Published on August 17, 2007
PROGRESS IN THE PREPARATION OF INDIAN EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKS ON THORIUM IRRADIATIONS IN PHWR AND KAMINI REACTOR: PROGRESS IN THE PREPARATION OF INDIAN EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKS ON THORIUM IRRADIATIONS IN PHWR AND KAMINI REACTOR S. Ganesan Reactor Physics Design Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 India Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Evaluated nuclear data for the Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle,' Vienna, Austria, 6-9 December 2004 PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS Slide3: PUBLICATIONS/REPORTS Slide4: CREATION OF EXPERIMENTAL INDIAN BENCHMARKS India is working on creation of experimental benchmarks for international distribution. The two immediate tasks on hand are the following: 1. Thorium Irradiation experiments and burnup measurements in PHWRs. A benchmark is being prepared on this as well. 2. KAMINI experimental benchmark: Considerable data has already been released to the IAEA. Further work is underway to prepare international quality description of the benchmark. Slide5: THORIUM LOADING IN PHWRs INDIA IS THE ONLY COUNTRY HAVING AN ON-GOING PROGRAMME OF THORIUM IRRADIATIONS IN ALL PHWRs FOR INITIAL POWER FLATTENING Slide6: Thorium bundles were loaded in Indian PHWRs for initial flux flattening from KAPS Unit 1 onwards. Identical loading of thorium bundles also used in KAPP-2, KAIGA-1 and 2 and RAPS-3 and 4 to attain flux flattening in the initial core. Slide7: Thorium Fuel bundle is used for power flattening in 220MWe PHWR in India Slide8: Slide9: Thorium loading in the initial core of KAPS-2 unit The axial positions of the 35 bundles of thorium oxide bundles are indicated by Arabic numerals. The remaining (3025 in the active core +612 outside active core ) bundles are of natural uranium. Slide10: Slide11: Slide12: Slide13: Table 1 Specifications of the U/Th Fuel Clusters of Indian 220 MWe PHWR Slide14: Table 2 Specifictions of the U/Th Fuel Clusters of Indian 220 MWe PHWR Slide15: Table 3 Fuel Cluster Description: Same for Natural UO2 and ThO2 Clusters Slide16: POWER HISTORY Slide17: The Post Irradiation Examination was carried out for one of the discharged bundles from KAPS- Unit 2, which had seen 508 FPDs after 4.5 years of cooling About five grams of the irradiated bundle were cut off from the edge pellet of the outer ring of the irradiated 19-rod thorium cluster, and was supplied for dissolution studies and separation of the uranium isotopes. Analyzed experimentally by alpha spectrometry for 232U and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for 233U, 234U 235U 236U by two different groups in BARC . Slide18: Post Irradiation Examination Steps involved are:- Remote cutting of the bundle and cladding to sample the irradiated pellet for chemical analysis. Quantitative Dissolution of the irradiated pellet in a shielded facility. Analysis of the solution for various constituents. Slide19: Dissolution of the irradiated pellet Approximately 5 g of the pellet in powder form was transferred into a shielded dissolution setup housed inside a glove box assembly. A mixture of 13 M HNO3 containing 0.03 M HF and 0.1 M Al(NO3)3 was used as the dissolvent (25 mL). Solution was boiled under reflux condition and samples were drawn at intervals to monitor the dissolution. After 16 hours dissolution was found to be complete. Slide20: Chemical Analysis Uranium Concentration - Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Uranium Isotope Composition - Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry for 234U/ 233U, 235U/233U and 236U/ 233U Ratio Measurements - Alpha Spectrometry for 232U/233U Measurement Thorium Concentration - Volumetric and Spectrophotometric Estimation Burnup - 148Nd Estimation by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry - Gamma Spectrometry of Fission Products Slide21: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Isotopic Contents in (J-11-9) Fuel Rod – 3rd Ring; KAPP-2 (PHWR) E values in gms per tonne of thorium 232U 7.2 233U 12357 234U 1414.8 235U 147.7 236U 15.2 Sum (232U, 233U, 234U, 235U and 236U) 13941.9 The formation of 232U in thorium: The formation of 232U in thorium mainly takes place by the following reactions: 232Th (n, 2n) 231Th (-) 231Pa(n, ) 232Pa (- ) 232U 232U is also formed in-situ with burn-up and thus 232U is also formed in small amounts through the breeding reaction from 232Th: 232Th (n, ) 233Th (-) 233Pa (- ) 233U(n, 2n) 232U. 233Pa (n, 2n) 232Pa (- ) 232U Slide23: The 232Th(n, 2n) reaction cross section in 172 groups from IAEAGX library of the IAEA WIMS LIBRARY UPDATE PROJECT: http://www-nds.iaea.org/wimsd/ Slide24: Slide25: CORE CALCULATIONS BASED Comparison of the Isotopic Contents in (J-11-9) Fuel Rod – 3rd Ring; KAPP-2 (PHWR) C/E values for weight percent. 232U 0.85 233U* 1.00 232U/233U(ppm) 0.86 234U 0.96 235U 0.92 236U 0.86 Sum (232U, 233U, 234U, 235U and 236U) 0.98 INDIAN CODES ARE USED: PHANTOM-CEMESH code system. Explicit treatment of (n, 2n) cross sections at Lattice LEVEL Lattice cell code module in PHANTOM: CLUB; *233Pa has been added. Slide26: RCD Measured the following burnup monitors (Activity per tonne of thorium) 106Ru, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144Ce, 154Eu, 155Eu, 106Ru, 208Tl, 228Th Slide27: Dissolver solution fission product analysis By Gamma Spectrometry The formation of 232U in thorium: The formation of 232U in thorium mainly takes place by the following reactions: 232Th (n, 2n) 231Th (-) 231Pa(n, ) 232Pa (- ) 232U 232U is also formed in-situ with burn-up and thus 232U is also formed in small amounts through the breeding reaction from 232Th: 232Th (n, ) 233Th (-) 233Pa (- ) 233U(n, 2n) 232U. 233Pa (n, 2n) 232Pa (- ) 232U Introduction to KAMINI: Introduction to KAMINI The Kalpakkam Mini (KAMINI) is a U-233 fueled, low power (30kW) research reactor designed and built by the BARC and IGCAR joint venture. Unique distinction being the only reactor operating with U-233 as fuel in the whole world now. Important Features of KAMINI: Important Features of KAMINI Power – 30 kW Fuel – U-233 (20 Wt % ) and Al alloy Total Fuel Inventory - 600 g of U-233 Reflector – BeO Moderator and Coolant – Demineralised light water Core Cooling – By natural convection Control Elements – Cd plates Schematic View of KAMINI System: Schematic View of KAMINI System Slide32: Slide33: An MCNP modeling has been completed. A finalized MCNP input will be made available. Two different teams have performed the modeling. The benchmark description of KAMINI will include MCNP input decks. 4 papers published by the Kalpakkam team. Slide34: India recognizes the need for reliable nuclear data for all evaluations for several hundreds of isotopes/elements in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. March 3-7, 2005, National Workshop has been approved. Place: Mumbai, India. General information
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