Published on March 30, 2013
Reactions inaqeous solutions
Water is polar + - δ δ
Water is an excellentsolvent
Compounds that contain polar molecules Ionic solids
Polar molecules ionisation: + - HCl(g) → H (aq) + Cl (aq) δ+ δ-
Ionic solids dissociation: + - NaCl(g) → Na (aq) + Cl (aq)
Solutions that conductelectricity are known aselectrolytes
Strong Weak Non- electrolytes
Strong Weak Non- High Low No [ions] [ions] [ions] Do notConduct Conduct Conduct well poorly
Conductivity depends on: Type of substance Solubility of substanceConcentration of the ions in solution
Types of chemical reactions
Ion exchange reactions
Includes:Precipitation reactionsGas forming reactionsAcid-base reactions
Precipitate forms when there is acombination of ions that can form a salt that is insoluble in water.
Balanced chemical equations for precipitate reactions Formulae Chemical of equation Word Balance reactants forequation & precipitate products
Testing for certain ions
- - -Cl , Br , I
AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Cl White precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens: chloride
AgNO3 (aq) and shake -Br Cream coloured precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happenes bromide
AgNO3 (aq) and shake-I Yellow precipitate Nitric acid Nothing happens iodide
BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidNothing happens: sulphate
BaNO3 (aq) White precipitate Nitric acidPrecipitate disappears: carbonate
When ions exchange, and a gas is part of the product. Acid and carbonate → CO2 Acid and metal → H2
Acid and metal oxide
Acid and a metal carbonate
Acid and a metal
Loss of electrons - oxidation
Gain of electrons - reduction
Metal displacementHydrogen displacementHalogen displacement
When substances mix with water,they can dissolve.
When these solutions conductelectricity, they are called electrolytes.
Ion exchangereactions: Cations and anions in solutions swop around.
Precipitation reactions:One of the products are insoluble.
Gas forming reactions:One of the products is a gas.
Acid-base reactions:Acids react to metal- ormetal-based substances to form H2
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Learn the basic principles for writing balanced equations and performing calculations for reactions in water or aqueous solution.
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