Reactions in aqeous solutions

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Published on March 30, 2013

Author: LKOTZE

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Grade 10 Physical Sciences

Based on Andries Oliviers' CAPS aligned textbook

Focus area: Reactions in aqueous solutions

Reactions inaqeous solutions

Water

Water is polar + - δ δ

Forms adipole

Water is an excellentsolvent

Compounds that contain polar molecules Ionic solids

Polar molecules ionisation: + - HCl(g) → H (aq) + Cl (aq) δ+ δ-

Ionic solids dissociation: + - NaCl(g) → Na (aq) + Cl (aq)

Solutions that conductelectricity are known aselectrolytes

Strong Weak Non- electrolytes

Strong Weak Non- High Low No [ions] [ions] [ions] Do notConduct Conduct Conduct well poorly

Conductivity depends on: Type of substance Solubility of substanceConcentration of the ions in solution

Types of chemical reactions

Ion exchange reactions

Includes:Precipitation reactionsGas forming reactionsAcid-base reactions

Precipitationreactions

Precipitate forms when there is acombination of ions that can form a salt that is insoluble in water.

Solubility rules

Balanced chemical equations for precipitate reactions Formulae Chemical of equation Word Balance reactants forequation & precipitate products

Testing for certain ions

Testing forhalides

- - -Cl , Br , I

AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Cl White precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens: chloride

AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Br Cream coloured precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happenes bromide

AgNO3 (aq) and shake-I Yellow precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens iodide

Testing forSulphates

BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidNothing happens: sulphate

Testing forcarbonates

BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidPrecipitate disappears: carbonate

Gasformingreaction

When ions exchange, and a gas is part of the product. Acid and carbonate → CO2 Acid and metal → H2

Acid-base reaction

Acid-baseneutralisation

Acid and metal oxide

Acid and a metal carbonate

Acid and a metal

Redox reactions

Reduction/oxidation reaction

Loss of electrons - oxidation

Gain of electrons - reduction

Metal displacementHydrogen displacementHalogen displacement

Tosummarise

When substances mix with water,they can dissolve.

When these solutions conductelectricity, they are called electrolytes.

Ion exchangereactions: Cations and anions in solutions swop around.

Precipitation reactions:One of the products are insoluble.

Gas forming reactions:One of the products is a gas.

Acid-base reactions:Acids react to metal- ormetal-based substances to form H2

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