the field Industry procurement schedules and deployment testing against the highly controlled MREFC procurement process
Biographical Rhythms & Constructing the Instrumented Ocean ● ● ● ● ● Administrative work of MREFC in place of core research skill-building and ideation ● Coordinating activities ● Developing protocols ● Science requirements ● Industry instrument testing and deployment schedules Time on task for OOI vs Time on Research tasks Reorienting or removing altogether small-scale research agendas Delaying or derailing deployment and testing of non-industry instruments CV-building Edward Burtynsky “Distress” Image: edwardburtynsky.com
[Empirical story continues here]
Rhythms and Planning Plans: ● define absences and presences ● resources constrained and allocated ● mechanisms which empower or remove legitimacy from people and material forms Rhythms: ● can stretch from local to institutional ● can be diminished and interrupted with great consequence Olafur Elliason “Take Your Time”
Reflecting on Rhythms Matthew Harris “Scattered Rhythm” Image: Erskin, Hall & Coe
Improvisation Harmonization Rhythm Vasily Kandinsky “Improvisation No 30”, Image: Art Institute of Chicago
Thank you! Stephanie B. Steinhardt firstname.lastname@example.org Steven J. Jackson email@example.com PIs Carl Lagoze, Theresa Velden and Steve Jackson, “Scientific Collaboration in Time,” National Science Foundation Science of Science and Innovation Policy Program, 2012-2014. NSF#1258297. PI Steve Jackson, "Governing Collaborative Science: Cyberinfrastructure, Scale, and Governance in the Networked Ecological Sciences,” National Science Foundation CAREER award, 2009-2014. NSF#0847175. Syed Haider Raza “Prakriti”
Reconciling Rhythms: Plans and Temporal Alignment in Collaborative Scientific Work Stephanie B. Steinhardt Department of Communication Cornell University
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