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Published on September 27, 2007

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Research Center for Multiprocessor Systems Doctor Sergei Abramov:  Research Center for Multiprocessor Systems Doctor Sergei Abramov Supercomputers and multiprocessor software. Technologies for regional computer networks building. Functional programming, supercompilation and metacomputation theories, and their applications to practical programming. The SKIF Supercomputer Project of the Russia-Belarus Union State Participants: structure:  The SKIF Supercomputer Project of the Russia-Belarus Union State Participants: structure 2000-2004: 16 clusters produced:  2000-2004: 16 clusters produced Peak performance of the clusters:  Peak performance of the clusters 20 98 717 2534 48 x125 ratio Linpack-performance of the clusters:  Linpack-performance of the clusters 11 57 472 2032 26 x185 ratio 2000-2004: Supercomputing Industry. Linpack-performance Growth:  2000-2004: Supercomputing Industry. Linpack-performance Growth 2000-2004: Supercomputing Industry. Linpack-performance Growth:  2000-2004: Supercomputing Industry. Linpack-performance Growth SKIF K-500 (October 2003, Minsk):  SKIF K-500 (October 2003, Minsk) Developers UIIP of NAS, Belarus NII EVM The T-Platforms Company PSI RAS The project was completed in months SKIF K-500: testing (September 2003, Moscow):  SKIF K-500: testing (September 2003, Moscow) The project has been completed in 4 months, cost per 1 TFlops (peak): under $700,000 Minsk: К-500 (September 2003):  Minsk: К-500 (September 2003) SKIF К-1000:  SKIF К-1000 Developers UIIP of NAS, Belarus NII EVM PSI RAS T-platforms Development stages Variant investigation, concept development: December 2003 — March 2004 Specification preparation: April 2004 Preparation of tender documents, tender: May 2004 Implementation: July 15 — October 1, 2004, 2½ months SKIF К-1000:  SKIF К-1000 Peak performance 2,5 Tflops Linpack- performance 2,0 Tflops Efficiency factor = 80.1 % SKIF К-1000 project cost: $ 1 800 000 (several times cheaper than the competition) Competitions: IBM, HP, Fujitsu-Siemens SKIF К-1000: hardware:  SKIF К-1000: hardware SKIF К-1000: convenient components design, easily scalable up to 15 TFlops SKIF К-1000:  SKIF К-1000 is ranked #98 in the world (the Top500 rating) Only four countries take the first 100 ranks: Union State, USA, Japan, and China November 2004: first place in the world according to the TopCrunch rating (the 3 Cars Crash Test) November 2004: first place on the territory of ex-USSR (the Top50 national rating) SKIF in the Top50 rating:  SKIF in the Top50 rating On December 7, 2004 seven SKIF computers were listed of fifty most powerful supercomputers of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Тор50, http://www.supercomputers.ru) and took the following places: 1, 6, 8, 20, 22, 32, 34 Installations of the SKIF family take 14% of all places in the list Their total peak performance amounts to 25% from the sum of all peak performances of all the systems presented in the Top50 list Their total Linpack performance amounts to 33% from the sum of all Linpack performances of all systems presented in the Top50 list Cluster-level Software Suite:  Linux-SKIF OS kernel PVFS-SKIF — parallel file system OpenPBS-SKIF — batch queue FLAME-SKIF — the system of monitoring and control (reset, power on/off) over installations of the SKIF family Cluster-level Software Suite Cluster-level Software Suite:  Cluster-level Software Suite OpenTS — open architecture T-system the TG++ compiler for the T++ language the TF2TC translator (T-Fortran  T++) TDB — distributed interactive debugger for MPI programs supporting T-programs debugging (TotalView counterpart) Cluster-level Software Suite:  Cluster-level Software Suite 6 software applications in the OpenTS environment 12 adapted free packages, libraries, and applications 14 in-house designed applications (3 of them in the AI field) The platform is compatible with commercial engineering packages (over 6 fields of application) ServNET: cluster management (June 2003):  ServNET: cluster management (June 2003) RS-485 links : up to 125 nodes, up to 1,000 meters Several links (equaling the number of COM-ports) may be connected to the control station. ServNET: simple hardware:  ServNET: simple hardware Single-sided board. One Atmel microcontroller Two Maxim chips (MAX232A и MAX487) One chip for ferric RAM (FRAM) RAMTRON. Few auxiliary components. ServNET: functionality:  ServNET: functionality Selective node reset (SW: groups). Selective switching on/off of node’s power supply (SW: groups, also “smooth”, with a target latency “between nodes”). Access to the serial console of the node allowing... Access to the serial console of the node allows the following::  Access to the serial console of the node allows the following: To change the parameters of the BIOS node. LILO: select an OS to be loaded and the loading parameters of the Linux core. To execute any commands in a console regime. To monitor critical messages of the OS. To read several last console messages from the nonvolatile memory of the ServNET board after failure. ServNET: production:  ServNET: production Development – PSI of RAS, Production – Computer Research Institute, Minsk. A pilot lot of more than 200 items has been produced. ServNET has been installed in: T-Forge32 (16 nodes). “SKIF К-500” (64 nodes) and other clusters in Minsk. Clusters in Pereslavl. Clusters in the Research Computing Center of the Moscow State University (58 ServNET boards). ServNET v.2: 2004, developed by PSI of RAS and T-platforms, produced by T-platforms. SKIF-ServNet v.2:  SKIF-ServNet v.2 The size has become half as large (66 × 33 mm) if compared with the previous version. Design and Development of Regional Telecommunication Systems:  The Botik Lab.: Activities Develops cost effective solutions for regional computer networks (BOTIK Technologies) Implements the technology in Pereslavl region for testing and enhancement Transfers the approved technology to Russian regions and the CIS countries Design and Development of Regional Telecommunication Systems Head: Yury Shevchuk, Ph.D. The BOTIK Network:  The BOTIK Network Started in 1994: 11-year history State-of-the-art More than 900 subscribers More than 3000 networked PCs External traffic: 250 Gb/month 4 technology transfer contracts Almaty, Kazakhstan Moscow Ramenskoye, Moscow region Severomorsk, Murmansk region The BOTIK Technologies: Core:  The BOTIK Technologies: Core PC router IBM PC + Linux + in-house designed HW & SW Other hardware solutions Resistance to low-quality power supply, temperature difference, and vandalism Self-recovery and self-monitoring of devices Wireless solutions for rural regions Etherbox: sensor networks device Software solutions for regional networks Network Administration System: +10,000 lines… Urban Networks: Pereslavl-Zalessky:  Urban Networks: Pereslavl-Zalessky Rural Networks: Pereslavl Region:  Rural Networks: Pereslavl Region Slide32:  Functional programming, supercompilation and metacomputation theories, and their applications to practical programming Functional programming in IPS RAS:  Functional programming in IPS RAS Supercompilation, program specialization. Metacomputation, semantics modifiers – reusing “semantics components”. Implementation of functional programming languages. Applied computer algebraic libraries. Reasons for program optimization:  Reasons for program optimization The methods can do almost nothing with programs that are already carefully optimized by a professional programmer in a lower-level language. The methods can clean a program of natural inefficiencies if the program has been developed “inefficiently” in a structured way, using various “high-level” techniques like interpretation of specialized application-oriented languages and component programming from libraries of general re-usable software, etc. Thus, the methods are directed to provide degrees of freedom for new software technologies rather than to optimizing programs written in an old style. Specialization: the main idea:  Specialization: the main idea Let human be a program with two parameters knowledge and problem. Then creating a specialist humanknowledge from human and knowledge is a good example of specialization: humanknowledge(problem) = human(knowledge,problem) Specialist humanknowledge can solve problems much quicker than an ordinary human when the problems are covered by his specific knowledge. A number of tasks for specialization:  A number of tasks for specialization <F x0, y> The first argument of a program F is given, while the second is unknown. <F <G x, y> , z > Let two programs F and G be given, specialize a composition of applications of the programs. That is specialization with respect to a context of application. <IntL ( Program ) e.data > <GO > An interpreter IntL of a programming language L is specialized with respect to a given program. IntL is written in a language M, while the program is written in L, so we expect an optimal program written in M as a result of specialization. Thus a specializer may be used as a compiler from L into M, where M is the subject language of the specializer. What is supercompilation ?:  What is supercompilation ? Supercompilation is a technique of specialization of programs written in a functional programming language. The technique was introduced in the 1970s by V. F. Turchin. He proposed a task of creating tools to observe operational semantics of a program, when a function F that is to be computed by the program is fixed. As a result of such observations a new algorithmic definition of an extension of the function F must be constructed. His ideas were studied by a number of authors for a long time. The main aim of a supercompiler is to perform as many actions of a given parameterized application of a program uniformly on the parameters as possible. Also supercompilers can be used as theorem provers for program verification; as compilers by specialization of operational specifications; for porting a non-standard semantics from one programming language to another; by specialization of a semantics modifier. The Supercompiler SCP4:  The Supercompiler SCP4 is an experimental specializer for a functional language Refal-5. (There are no special restrictions on the input language.) SCP4 has been implemented once again using Refal-5. Sources of the supercompiler, executable modules and sources of Refal-5 are available for immediate free download: http://www.botik.ru/pub/local/scp/refal5/ Windows 98 Windows NT/2000/XP Linux (Intel) Specialization of interpreters:  Specialization of interpreters <IntL ( Program ) e.data > <GO > An interpreter IntL of a programming language L is specialized with respect to a given program. IntL is written in a language M, while the program is written in L, so we expect an optimal program written in M as a result of specialization. Thus a specializer may be used as a compiler from L into M, where M is the subject language of the specializer. Semantics modifiers (a class of programs that allow the development of general and reusable “semantics components”) can be specialized alike interpreters. Verification of parameterized systems by the supercompiler SCP4:  Verification of parameterized systems by the supercompiler SCP4 Successful experiments on verification of cache coherence protocols: IEEE Futurebus+, MOESI, MESI, MSI, “Illinois”, “Firefly”, “Berkeley”. More parameterized protocols: Java Meta-Locking Algorithm, Reader-Writer protocol. References:  References [1] Abramov S.M., and Glueck R. From standard to non-standard semantics by semantics modifiers. International Journal of Foundation of Computer Science, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp:171-211, 2001. [2] Nemytykh A.P., and Turchin V.F. The Supercompiler Scp4: sources, on-line demonstration. http://www.botik.ru/pub/local/scp/refal5/ ,2000. [3] Nemytykh A.P., The Supercompiler Scp4: General Structure., LNCS vol. 2890, pp.162-170, 2003. [4] Nemytykh A.P., A Note on Elimination of Simplest Recursions. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Asia-PEPM'02, 138-146. ACM Press, 2002. [5] Korlyukov A.V., and Nemytykh A.P., Supercompilation of Double Interpretation. (How One Hour of the Machine's Time Can Be Turned to One Second). (In English), Vestnik natcional’nogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta “Khar’kovskogo politekhnicheskogo instituta”, Khar’kov, No. 1, 2004. [6] Lisitsa A., and Nemytykh A.P., Verification via Supercompilation. http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~alexei/VeriSuper/ , 2005.

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