Rangeland ecology and management

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Information about Rangeland ecology and management

Published on September 25, 2008

Author: aSGuest169

Source: authorstream.com

Wild Open Spaces of the West : Wild Open Spaces of the West Rangeland Ecology & Management University of Idaho Dr. Karen Wild Open Spaces of the West : Wild Open Spaces of the West What is rangeland? How much rangeland? Who owns rangeland? What is rangeland good for? Multiple uses of rangeland What is range management? Tools of range management What is Rangeland? : What is Rangeland? Deserts Tundra Wetlands Savannas Shrublands Forests Grasslands Which of these are rangeland? What is Rangeland? : Which of these are rangeland? What is Rangeland? Deserts? Tundra? Wetlands? Savannas? Shrublands? Forests? Grasslands? Forage pasture? All deserts except barren deserts All tundra Vegetation around wetlands All savannas All shrublands Only open forests All grasslands Not highly managed pastures What is Rangeland? : What is Rangeland? Rangeland is uncultivated land dominated by native plants: grasses, herbaceous broad-leaved plants (forbs) and shrubs. Rangeland is all land that is not farmland, dense forest, barren desert or land covered by solid rock, concrete, or glaciers. Rangeland includes: grasslands, shrublands, savannas, and open woodlands . Are all rangelands grazed? Grazing as an important ecological process in all rangeland, but not all rangelands are grazed by livestock. How much rangeland is there? : Forest? Cropland? Urban? Ice, rock & barren desert? Rangeland? How much of the earth’s surface is rangeland? How much rangeland is there? 25% 10% 3% 15% 47% How much rangeland is there? : How much rangeland is there? 44% of Idaho is rangeland 47% of the Earth is rangeland 36% of the US is rangeland 53% of Western States is rangeland Who owns rangeland? : Who owns rangeland? In Idaho, 66% of all rangeland is “Public Land”. “Public land” is owned and managed by federal and state governments for the good of the public. In Idaho, the most important land management agencies are the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Idaho Department of Lands. Grazing on private lands is wholly integrated with public grazing lands. Livestock grazing occurs on 95% of BLM land and, 58% of U.S. Forest Service lands. 88% of all beef cows in Idaho graze at least part of each year on BLM or USFS lands. What is rangeland good for? : Livestock production Wildlife habitat Water Minerals (oil, coal, sulfur) Native plant products Recreation Open space Western heritage List 5 uses or services rangeland provides? What is rangeland good for? What is rangeland good for? : Livestock Production Rangeland & pastureland in the 19 western states are home to 58% of all beef cattle in the US. Western rangelands also harbor 79% of sheep and 88% of goats in the US. Livestock production on rangeland is very important to supply meat for American and World populations and also for leather, wool, mohair, and other products that livestock yield. What is rangeland good for? What is rangeland good for? : Livestock grazing occurs on 65% of Idaho’s total land area and in every county throughout the state Range livestock production is Idaho’s major agricultural activity in terms of land used and cash receipts What is rangeland good for? What is rangeland good for? : What is rangeland good for? Wildlife Habitat Rangelands provide habitat for countless mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and insects. Of the total number of animal species found in the United States 84% of the mammals, 74% of the birds, 58% of the amphibians and 38% of the fishes are represented in rangeland ecosystems. Range Wildlife Include: : Range Wildlife Include: Ruminants are animals such as deer, elk, and moose that have specialized digestive systems to digest the cellulose abundant in the cell walls of rangeland plants Rodents and Rabbits also have digestive systems that allow them to get energy out of cellulose Concentrate-selectors are animals such as birds & bears that find an adequate diet on rangeland by carefully selecting berries, seeds, or roots low in cellulose What is rangeland good for? : What is rangeland good for? Water The Western United States has a much drier climate than the Eastern U.S. ... water is doubly precious to the 30% of the U.S. population that lives in the West Most of the water in the streams and river of Idaho fell initially on rangeland or forests. Therefore, proper management of rangeland requires careful attention to the amount & quality of water that flows off rangeland What is rangeland good for? : What is rangeland good for? RecreationRangelands are increasingly important for recreational uses such as: Hiking Hunting Camping Mountain biking Cross-country skiing Snowmobiling Many national parks are located on rangelands What is rangeland good for? : What is rangeland good for? Open Space People in the west value open space Livestock ranches are becoming “working wilderness” to maintain biodiversity and wildlife habitat quality Environmentally concerned citizens have paid ranchers to maintain open space through scenic easements Western Heritage Ranching is important to maintain the “Western Image” Multiple Use : Multiple Use Because rangelands have many important uses, most rangelands are managed under principles of multiple-use Several uses or values of rangeland are managed simultaneously with care to avoid overuse or destruction of natural resources. What is range management? : What is range management? Range Management is the careful use and management of rangeland resources (plants, animals, soil, and water) to meet the needs and desires of society without damaging the resource. The tricky part is that the “needs and desires of society” are continually changing. Livestock production has always been important but, greater management emphasis is now being placed on wildlife management, recreation, & water production The term that best describes range management is: INTEGRATED Tools of range management? : Tools of range management? Fences can be placed to control how a pasture is grazed and provide seasons or years of rest from grazing The number of livestock can be increased or decreased to meet management objectives. Very heavy grazing may be required for some needs (e.g., weed control or water harvest) and light grazing is necessary for other purposes (e.g., improved water quality or forage for elk) The proper use of rangeland is accomplished by several simple tools that must be continually monitored and adjusted. Tools of range management? : Tools of range management? The species of livestock to be grazed must be carefully selected because each species differs in the diet they select. For example, cows generally prefer grasses, goats consume mostly shrubs, and sheep eat mixed diets of grasses, browse and forbs And, different species of livestock also differ in type of terrain they use. For example, sheep can graze steeper slopes than cattle Tools of range management? : Invasion of weeds on rangelands is a growing problem. Range managers often need to use weed control practices (such as fire, grazing, or herbicides) to reduce the growth of weeds and allow native plants to grow. Fire is a natural force in nearly all rangeland ecosystems. For healthy rangelands, fires are often carefully set and controlled (by prescribed burning techniques). For example, in Southern Idaho, fire is often used to control the spread of sagebrush and encourage the growth of productive grasses. Tools of range management? What do range managers do? : What do range managers do? What do range managers study? : What do range managers study? Soil morphology Plant growth & development Plant identification Plant community ecology Animal nutrition Wildlife management Watershed management Riparian ecology The Basics: What do range managers study? : What do range managers study? Vegetation assessment & monitoring Grazing management Fire ecology & prescriptions Restoration techniques Weed control Geographic Information Systems The Tools: What range classes should students interested in range consider? : What range classes should students interested in range consider? Range 251 - Principles of range management Range 353 - Range plant identification & ecology Range 532 - Natural history of rangelands Range 456 - Integrated rangeland management Range 454 - Rangeland weed management Range 553 - Foraging behavior of rangeland herbivores.

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