Rating scales

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Information about Rating scales
Health & Medicine

Published on February 19, 2014

Author: ciplashine

Source: slideshare.net


this document includes Rating scales and its types in detail.


RATING SCALES INTRODUCTION There are general two classes of behavior observation : Observation of actual behavior  Observation of remembered behavior In observation of actual behavior, actual behavoiur is observed that is persons or subjects involved in producing the behavior are physically present and interact with each other. e.g:- A group of college students solving a problem and the teacher pupil interactions tells us about the actual beahviour. In remembered behavior, the persons or members engaged in producing the behavior do not remain physically persent. However they are symbolically present. e.g:- a person may be asked to recall the scene of a class room in which teacher is extremely dominating. Such behavior is called remembered behavior. The observation of actual behavior is easier than the remembered behavior because in the former things are readymade and observer has simply to make a decision on the basis of what is around him whereas, in latter, the observer has to take decision on the basis of his previous experience and on his ability to perceive what an object looks like. This is why remembered behavior is also called perceived behavior. Rating scale measures both the observed as well as remembered behavior. So, our today’s topic of discussion is “RATING SCALE” DEFINITION A Rating scale is defined as a technique through which the observer or ratercategorizes the objects, events or persons on a continuum represented by a series of continuous numerals. The experience may be direct or indirect or remembered. A rating scale usually has two, three, five, seven, nine oreleven points on a line with descriptive categories at both the ends followed sometimes with a descriptive category in the middle of the continuum, too. An illustration is given below:Positive end: Strongly agree middle: neutral negative end: strongly disagree HISTORY OF RATING SCALE The first rating scale in a modern sense was probablythat of galton for mental imagery which was published in 1883. About the time of appearance of the first binet test, karlpearson proposed a scale for judging intelligence. One of the most famous scales specifically for measuring traits of personality is the scott man to man scale, introduced and extensively used during world war I. it remained forhartshaorne and May to restore somewhat lost prestige of the rating procedure, partly by changing the name to “ reputation measures”,but mainly by improving the technique.

COMPONENETS OF RATING SCALE The rating scale has two components: 1. Stimulus variable 2. Response options The stimulus variable consists of trait names or qualities to be rated. The response options consists of numerical or descriptive categories. Ratings may be retrospective or concurrent. When they are retrospective, they tend to summarize all the impressions gathered by the raters regarding the rates over an extended period of time. But when they are concurrent, they tend to summarize the impressions that are gathered as it happens in the case of interview. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF RATING SCALE The rating scale are very easy to construct and use. As such, a large number of rating scales have been constructed. A problem which is frequently noticed in the use of rating scales is that the traits to be rated are not distinctively defined and may have different meaning for different rates. This defeats the purpose of rating scales. To solve this problem, three precautions must be taken while constructing the rating scales: 1. Each trait to be rated should be clearly defined and explained with specific instances. 2. Various intervals or points on the scale should be clearly defined. Usually five to seven intervals are used in rating trait, attitude and other sentiments. 3. Since overt traits like leadership, honesty, punctuality, cooperativeness, industriousness and the like are reliably rated than covert traits such as ego-strength, job satisfaction, emotional stability etc. so the ateempt should be made to ensure the rating scales should, as far as possible be concerned exclusively with objectively observed observable traits. TYPES OF RATING SCALES There are different types of rating scales. According to one classification rating scales are of four types:Nominal Scale The Nominal level scale is a very simple scale consisting of an assignment of choices that tend to be mutually exclusive. In nominal level scales, numbers merely represent labels and are used specifically to identify different categories in response questions. In a nominal scale, the choices cannot be ranked because all the categories are different from each other. A good example of a nominal scale is gender where males are put into Group 1, and females into Group 2. It would make no sense to rank male and female because neither is greater than the other. These scales are the least restrictive of all scales, and really represent a list of categories in to which objects can be categorized. Ordinal Scale

Ordinal scales are the simplest of attitude measuring scales used in marketing research. While a nominal scale may contain numbers arbitrarily, in an ordinal scale each number represents a rank of order. In an ordinal scale, products or object are rated based on their importance within a given category. For instance, an ordinal scale of beers might ask you to rank your preference from 1 to 5, where 1 is the kind you like best, and 5 being the one you like least. Such a scale makes no attempt to rank a favorite in any one given product, but rather rates it on a spectrum against competing products. Interval Scale Interval scales are also known as ranking scales, because, unlike the ordinal scale, you are asked to rank each object or product on its own scale. An example of an interval scale would be if you were asked to rank how well you had enjoyed a particular movie on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is not at all and 5 is very, very much. Ratio Scale A ratio scale is similar to an interval scale, except the answers to these questions have a simple unambiguous starting point, typically zero. Ratio scales are not commonly used in marketing research, but rather used to describe a physical scale. Ratio scales often measure things like money, miles, height, and weight where the answers describe how far the respondent is from zero. A ratio scale might ask you to fill in your annual income, or square footage of your house, where instead of choosing an arbitrary measurement, rather you are filling in a blank. It becomes a scale when the data is all compiled and your answers are put on a spectrum with other respondents. According to Guilford, rating scales are divided into six categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Numerical rating scales Graphic scales Percentage rating Standard scales Scales of cumulated points Forced choice scales 1. Numerical scales:-Numerical scales are the easiest to construct and apply to the objects, persons and events etc to be rated. In numerical scale the observer or rater is supplied with a sequence of numbers which is well defined and his task is to rate the objects on the given sequence of numbers on the basis of his impression. Sometimes, it is found that numerical scales have only a description of the category and no numbers are provided. After rating by the observer, the investigator assigns numerals to certain categories e.g:- 5 to “strongly agree”, 4 to “ agree”, 3 to “indifferent”, 2 to “disagree”, 1 to “strongly disagree”. Sometimes still more fine discrimination is needed in such scale. Scales with numerical anchors:Numerical anchors 1 2 3 4 Meaning Extremely disagree Strongly disagree Moderately disagree Mildly disagree

5 6 7 8 9 Indifferent Mildly agree Moderately agree Strongly agree Extremely agree Usually, the above numerical anchors along with their meaning are printed on the first page with appropriate instructions and on subsequent pages, a number of statements revealing various impressions, attitudes etc. , regarding the objects, persons and events are pointed. Opposite each statement is provided a blank space where the rater writes simply that number which he thinks to be the most appropriate one. 1. Nationalization of the private sector would make the country richer. 2. Nationalization enables the government to make sound policies regarding the development of the country. When the scale points are without numerical anchors, each statement is provided with all the descriptive cues where the rater puts a tick mark only on that cue which he thinks is the most appropriate. E.g:1. More and more countries should join UNO. Strongly agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly agree 2. Political leaders should obey the directions of the UNO. Strongly agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly agree Some of the numerical scales are assigned a rating of “0” to the neutral point +3,+2,+1 for the different categories towards the positive ends and -3, -2, -1 towards the negative ends. E.g: +3 Strongly agree +2 Mildly agree +1 Agree -1 Disagree -2 Mildly disagree -3 Strongly disagree Demerits:The rater has to remember the meaning of the numerical anchor while he is writing the the numbers in the box. The most common observation is that he forgets the meaning of the number and sometimes write the wrong number in the box. To avoid this difficulty, nowadays most numerical rating scales are being designed in such a way that on each page the numerical anchors along with their meaning are given. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE

The graphic rating scale is the most popular and widely used rating scale. In one way the graphic scale may be considered as an improvement over the numerical scale because it tends to overcome some of the difficulties faced with the numerical scale. On the graphic scale the scales are presented graphically in which descriptive cues corresponding to the different scale steps are given. Items or statements here have no blank box and rater simply puts either a tick mark or a cross mark on any of the descriptive cues to indicate his view. e.g:a) Mrs. Shukla delivers lectures in the class room: _______________ ________________ Extremely rapidly ________________ Tolerably speed __________________ With slow Sluggishly slowly _________________ Extremely rapidly b) In school gossip, she: __________ __ Talks necessary ___________ Talks easily listen ____________ Talks when talking prefers to ___________ _________ abstains from great deal The first example illustrate the scale points through a continuous line whereas the second example illustrates the scale points through broken lines. In both the examples the scale points have been demonstrated in a horizontal manner. Limitation of graphic scale is..they provide space only for the shorter descriptive cues. Advantages of graphic scales:1. They have no numerical anchors. As such the rater experience no confusion arising out of the need for numerical discrimination. 2. They are simple, easily administered and quickly completed by the raters. Disadvantage:Graphic scales take time and labour in scoring. PERCENTAGE SCALE Percentage rating is done whenever the investigator wants a quick rating with maximum uniformity from rater to rater. The technique requires the rater to place the rates among different specified percentage groups or into different percentiles or quartiles such as given below: Highest 5 per cent Second highest 5 per cent Highest 25 percent excluding the top 25 per cent

Top half but not the top 25 per cent Lower half Percentage ratings are common among teachers who are asked to rate their students in the classroom in terms of overall performance Limitation:The rater may be quite generous and therefore, the rating may be influenced by the individual differences in generosity among raters. STANDARD SCALE Standard scales are not very popular rating scales for psychological measurement. In it the rater is presented with some standards with pre-established scale values. These standards usually consist of objects of the same kind e.g: they any be the names of persons. Man-to.man scale and portrait matching are based on the principle of standard scale. Man-to-man scale was developed during world war I and it used men instead of numbers and adjectives or other descriptive cues to represent the various scale points. The rater may be asked to give the name of the person who is well known to him and who is very high on the trait being rated. That person’s name is noted down to define “very high” point on the scale. Likewise, the rater may be then asked to give the names of other four persons who are known to him and who are high, average, low and very low on the trait being rated. All these names are entered to define “high”, “average”, “low”, and “very low”. Thus the scale with its five scale pointsvery high, high, average, low, very low is complete. The rater is then given only those key names with preestablished five point scale values to rate other persons. Here the rater’s task is very simple because he is required to compare the new person or persons with the five key persons on the trait in the question. The value of rating corresponds to the value of that key person whom he resembles. Scale values Name Very high Lt. chima High Col. Shamsher Average Brig. Kariappa Low Very low Lt. Bodra Lt. Gilani Advantages:1. Avoids confusion arising out of abstract numerical anchors assigned to the traits to be rated. 2. If all the raters use the same key-man in their ratings, their ratings can be comparable both in absolute terms as well as in relative terms. 3. Since the scale values of all the key men are pre-established and fixed, raters can’t shift over day to day’s ratings Disadvantages:-

1. The distance between the key men of the scale is not equal. 2. Actual practice has demonstrated that no two raters are alike in rating persons who are well known to them. 3. Deliberate overestimation and underestimation of persons by the raters are not controlled by the scale. Portrait matching:It is another rating scale which is based on the principle of standard scale and was developed byhartshrone and May in 1929. In this technique a set of standards for any given trait on which rating is to be done, is prepared. For constructing the verbal portrait regarding a given trait, large number of verbal statements describing that trait are collected and each is written on a separate card. Subsequently, they are rank ordered by a group of judges or experts. After that a desired number of sketches or portraits are prepared on the basis of those statements, which have about the same average rank. The scale value of each portrait is determined. For determining the scale value, the portraits are given to another group of judges for ranking them and mean rank becomes the scale value. The rater is given all the verbal portraits to read and then he names the persons who belong to the portraits. The chances are that within a single portraits several persons may be placed and a single personmay be placed under more than one portrait. Merit:It eliminates the element of subjectivity which is common in man-to-man scale Demerit:It does not provide objective and realistic standard scale points. SCALE OF CUMULATED VALUES Rating scales based upon cumulated or summated points are the most common. Here’s the persons total score is the sum of individual ratings or points assigned to all the items of the scale. Such points may be weighted or unweighted. At a glance these scales may seem to be identical with the psychological tests. But they differ from them, as in psychological tests items are answered by the persons themselves whereas the rating scale items which are based upon summated ratings are answered by another person i.e by observer. It has two types:1. Checklist 2. Guess who technique Checklist:- it is a method where the rater is supplied with large number of specific behavioural statements and he is asked to check these statements. The person is then characterized by only these statements which have been checked for him. Such a checklist is called behavior checklist . One of very convenient way of scoring the checked statements is to score each favourable statement as +1, each unfavorable statement as -1. There are several variations of behavior checklists. The items of the checklist may be in the form of two- point responses or multiple choice form.

e.g:- sample item of two point response: 1. The picture was interesting Yes No 2. Sample item of multiple choice response: The girl was _______________ smart _______________ intelligent _______________ beautiful _______________ ugly _______________ submissive It contains only the adjectives so it is also called adjective checklist. Guess- who technique:- it is also known as casting characters, used primarily in children and consists of verbal descriptions of various roles played by children in group. The verbal description is usually in the form of one or two sentences. e.g:- here is one who is always worried. Here is one who is always happy. Here is one who is always discouraging others. Here is one who is always helping others. Here is one who never likes to do any task. FORCED CHOICE SCALE In this type of rating scale the rater is given a set of attributes in terms of verbal statements for a single item and he decides which one or ones, represent the individual being rated most appropriately and accurately. The items of forced choice scale may have several alternatives-two, three, four or five. Of these two alternatives and four alternatives are most common. In the two alternative form both the statements regarding the attribute are either favourable or unfavourable. However, only one of the statement regarding the attribute in the either case is valid to identify desirable or undesirable attributes though both of them may appear equally favourable or unfavourable to the rater. In four alternative forms, two varieties are commonin one variety all the four statements are desirable or undesirable and in second variety two statements are favourable and two statements are unfavorable. e.g: Miss George a) lectures with confidence b) keeps the students interested and motivated c) cares a great deal for the slow learner

d) entertains suggestions from students to improve her lecture In the above four statements (all favourable) the most discriminating statement is (c)and the least discriminating statement is (a). the most discriminating statement may be assigned a score of 2 and least discriminating statement a score of 0. A ratee’s total score would be the sum of such scores assigned to the most discriminating statements in each set. Advantages:1. Minimizes the generosity. 2. The tendency on the part of rater to be influenced by a single favourable or unfavorable trait is controlled. 3. Rater’s bias is reduced. Disadvantages:1. Provides limited freedom in ratings and imposes many restrictions. 2. Sometimes rater believes that none of the statement describe the person accurately. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATER’S ABILITY Thorndike and hagen have mentioned (1977) have mentioned the following factors:1. Opportunity to observe the individual being rated:- for the affective rating close contact between the rater and the persons being rated is essential. If the persons are not in close contact with the rater, he may not be able to rate them with respect to trait under study. So specific opportunity to make observations is essential. 2. Subjectivity in the traits being rated:- some personality traits may be revealed directly in an interaction with other persons or events whereas some traits are not directly revealed and presence or absence of such traits is largely dependent upon the wise inferences and intentions of the investigator. As we have studied earlier about the covert and overt traits. The covert traits are rated with lower reliability and validity than overt traits. So the covert traits lowers the reliability and validity of the ratings. 3. Vagueness in the meaning of the trait rated:- some traits or dimensions to be rated are vague and abstract ones. As a consequence, their meaning varies from rater to rater and thus affects the consistency of ratings. 4. Non uniform standard of reference:- most of the rating scales require the raters to rate the rates in any one of the category such as: superior, excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, unsatisfactory etc. When the rater rates the rate as superior, the question arises as to what the standard is against which a rate is being classified as superior. The rater has no uniform standards before them so the interpretation of a category varies from rater to rater. Thus it lowersthe consistency of ratings. 5. Rater’s personal characteristics:- Rater’s personal characteristics also tend to influence the ratings. Some raters are conservative and therefore they tend to rate the persons almost in the middle. Some raters are tough and they rarely rate anybody high. e.g:- A teacher who is annoyed with the behavior of the student in the class is likely to rate him low. ERRORS IN RATINGS

1. Halo effect:-the error was first mentioned by wells and was named so by Throndike (1920). In the words of anastasi halo effect refrs to to“ a tendency on the part of the rater to be unduly influenced by a single favourable or unfavorable trait, which colourstheir judgement of the individual’s other traits. e.g:- a teacher to rate the quality of answerbooks of a pupil whom he likes as higher than the answerbooks of a pupil whom he does not like. 2. Error of severity:- it is constant tendency on the part of the rater to rate the rates too defines: a general tendency to rate all individuals too low on all characteristics. low. Kerlinger 3. Error of leniency:- it refers to a constant tendency to rate the rates too high. Such persons are “ easy raters” and try to concentrate on higher end of the scale. 4. Error of central tendency:- it refers ro a tendency to avoid extreme ratings and place his ratings in the middle or average category. Kerlinger defines: “ general tendency to avoid all extreme judgements and rates right down the middle of the rating scale” 5. Contrast error:- it refers to a tendency on the part of the rater to rate persons in a direction which is in contrast to the trait he himself possess. e.g:- A teacher who is very punctual in coming to class, may rate other students to be less punctual than he is. 6. proximity error:- this error first pointed out by stockford and Bissell in 1943, is one which occurs due to proximity or nearness of two traits being rated. Co-operativenesssnad friendliness are more or less similar traits in meaning and correlation between the ratings tends to be high. 7. logical error:- it is similar to halo effect and proximity error in the sense that it tends to increase the intercorelation of the ratings of two or more traits. In this error the rater gives more or less similar ratings to traits which seem to him somehow logically related with each other. ADVATAGES OF RATING SCALE           Evaluate performance that not readily measure by testing. Give more insight on how well/ often the child performed each task. Structured and standardized. Easy to compare. Encourages equality in treatment. Impose standard measure of performance Easy to use and understand. Forces teacher to make a decision. Economical in cost and time. Reduce rater bias and subjectivity by using standardized presentation of questions. CONCLUSION Despite of the limitations, rating scales undoubtedly continue to be one of the most promising appraisal techniques. Rating scales have wider range of application. They can be used even by those persons who are not trained. They can be employed when a large number of stimuli are to be rated and in this task, the rating scales yield consistent results.

BIBLIOGRAPHY     www.freelancefolder.com www.scholar.google.co.in www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rating_scale Singh A.K; Tests, Measurement and research methods in behavioural sciences; fifth edition- reprint; bharatibhawan publishers; New Delhi 2009; pg. no. 262-287.

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