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Recitation08 SectionA

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Published on November 5, 2007

Author: Gallard

Source: authorstream.com

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Recitation 8: Signals & Shells:  Recitation 8: Signals & Shells Andrew Faulring 15213 Section A 28 October 2002 Andrew Faulring:  Andrew Faulring faulring@cs.cmu.edu Office hours: NSH 2504 (lab) / 2507 (conference room) Thursday 5-6 Lab 5 due Thursday, 31 Oct @ 11:59pm Halloween Night … happy reaping! Today’s Plan:  Today’s Plan Process IDs & Process Groups Process Control Signals Preemptive Scheduler Race hazards Reaping Child Processes Lab 5: Shell:  Lab 5: Shell tshref Use as a guide for output You shell should have same behavior How Programmers Play with Processes:  How Programmers Play with Processes Process: executing copy of program Basic functions fork() spawns new process exit() terminates calling process wait() and waitpid() wait for and reap terminated children execl() and execve() run a new program in an existing process Process IDs & Process Groups:  Process IDs & Process Groups Each process has its own, unique process ID pid_t getpid(); Each process belongs to exactly one process group pid_t getpgid(); To which process group does a new process initially belong? Its parent’s process group A process can make a process group for itself and its children setpgid(0, 0); Slide7:  Fore- ground job Back- ground job #1 Back- ground job #2 Shell Child Child pid=10 pgid=10 Foreground process group 20 Background process group 32 Backgroud process group 40 pid=20 pgid=20 pid=32 pgid=32 pid=40 pgid=40 pid=21 pgid=20 pid=22 pgid=20 Signals:  Signals Section 8.5 in text Read at least twice … really! A signal tells our program that some event has occurred For instance, a child process has terminated Can we use signals to count events? No Important Signals:  Important Signals SIGINT Interrupt signal from keyboard (ctrl-c) SIGTSTP Stop signal from keyboard (ctrl-z) SIGCHLD A child process has stopped or terminated Look at Figure 8.23 for a complete list of Linux signals Sending a Signal:  Sending a Signal Send a signal Sent by either the kernel Or another process Why is a signal sent? The kernel detects a system event. Divide-by-zero (SIGFPE) Termination of a child process (SIGCHLD) Another process invokes a system call. kill(pid_t pid, int SIGINT) kill(1500, SIGINT) Send SIGINT to process 1500 kill(-1500, SIGINT) Send SIGINT to progress group 1500 alarm(unsigned int secs) Receiving a Signal:  Receiving a Signal Default action The process terminates [and dumps core] The process stops until restarted by a SIGCONT signal The process ignore the signal Can modify the default action with the signal function Additional action: “Handle the signal” void sigint_handler(int sig); signal(SIGINT, sigint_handler); Cannot modify action for SIGSTOP and SIGKILL Receiving a Signal :  Receiving a Signal pending: bit vector: bit k is set when signal type k is delivered, clear when signal received blocked: bit vector of signals that should not be received Only receive non-blocked, pending signals pending & ~blocked Synchronizing Processes:  Synchronizing Processes Preemptive scheduler run multiple programs “concurrently” by time slicing How does time slicing work? The scheduler can stop a program at any point Signal handler code can run at any point, too Program behaviors depend on how the scheduler interleaves the execution of processes Racing condition between parent and child! Why? Race Hazard:  Race Hazard Different behaviors of program depending upon how the schedule interleaves the execution of code. Parent & Child Race Hazard:  Parent & Child Race Hazard sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } eval() { pid = fork(); if(pid == 0) { /* child */ execve(…); } /* parent */ /* signal handler might run BEFORE addjob() */ addjob(…); } An Okay Schedule:  Shell Signal Handler Child fork() addjob() execve() exit() sigchld_handler() deletejobs() time An Okay Schedule A Problematic Schedule:  Shell Signal Handler Child fork() execve() exit() sigchld_handler() deletejobs() time addjob() A Problematic Schedule Solution to Race Hazard:  Solution to Race Hazard sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } eval() { sigprocmask(SIG_BLOCK, …) pid = fork(); if(pid == 0) { /* child */ sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …) execve(…); } /* parent */ /* signal handler might run BEFORE addjob() */ addjob(…); sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …) } More details 8.5.6 (page 633) Reaping Child Process:  Reaping Child Process Child process becomes zombie when terminates Still consume system resources Parent performs reaping on terminated child Using either wait or waitpid syscall Where to wait children processes to terminate? Two waits sigchld_handler eval: for foreground processes One wait sigchld_handler But what about foreground processes? Busy Wait:  Busy Wait void eval() { … /* parent */ addjob(…); while(fg process still alive){ ; } } sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } Pause:  Pause void eval() { … /* parent */ addjob(…); while(fg process still alive){ pause(); } } sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } If signal handled (SIGCHLD) before call to pause, then pause will not return Sleep:  Sleep void eval() { … /* parent */ addjob(…); while(fg process still alive){ sleep(1); } } sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } waitpid:  waitpid Used for reaping zombied child processes pid_t waitpid(pid_t pid, int *status, int options) pid: wait until child process with pid has terminated -1: wait for any child process status: tells why child terminated options: WNOHANG: return immediately if no children have exited (zombied) waitpid returns -1 WUNTRACED: report status of stopped children too waitpid’s status:  waitpid’s status int status; waitpid(pid,&status, NULL) WIFEXITED(status): child exited normally WEXITSTATUS(status): return code when child exits WIFSIGNALED(status): child exited because a signal was not caught WTERMSIG(status): gives the number of the terminating signal WIFSTOPPED(status): child is stopped WSTOPSIG(status): gives the number of the stop signal Summary:  Summary Process provides applications with the illusions of: Exclusively use of the processor and the main memory At the interface with OS, applications can: Creating child processes Run new programs Catch signals from other processes Use man if anything is not clear!

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