Ramasetustrategicsecurity

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Information about Ramasetustrategicsecurity

Published on September 4, 2007

Author: kalyan97

Source: slideshare.net

Rama Setu to Cochi: strategic security zone National security imperative is that coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi should be declared as Strategic Security Zone; under the direct control of India’s armed forces. The coastal sands of this coast contains (1) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves vital for nuclear energy program and (2) also titanium, a space age metal. Setusamudram channel project has internationalized the historic waters (recognized under UN Law of the Sea, 1958) in Gulf of Mannar and jeopardised rights commonly, historically enjoyed by India and Srilanka with serious consequences to national sovereignty and integrity. (USA refuses to recognize the ‘historic waters’ declaration of India and Srilanka and operationally asserted the refusal by sending warships to Gulf of Mannar in 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002). The recent reports of export of coastal sands containing strategic minerals have highlighted the strategic security implications if the coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi is not immediately protected by India’s Defence forces. This coastal zone contains in just three villages (Manavalakurichi of Tamil Nadu and Aluva, Chavara of Kerala) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves. The urgent demand, in view of the present and imminent danger to India’s national security and reported exports of sands containing strategic minerals, is that: • An immediate notification be issued by the President of India, banning the private leases of coastal sands and declaring these as national treasure to be protected and used only indigenously to support the nation’s strategic nuclear and space programs. • Considering the national security imperative, the entire coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi with titanium-containing sands and the world’s largest reserves of thorium containing sands (called ilmenite, monazite, rutile, garnet, zircon) should be declared as Strategic Security zone and brought under the direct security control of the Joint Command of the Indian Army, Navy and Airforce. See court papers related to alleged export of the coastal sands from this coastal zone at http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ There are four places on earth which are the target for exploitation of the richest mineral resources on earth: Manavalakurichi, Tamil Nadu Chavara, Kerala Chatrapur, Orissa Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka These four locations have coastal sands containing ilmenite and monazite among other minerals. Ilmenite and Monazite sands yield Titanium and Thorium. In his speech to the Parliament in March 2007, the President of India said that the current electricity generation capacity in India is 120000 MW and is expected to increase to 400000 MW by the year 2030. Bhaba Atomic Research Center (BARC) estimates that about 30 % of world's thorium deposits, or about 225000 tons of thorium, are found on the beaches of Kerala. This will support about 387 years of electricity generation at 2030 capacity levels! http://www.ivarta.com/columns/OL_070508.htm Ilmenite Sand export from Tuticorin port increased from 0.21 lakh tonnes in 2000-01 to 0.62 lakh tonnes in 2001-02 registering an increase of 195.24%. http://www.tamilnadunri.com/docs/tn/infrastructure/TuticorinPort.doc 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Similar exports of strategic mineral sands occur from Pulmoddai (near Trincomalee) in Srilanka which is now under LTTE control. This leads to a possibility that the Setu channel as a mid-ocean passage is likely to be used such export operatives, particularly after it gets recognized as international waters under pressure from USA. Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India Annex 5 Why Thorium? Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Annex 12 RSS for use of thorium deposits Annex 13 A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India Annex 14 Foreign firms interested in India’s thorium deposits Annex 15 Fast-breeder reactors more important for India Annex 16 Design and development of the AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor Annex 17 Thorium: UIC Briefing Paper # 67 Annex 18 Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS Annex 19 Role of small and medium-sized reactors Annex 20 India's nuclear power programme moves ahead Annex 21 Nuclear power using thorium Annex 22 SLN ship under siege off Pulmoddai coast Annex 23 An overview of world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration and forecast for thorium requirements in the near future (KMV Jayaram) S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D. Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, 3 Temple Avenue, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 4 September 2007 2 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 According to Mr.Cardoze, famous U.S legal luminary, ''Means un lawful in their inception do not become lawful by relation when suspicion turns in to discovery.'' These words come to me when I talk of the Sethusamudaram Canel Project. The callousness with which such a big project is conceptualized and implemented is an unpardonable act. First of all I would like to state that neither I nor any patriotic citizen could support this project. It is a serious fault that neither scientists, technocrats nor Indian Navy had been consulted and sought their opinions before this project was conceptualized. More over the project is an open challenge to age old Hindu beliefs. At least the opinion that the implementation of this project as envisaged now may lead to oceanic eruptions like Tsunami should be considered and studied. According Shri Kalyanaraman, the reputed researcher, this project would invite disasters like Tsunami to our southern coast and pose as a threat to the valuable mineral sand deposits along this coast. Unlike in the case of Suez Canal, this canal penetrates deep in to the seabed. All this testifies that the construction of the canal is unwarranted. I suspect that the haste with which the project is proposed to be completed, ignoring the welfare and progress of he people of India may be to further the interests of countries like America. About this I had send an emergency message to our Hon. Prime Minister. What ever it maybe, it is the duty of every Indian to see that this historic and holy monument is protected. With out succumbing to the pressures from foreign forces all should strongly oppose this project. I call upon each Indian to come forward and fight for such an important cause with out compromise. Malayalam original; Sd. VR Krishna Iyer Letter of Hon'ble V.R . Krishna Iyer (Former Judge, Supreme Court) to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. http://hinduthought.googlepages.com/krishnaiyer13april2007.jpg/krishnaiyer13april 2007-full.jpg Paper attached to Hon'ble VR Krishna Iyer's letter http://rapidshare.com/files/26060268/pilsupremecourtramsethu1.doc.html 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world http://kalyan97.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/monazitemap1.jpg http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/29/581/ Resources map: Geology and minerals, Geological Survey of India (Based upon Survey of India toposheet No. 58H First Edition 1969) Explanatory note: Mineral resources (heavy minerals – beach placers) Heavy mineral concentrations (including ilmenite, rutile, garnet and monazite) occur in beach sands as localized pockets along the east coast and between Kolachel and Kanniyakumari on the west coast over a distance of nearly 75 km. Significant concentration occurs between Vattakottai and Lipuram and the famous Manavalakurichi deposit, which extends over a length of 5 to 6 km. With a width of 3 to 5 m from the mouth of Valliyur River. The beach placers on an average contain 45 to 55% ilmenite, 7 to 14% garnet, 4 to 5% zircon, 3 to 4% monazite. 2 to 3% sillimanite, 2 to 3% rutile, 0.5 to 1% leucoxene and 10 to 25% others, including silica. (Database 1984) 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India With the privatisation of mines in 2002, there is an urgency to create a Mines and Minerals Regulatory Authority of India, particularly for strategic minerals. Strategic minerals are monazite, ilmenite and rutile sands which contain thorium and titanium. Titanium is a space age mineral; thorium is the mainstay of the nation’s nuclear program with the potential to make the nation energy independent. Minerals policy is coming up for discussion in the Parliament in the current session (from August 2007). This issue of national security and sovereignty and the imperative of attaining a developed nation status will necessitate the conservation of the mineral wealth of the nation and NOT allow it to be looted for temporary gains. For example, instead of merely producing titanium oxide in the Tata plants at Sattankulam (Tamilnadu) or Chattarpur (Orissa) using the mineral placer deposit sands, there should be plants to produce thorium and titanium metals and reserve them for the nation’s strategic development imperatives. Some notes follow which will have an impact on development of SEZs ensuring sustainable development for an essentially agrarian nation living in over 6 lakh villages. Thorium has been extracted chiefly from monazite through a multi-stage process. In the first stage, the monazite sand is dissolved in an inorganic acid such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In the second, the Thorium is extracted into an organic phase containing an amine. Next it is separated or quot;strippedquot; using an anion such as nitrate, chloride, hydroxide, or carbonate, returning the thorium to an aqueous phase. Finally, the thorium is precipitated and collected. Source: Crouse, David; Brown, Keith (December 1959). quot;The Amex Process for Extracting Thorium Ores with Alkyl Aminesquot;.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 51 (12): 1461. Retrieved on 2007- 03-09 K.M.V. Jayaram. An Overview of World Thorium Resources, Incentives for Further Exploration and Forecast for Thorium Requirements in the Near Future Mirror: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/thoriumdeposits/ Under the prevailing estimate, Australia and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. Thorium reserves: Australia 300,000 India 290,000 Norway 170,000 United States 160,000 Canada 100,000 South Africa 35,000 Brazil 16,000 Malaysia 4,500 Other Countries 95,000 1,200,000 World Total 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Source: US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (1997-2006); ^ U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries - Thorium. Information and Issue Briefs - Thorium. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-01. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Vanishing thorium and nuke deal; are they interlinked? Of course, according to scientists, the accumulation of placer deposits is substantially contributed by Rama Setu acting as a sieve and the unique pattern of ocean currents in Hindumahaasaagar. Who will take care of the nation's wealth so essential to the nation's nuke programme? 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 5 Why Thorium? -India has 1/3 of the world's reserves of Thorium Thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors. Thorium comes out of the ground as a 100% pure, usable isotope, which does not require enrichment, whereas natural uranium contains only 0.7% fissionable U235. http://www.indembassyathens.gr/India- nuclear%20energy/India_nuclear%20energy_thorium.htm http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/scripts98/9820/thoriumscpt.htm A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that consumes fissile and fertile material at the same time as it creates new fissile material. Production of fissile material in a reactor occurs by neutron irradiation of fertile material, particularly Uranium-238 and Thorium-232. In a breeder reactor, these materials are deliberately provided, either in the fuel or in a breeder blanket surrounding the core, or most commonly in both. Production of fissile material takes place to some extent in the fuel of all current commercial nuclear power reactors. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breeder_reactor The present status of various fuel-resources in India is given in the table 1. The domestic mineable coal (about 38 BT) and the estimated hydrocarbon reserves (about 12 BT) together may provide about 1200 EJ of energy. The electricity potential from thorium-metal in breeders is shown as 155,502 GWe- yr. This metal alone has the potential to ensure energy independence for India. Thus, the conservation and safeguarding of the thorium reserves becomes a strategic responsibility. Table 1: Primary energy & electricity resources Electricity Amount Thermal energy potential EJ TWh GWYr GWe-Yr Fossil Coal 38 -BT 667 185,279 21,151 7,614 Hydrocarbon 12 -BT 511 141,946 16,204 5,833 Non-Fossil Nuclear Uranium-Metal 61,000 -T In PHWRs 28.9 7,992 913 328 In Fast breeders 3,699 1,027,616 117,308 42,231 Thorium-Metal 2,25,000 -T In Breeders 13,622 3,783,886 431,950 155,502 Renewable Hydro 150 -GWe 6.0 1,679 192 69 Non-conventional renewable 100 -GWe 2.9 803 92 33 Assumptions for Potential Calculations 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Fossil 1. Complete Source is used for calculating electricity potential with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. 2. Calorific Values: Coal: 4,200 kcal/kg, Hydrocarbon: 10,200 kcal/kg. 3. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas [7]has set strategic goals for the next two decades (2001-2020) of ‘doubling reserve accretion’ to 12 BT (Oil + Oil equivalent gas) and “improving recovery factor’ to the order of 40%. Considering the fact that exploration is a dynamic process and India is one of the les explored countries, reference [3] assumes that cumulative availability of hydrocarbons up to 2052 will be 12 BT. Non-Fossil Thermal energy is the equivalent fossil energy required to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. Nuclear 1. PHWR burn-up = 6,700 MWd/T of U-oxide, thermal efficiency 0.29 2. It has been assumed that complete fission of 1kg. of fissile material gives 1000 MWd of thermal energy. Fast reactor thermal efficiency is assumed to be 42%. Fast breeders can use 60% of the Uranium. This is an indicative number. Actual value will be determined as one proceeds with the programme and gets some experience. Even if it is half of this value the scenario presented does not change. 3. Breeders can use 60% Thorium with thermal efficiency 42%. At this stage, type of reactors wherein thorium will be used are yet to be decided. The numbers are only indicative. Hydro 1. Name plate capacity is 150 GWe. 2. Estimated hydro- potential of 600 billion kWh and name plate capacity of 150,000 MWe gives a capacity factor of 0.46. Non-conventional renewable 1. Includes: Wind 45 GWe, Small Hydro 15 GWe, Biomass Power/ Co-generation 19.5 GWe and Waste to Energy 1.7 GWe etc. 2. Capacity factor of 0.33 has been assumed for potential calculations. http://www.dae.gov.in/iaea/ak-paris0305.doc 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/31/ Chennai, 31 August 2007 To: Secretary, DAE, Govt. of India, New Delhi Dr. Anil Kakodkar Fax. 02222048476 Cc: Prime Minister of India, Hon’ble Dr. Manmohan Singh 01123019545 Fax. 01123016857 cc: Principal Scientific Adviser, 01123022113 Re: Alleged export of sands containing thorium from the richest nuclear material coastline of the world The coastline between Rama Setu (Rameshwaram) and Cochin constitutes the richest nuclear material coastline of the world yielding thorium (nuclear mineral) and titanium (space age mineral). Both these are strategic for the nation’s development and to achieve India Vision 2020 with energy independence (avoidance of dependence upon imported uranium by developing thorium-based breeder reactors) and autonomous space development programmes. In India, both Kakrapar-1 and - 2 units are loaded with 500 kg of thorium fuel in order to improve their operation when newly-started. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium-phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide, but average 6-7%...There are also reports of loss of thorium from Indian Rare Earths Limited stocks. Destruction of Rama Setu will severely impact the accumulation of such placer deposits of rare earths and next tsunami through the mid-ocean channel will devastate the placer deposits and move them, almost irretrievably, into the depths of the ocean. I am bringing this to the notice of Govt. of India under Section 26 of the Atomic Energy Act 1962 and other sections detailed below, a cognizable offence related to stockpiling/trading in nuclear minerals containing monazite and ilmenite/rutile/garnet placer deposits along Tamilnadu and Kerala coast (Manavalakurichi, Aluva, Chavara and other places such as Sattankulam where titanium dioxide plant is sought to be set up using sands which also contain thorium 233/urainin 233). Uranium-233 is a fissile artificial isotope of uranium, which is proposed as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of 160,000 years. Uranium-233 is produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium-232. When thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233. Hence, thorium in monazite, ilmenite and other coastal placer deposits is a mineral as defined in the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. Since thorium is vital for the nation’s atomic energy program and for achieving energy independence, Govt. of India should advice on the steps proposed to be taken to conserve and protect these stockpiles of nuclear deposits. Yours sincerely, S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D., Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 31 August 2007 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ Brief summary in English of Tamil news report: Vaikundarajan, owner of VV Minerals gets and his two brothers Jegadeesan and Chandresan, were granted anticipatory bail by Madurai Bench of Madras HC (Justice Rajasuria). He is exporting, without Govrnment permission, nuclear deposits in coastal sands of Tuticorin, Kanyakkumari coasts. }, ”z }  ி ¶t” «} ீ }!! ˆy 28, 2007 http://thatstamil.oneindia.in/Pictures/images_02/vaikundarajasn.jpg ¢ : œ ி ி} u”  ”z } „ ிy 3  ீ¢   t y{} … ~y t ƒ «} ீ} u ~ yž„ ¢. £{¢t”œ y , t }y v | ி. ி. ƒ } ¾  ”z }.  ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ § ிƒ ƒ „ ி ¯|¢   t t ¢ ~ ி¾{¢ ி ž ¶t” ‚² €¢ | . ƒ  tƒ y ƒ« „ ி ´ t . | « y ிƒ ƒ t ž | €¢ | ”z §t”, « y |º} ž ‚ y ¢.  ீ ¢, ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ } § ிƒ ƒ ¢ ž{¢ ி¾{¢ ி‚ ி {¢ ¢ t”  ” ¾ y { ”‚ ~ ி¾º ீ ƒ©  ž{ . } ¾ƒ   t y{} … ”z }, ¢ „ ீ} ‚² | }  ீ¢ t”~ º € ~ y ¢. ¢ ² u ிƒ { ¢ }, ிœ{¢ ி ¾t º «œº € ¢. ž{¢ ¢2 ி¶}  ”z . «} ீ} ¾ „ ¢ ீ }t ிƒ § tƒ € . 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

| § ி ¾{ ீ }t ீ ™ ,3 ¯t” «} ீ} ி{¢ { ிy . ´ } ீ¢ ~y t „¶ œ € zž }² ”z } ‚ § tƒ € ¯| . | § ­ ி ¾{ ீ ™ }” u ¶t”{ „ ி {¢ , { ிy . http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ News report in the New Indian Express of August 11, 2007 Vaikundarajan directed to surrender in court Friday August 10 2007 09:18 IST MADURAI: Vaikundarajan, owner of V V Minerals and a shareholder of Jaya TV, was on Thursday, directed by the Madurai Bench of the High Court to surrender at Eraniel court. The bench also allowed the police to question him for two days. Vaikundarajan had filed 20 petitions seeking anticipatory bail. The petitions came up for hearing before Justice G Rajasuria. The judge observed that the police had doubts as to where the sand was sent as it contained nuclear deposits. Vaikundarajan has claimed that he was not aware of the fact that the sand he mined contained nuclear particles. The judge said that the case was significant because of the nuclear content in the sand. http://tinyurl.com/33nc8t Vaikundarajan’s office premises raided Staff Reporter (The Hindu, August 20, 2007) He is facing the charge of having quarried thorium-rich sand — Photo: A. Shaikmohideen http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/images/2007082057461001.jpg C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli (left) and Additional Superintendent Muthusamy conducting a raid in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikkaranthattu in Tirunelveli district on Sunday. TIRUNELVELI: The police raided the factory and office premises of Subbiah Vaikundarajan at Keeraikaaranthattu near Thisaiyanvilai on Sunday in a case of alleged export of sand rich in thorium, a radioactive material, to foreign countries. 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Revenue Department officials of Kanyakumari district seized six sand-laden lorries at Meignanapuram. After analyzing the sample, they found that the sand contained “considerable quantity” of thorium, which cannot be exported by individuals to foreign countries. As export of thorium in any form is punishable under the Atomic Energy Commission Act, Deputy Director (Mines) Manimaran registered a case against Mr. Vaikundarajan, a leading garnet exporter. When the officials filed case against Mr. Vaikundarajan for allegedly quarrying the thorium-rich sand, he challenged it in the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, contending that the Tamil Nadu police could not register a case relating to supposed violation of the Atomic Energy Commission Act. Dismissing his plea on August 9, the court told Mr. Vaikundarajan to surrender before a court and that the police would be free to take him into custody for interrogation. However, there was no progress in the case, as the garnet exporter failed to surrender before any court, and the police has spread a dragnet for him. The team, led C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli, and Additional Superintendent of Police Muthusamy, sifted through documents and other files in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikaaranthattu, and seized some files and computers. When the police came out of the office premises, factory workers tried to block their vehicles. Some workers pelted the vehicles with stones. P. Kannappan, Deputy Inspector General of Police, Tirunelveli Range, came to Thisaiyanvilai shortly before 3.30 p.m. and held discussions with the officials who conducted the raid, examined the documents seized and the data stored in the computers. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/stories/2007082057461000.htm I am not an enemy of DMK: Vaikundarajan (The Hindu, August 23, 2007) CHENNAI: S. Vaikundarajan of V.V. Minerals, facing charges in several cases, on Wednesday said he was neither against the ruling Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party nor an “enemy” of Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. He was well aware that as a businessman it would be difficult to work against the Government and appealed to his well wishers not to politicise the case against him. Mr. Vaikundarajan is a shareholder of Jaya TV. — Special Correspondent http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/23/stories/2007082353620400.htm Police raid Jaya TV partner’s office 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Madurai, August 20: Police have carried out raids at the factory and office premises of V V Minerals, owned by Jaya TV shareholder R Vaikundarajan, facing charges of illegal mining of thorium, in Tirunelveli district, about 200 km from here. Police today said they had seized several documents and computer hard discs during the raid at Keeraikaranthattu yesterday, but declined to give more details, adding the materials needed to be analysed. An official of the V V Minerals claimed that the police had seized only some of the award certificates won by the company and described the raid as an abuse of power. The police team faced some resistance from employees of the company when they came out of the office after the raid. A police vehicle was pelted with stones and slogans were raised against police for filing quot;false case against Vaikundarajanquot;. They also heckled police for quot;trying to trace proof after filing the casequot;. A case was registered in June last under the Atomic Energy Act against Vaikundarajan and his company after Kanyakumari district revenue officials found that sand transported by the company contained thorium and monosite. On August 9 last, the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, directing Vaikundarajan to surrender in the case while dismissing his plea to quash the FIR, had posed a series of questions about the nature of exports done by V V Minerals and whether they were actually usable in atomic energy production. The court also asked whether the police had any proof that the company exported sand to an atomic firm and whether the sand actually contained thorium. It had said police could take Vaikundarajan into custody for further investigations. However, Vaikundarajan has so far not surrendered before any court and the police had spread a dragnet for him. V V Minerals had contended they exported only sand for extraction of garnet and they were innocent. They alleged that police were harassing them because Vaikundarajan was a Jaya TV partner. (Agencies) Published: Monday, August 20, 2007 http://tinyurl.com/2uxng7 ATOMIC ENERGY ACT 1962 NO. 33 OF 1962 26. Cognizance of offences (1) All offences under this Act shall be cognizable under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, but no action shall be taken in respect of any person for any offence under this Act except on the basis of a written complaint made - 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

(a) in respect of contravention of section 8, 14 or 17 or any rule or order made thereunder, by the person authorised to exercise powers of entry and inspection; (b) in respect of any other contravention, by a person duly authorised to make such complaints by the Central Government. 2. Definition and Interpretation (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) quot;atomic energyquot; means energy released from atomic nuclei as a result of any process, including the fission and fusion processes; (b) quot;fissile materialquot; means uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium or any material containing these substances or any other material that may be declared as such by notification by the Central Government; (c) quot;mineralsquot; include all substances obtained or obtaining from the soil (including alluvium or rocks) by underground or surface working… 8. Power of entry and inspection (1) Any person authorised by the Central Government may, on producing, if so required, a duly authenticated document showing his authority, enter any mine, premises or land - (a) where he has reason to believe that work is being carried out for the purpose of or in connection with production and processing of any prescribed substances or substances from which a prescribed substance can be obtained or production, development or use of atomic energy or research into matters connected therewith, or (b) where any such plant as is mentioned in clause (b) of section 7 is situated, and may inspect the mine, premises or land and any articles contained therein. (2) The person carrying out the inspection may make copies of or extracts from any drawing, plan or other document found in the mine, premises or land and for the purpose of making such copies or extracts, may remove any such drawing, plan or other document after giving a duly signed receipt for the same and retain possession thereof for a period not exceeding seven days… 10. Compulsory aquisition of rights to work minerals (1) Where it appears to the Central Government that any minerals from which in its opinion any of the prescribed substances can be obtained are present inor any land, either in a natural state or in a deposit of waste material obtained from any underground or surface working, it may be order provide for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government the exclusive right, so long as the order remains in force, to work those minerals and any other minerals which it appears to the Central Government to be necessary to work with those minerals, and may also provide, by 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

that order or a subsequent order, for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government any other ancillary rights which appear to the Central Government to be necessary for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid including (without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions)- (a) rights to withdraw support; (b) rights necessary for the purpose of access to or conveyance of the minerals aforesaid or the ventilation or drainage of the working; (c) rights to use and occupy the surface of any land for the purpose of erecting any necessary buildings and installing any necessary plant in connection with the working of the minerals aforesaid; (d) rights to use and occupy for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid any land forming part of or used in connection with an existing mine or quarry, and to use or acquire any plant used in connection with any such mine or quarry, and (e) rights to obtain a supply of water for any of the pur-poses connected with the working of the minerals aforesaid, or to dispose of water or other liquid matter obtained in consequence of working such minerals. (2) Notice of any order proposed to be made under this section shall be served by the Central Government - (a) on all persons who, but for the order, would be entitled to work the minerals affected; and (b) on every owner, lessee and occupier (except tenants for a month or for less than a month) of any land in respect of which rights are proposed to be acquired under the order… 14. Control over production and use of atomic energy (1) The Central Government may, subject to such rules as may be made in this behalf, by order prohibit except under a license granted by it - (i) the working of any mine or minerals specified in the order, being a mine or minerals from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; (ii) the acquisition, production, possession, use disposal, export or import- (a) of any of the prescribed substances; or (b) of any minerals or other substances specified in the rules, from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; or (c) of any plant designed or adopted or manufactured for the production, development and use of atomic energy or for research into matters connected therewith; or (d) of any prescribed equipment. 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) The extraordinary fact that the largest reserves of thorium in the world occur on Kerala sands should force a pause in studying, examining, exploring and evaluating the geological forces and ocean currents at work in accumulating these placer deposits which are vital for the nation's nuclear programme. Any project in the region should be subjected first to this imperative study and evaluation. http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/wwr205.gif This map shows the unique phenomenon of two ocean currents in two opposing direcions operating like a cyclotron/sieve to isolate heavier minerals with heavy atomic weights such as Thorium 232 and Titanium. Strategic importance of Ramasetu: thorium Ramasetu and Indian ocean currents contribute to the accumulation of placer deposits of thorium minerals in Tamilnadu, Kerala beaches. Tsunami protection measures are required in the belt between Nagore (Tamilnadu) and Kayamkulam (Kerala) since the last tsunami impacted the mouth of kayamkulam canal. As Prof. Tad Murthy (an expert on tsunami who was engaged by Govt. of India to set up a tsunami warning system) apprehends, if the present Sethusamudram 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

channel project alignment is implemented, the next tsunami will destroy this part of Kerala since the channel pointing to the epicenter of the tsunami will absorb the tsunami energy and funnel into the channel which will move in a narrow arc to destroy the coastline of Tamilnadu and Kerala. The accumulation of thorium reserves of India is party attributed to the reworking of beachsands by seawaves (almost like a cyclotron or sieving operation to remove small stones from fresh husked paddy by women in India) given the nature of the ocean currents and the Ramasetu (Adam’s bridge) acting as a barrier to the ocean currents inducing countercurrents. Views of Prof. Rajamanickam, geomorphologist and mineralogist: “The coast between Nagapattinam to Nagore, Nagore to Poompuhar, Colachal and Madras were the places where the strong impact from the Tsunami was noticed. These were also the places where a high order of ilmenites was found soon after the Tsunami. For example in the Nagore coast, the pre-Tsunami heavy mineral content of 14 per cent jumped to 70 per cent of ilmenites after the Tsunami.” http://soma-fish.net/stories.php?story=05/08/14/4004215 Monazite, a radioactive material, contains 3 to 7% thorium by weight. Ilmenite less radioactive, contains .05% thorium. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3186552 Chavara mineral division, India Rare Earths Limited. Corporate office: Plot No.1207,Veer Savakar Marg, Near Siddhi Vinayak Temple, Prabhadevi,Mumbai - 400 028 +91 22 24382042/ 24211630/ 24211851, 24220230 FAX +91 22 24220236 Major Activity : Mining and separation of Heavy Minerals like, Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimanite, Garnet and Monazite from beach sand. Also engaged in chemical processing of Monazite to yield Thorium compounds, Rare Earth Chlorides and Tri-Sodium Phosphate. Dr. S. Suresh Kumar, Head Tel. No: (0476) 268 0701 – 05 Located 10 Km north of Kollam, 85 Km from Thiruvananthapuram capital of Kerala and 135 Km by road from Kochi is perhaps blessed with the best mineral sand deposit of the country.The plant operates on a mining area containing as high as 40% heavy minerals and extending over a length of 23 Km in the belt of Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The deposit is quite rich with respect to ilmenite, rutile and zircon and the mineral-ilmenite happens to be of weathered variety analyzing 60% TiO2. The present annual production capacity of Chavara unit engaged in dry as well as wet (dredging/ up-gradation) mining and mineral separation stands at 1,54,000t of ilmenite, 9,500t of rutile, 14,000t of zircon and 7,000t of sillimanite. In addition the plant has facilities for annual production of ground zircon called zirflor (-45 micron) and microzir (1-3 micron) of the order of 6,000t and 500t respectively. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm MANAVALAKURICHI (MK) MINERAL DIVISION:Shri K.P.Sreenivasan, Head & General ManagerTel. No: (04651) 237 255- 57 E-mail: iremk@vsnl.com , ngc_iremk@sancharnet.in Plant is situated 25 Kms north of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern most tip of the Indian sub-continent. All weather major seaport Tuticorin and the nearest airport at Thiruvananthapuram are equidistant, about 65 kms from the plant site. Nagercoil at a distance of about 18 kms from the plant, is the closest major Railway station. MK plant annually produces about 90,000t ilmenite of 55%. TiO2 grade, 3500t rutile and 10,000t zircon in addition to 3000t monazite and 10,000t garnet based primarily on beach washing supplied by fishermen of surrounding five villages. 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

IREL has also mining lease of mineral rich areas wherein raw sand can be made available in large quantities through dredging operation. In addition to mining and minerals separation, the unit has a chemical plant to add value to zircon in the form of zircon frit and other zirconium based chemicals in limited quantities. RARE EARTHS DIVISION (RED) Aluva: Shri L.N.Maharana, Chief General Manager Tel. No: (0484) 254 5062 - 65 E-mail: irered@vsnl.com Unlike the three units of IREL as described earlier, RED is an exclusively value adding chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced by MK, is chemically treated to separate thorium as hydroxide upgrade and rare earths in its composite chloride form. It is located on the banks of river Periyar at a distance of 12 Km by road from Kochi. This plant was made operational way back in 1952 to take on processing of 1400t of monazite every year. However over the years, the capacity of the plant was gradually augmented to treat about 3600t of monazite. Elaborate solvent extraction and ion exchange facilities were built up to produce individual R.E. oxides, like oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr and La in adequate purities. Today RED has built up large stock pile of impure thorium hydroxide upgrade associated with rare earths and unreacted materials. Henceforth, RED proposes to treat this hydroxide upgrade rather than fresh monazite to convert thorium into pure oxalate and rare earth as two major fractions namely Ce oxide and Ce oxide free rare earth chloride. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm#MK The total known world reservesof Thi nRA R category are estimated at about 1.16 million tonnes. About 31% of this (0.36 mt) is known to be available in the beach and inland placers of India…Prior to the second world war thorium was used widely in the manufacture of gas mantles, welding rods, refractories andin magnesium based alloys .Its use as fuel in nuclear energy, in spite of its limited demand as of now and low forecast, is gaining importance because of its transmutation to 233 u. Several countries like India, Russia, France and U.K. have shown considerable interest in the development of fast breeder reactors (FBR) anditisexpected thatbytheturnof this century someofthe countries would have started commissioning large capacity units… 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Beach sands: Although monazite occurs associated with ilmenite and beach sands, skirting the entire Peninsular India, its economic concentration is confined to only some areas where suitable physiographic conditions exist.The west coast placers are essentially beachorbarrier deposits with development of dunes where aeolin action is prominent in dry months… Origin of West Coast deposits: …The deposits are formed in four successive stages:(i) lateritisation of gneissic complexes, (ii) successive mountain uplift and simultaneous seaward shift of strand line., (iii) reworking of the beach sands by sea waves, which rise often to a height of 3m.in 12s.period and (iv) littoral drift caused by the breaking of thewaves faraway from the shore and consequent northerly movement of lighter minerals along the reflected waves… In Manavalakurchi, Tamil Nadu, the depositis formed by the quot;southerly tilt of the tip of the peninsula [9] aided by seasonal variation of sea currents, both in direction and magnitude [Udas, G.R.,Jayaram, K.M.V., Ramachandran, M and Sankaran,R.,Beach sand placer deposits of the world vs. Indian deposits. Plant maintenance and import substitution.1978.35.] … The reasonably assured resources of thorium in India, form about 31% of the world's estimated deposits.The reserves could have been several times more if systematic surveys are carried out… http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/fulltext/0412_1.pdf Mining of raw beach sand containing the six heavy minerals and separation of the later in adequate purities happen to be the common activity of all the three Mineral Division namely Chavara, MK (Manavalakurichi) and OSCOM (Orissa Sand Complex, Chatrapur, 150 kms. from Bhubaneswar). As per as mining practice is concerned, they do differ from one division to other. For example at MK, all the raw sand required to operate the plant at its full capacity is collected by the fisherman of surrounding villages from near by beaches and supplied to the unit at a cost. At Chavara also beach washing is available but not in adequate quantity to meet the full requirement of the plant. The heavy mineral rich sand feed either in the form of beach washings or dredge concentrate is subjected to final concentration in a facility provided with a host of spirals to enrich the feed with 97-98% heavy minerals. Such upgraded material is next dried in a fluid bed drier to take on the separation of individual minerals/ores by taking advantage of the difference in their electrical, magnetic properties as well as specific gravity. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Mineral.htm Strategic Value addition Recovery from thorium value Chemical processing of monazite to separate the contained thorium value (~8% ThO2) in the form of thorium hydroxide concentrate happen to be the most fundamental value addition activity of the company carried out for last 50 years or so. In the recent time thorium is separated as its pure oxalate form. A part of it is taken to OSCOM for its further processing by solvent 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

extraction to produce about 150-200 TPA of its thorium nitrate for its mantle application. A small part of the purified thorium nitrate is covered to nuclear grade thorium oxide powder to meet the requirement of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) for developing thorium based fuel for our nuclear reactors. Recovery of Uranium value. Recovery of Uranium value. In recent time IREL has got engaged through its Rare Earths Division, in activity involving recovery of uranium value present in Indian monazite in the form of Nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) to supplement the indigenous supply scenario for uranium as required in the Indian Nuclear Power programme. In addition to monazite, RED has developed facilities for recovering uranium value from other secondary resource as well. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Strategic.htm Indian ocean currents both east to west and counter currents result in a churning operation and consequent deposition of heavy minerals such as thorium or titanium. This is a colour version of Figure 11.3 of Regional Oceanography: an Introduction by M. Tomczak and S. J. Godfrey (Pergamon Press, New York 1994, 422 p.). http://www.lei.furg.br/ocfis/mattom/regoc/text/11circ.html 22 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Major ocean currents of the world. On this illustration red arrows indicate warm currents, while cold currents are displayed in blue. (Source: PhysicalGeography.net) http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ocean_circulation Indian Ocean Tsunami Model, December 26, 2004 http://sos.noaa.gov/gallery/ Movie - Indian Ocean view (8 mb) Beaches of Kerala with thorium sands. http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/genetics/images/kerala_lowres.jpg The issue of thorium as the nuclear fuel which will unleash the nuclear potential of Bharatam has been underscored in the BARC website. One of the principal earth science reasons for the accumulation of thorium resources on Kerala beaches is the oscillating, sieving action of the ocean currents around Ramasetu. Incursive channel in an arbitrarily drawn medial line between Bharatam and Srilanka as a defacto boundary of international waters, discarding the age-old rights as 'historic waters' 23 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

under the UN Law of the Sea, is a serious dereliction of responsibility on the part of the Sethusamudram Channel Project designers. PM and UPA Chairperson have to explain to the nation for the undue haste and carelessness in choosing an alignment impacting on Ramsethu while five other alternative channels closer to the Bharatam coastline were available. Was the new, arbitrarily drawn medial line as the channel alignment influenced by US Navy Operational Directives of 23 June 2005? Is it mere coincidence that the inauguration of SSCP takes place within a week thereafter, on 2 July 2005 ignoring the imperative subjecting the impact of a future tsunami on the integrity of the coastline if the present chosen alignment is implemented? Together with the destruction of Kerala, will it impact on the harnessing of the thorium resource as the foundation fuel for the nuclear programme of Bharatam? As the trial for treason unravels, in case Bharatam succumbs to US geopolitical pressures, a lot of questions will have to be raised and answered. Was the PM satisfied by the answers (provided on 30 June 2005) to the 16 questions raised by PMO on 8 March 2005? Something is fishy in the state of Bharatam. Importance of Thorium for Bharat, f rom BARC website: Thorium deposits - ~ 3,60,000 tonnes •The currently known Indian thorium reserves amount to 358,000 GWe-yr of electrical energy and can easily meet the energy requirements during the next century and beyond. •India 's vast thorium deposits permit design and operation of U-233 fuelled breeder reactors. •These U-233/Th-232 based breeder reactors are under development and would serve as the mainstay of the final thorium utilization stage of the Indian nuclear programme. http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/about/anu1.htm The US study can be downloaded from www.carnegieendowment.org/publications: Tellis notes that India reserves f 78,000 metric tons of uranium. •eight reactors allocating a quarter of their cores for the production of weapons- grade material, uranium needed would be: 19,965 to 29,124 tons. T two research reactors will need 938 to 1,088 tons. • These would yield India 12,135 to 13,370 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium. •Thorium blanket as fuel will be the nuclear fuel of the future for Bharatam, which has the largest reserves of thorium in the world. A team of scientists led by Dr. VJ Loveson of the CISR New Delhi, studying placer deposits in the area, says an estimated 40 million tonnes of Titanium alone has been deposited in the entire stretch of 500 km. coastline. Bye-bye to historic waters US Navy operational directive, 23 June 2005: Historic waters, intl. Waters; 30 June 2005, Chairman TCPT replies to PMO; 2 July 2005, inauguration. The haste is fishy. Aug 76 Act No. 80 Enables government to declare waters as historic. June 79 Law No. 41 Waters of Palk Bay between coast and boundary with Sri Lanka claimed as internal waters; waters of Gulf of Mannar between coast and maritime boundayr claimed as historic waters. This claim is not recognized by the United States. US conducted 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

operational assertions in 1993 and 1994, to Gulf of Mannar claim in 1999 (jiski laathi uski bhains; tadi eduttasvan tandalkaaran). UN Conf. on the Law of the Sea (1958), Convention of the Territorial Sea and and contiguous zone recognizes HISTORIC waters Agreement between Sri Lanka and India on the Maritime Boundary between the two countries in the Gulf of Mannar and the Bay of Bengal and Related Matters 23 March 1976 on Historic Waters. Implications of intrusive identification of 'international waters boundary' drawn as the Setu channel passage just 3 kms. west of the medial line recognized in ‘historic waters’ by an agreement of June 1974 between the late PM of India Smt. Indira Gandhi and President of India Smt. Sirimavo Bandaranaike has been stated succinctly by Arulanandam: http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/images/20050114005902402.jpg U. Arulanandam, President, Singaravelar Fishermen's Forum : the project is being implemented to enforce the international boundary line in the waters. Once the canal is a reality, it will become an unofficial boundary line on the sea between India and Sri Lanka. Fisherpeople are afraid: the catch is that it is in the Sri Lankan waters that fish thrive. The canal would seal their entry into those waters for fishing. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/stories/20050114005902400.htm 25 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Chennai: July 27, 2007 India's former president A.P.J Abdul Kalam returned to a profession he likes the most a day after he demitted office on Thursday (July 26). Kalam interacted with the students and faculty members of southern Anna University in Chennai, capital city of Tamil Nadu state. Credited with substantial contribution to India's missile technology, Kalam on Thursday said the country should go for thorium-based nuclear reactors to feed the energy hungry economy. quot;India has to go nuclear generation in a big way using thorium-based research reactors. Thorium, of course, is a non-fissile material for research available in abundance in our country. Intensive research is essential for converting thorium for maximizing its utilization for electricity generation through thorium-based reactors,quot; Kalam said. India's nuclear power capacity of 14 reactors is presently 3900 MW. It is expected to go to 7400 MW by 2010 with the completion of nine reactors, which are now in progress. http://tvscripts.edt.reuters.com/2007-07-26/34a2b1ff.html http://www.andhranews.net/India/2007/July/27-Thorium-based-nuke-9527.asp 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Chennai, Aug 2: India is on the verge of setting up the world’s first Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) which uses thorium as fuel. “We have the design and the technology to install a 300 MW thorium based reactor. It is going through the process of regulatory clearance. We will start work on it in the eleventh plan period. And we hope to complete the work within seven years,” Dr Baldev Raj , director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam said on Thursday. In an exclusive interview with this newspaper, Dr Baldev Raj, an internationally acclaimed metallurgist, said that the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay near Mumbai has been doing research into Thorium based reactors for the last 50 years. He explained that India was the only country with adequate reserves of thorium to make the use of the reactors based on it viable financially. “As of today, no other country in the world is doing any research on thorium based reactors as they do not have adequate thorium reserves,” Dr Raj added. This would be a major technological achievement for the country as thorium based reactors would see the completion of India’s nuclear fuel cycle, according to him. The first stage of India’s nuclear programme saw pressurized heavy water reactors which created plutonium. “The Fast Breeder Reactors coming up at Kalpakkam and other places will use this plutonium as fuel. This in turn will help us build up an inventory of Uranium- 233 which could be used along with Thorium-232 to run the thorium reactors,” Dr Raj explained. He said that within three decades the country’s thorium reactors would start generating power for the national grid. “I am sure by 2037 we will have thorium reactors in place,” he said. With its vast thorium resources along the Kerala and Tamil Nadu coast, the country would not need to worry about its fuel needs in the future, according to him. Former President Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, himself a scientist of international repute, had recently spoken about the neccessity to develop thorium based reactors to make the country energy independent. With the commissioning of the thorium based reactor, the country is expected to make a quantum leap towards economy and safety in power generation. Since thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors, chances of any radiation hazards are lesser in Thorium reactors, experts point out. According to Dr Raj work on the 500 MW Fast Breeder Reactor at Kalpakkam was progressing as per schedule. “ We are sure that the FBR will be commissioned by September 2010. It will start supplying power to the national grid by March 2011. We have almost finished the civil construction work. The reactor vault has been completed without any problems. The main vessel of the reactor, safety vessel, core structure, control rod drives, fuel-handling mechanism are all in various stages of completion. From the end of September, we will start loading all components into the building,” he added. He said that his team of scientists and engineers were working on a goal to produce power at the rate of Rs 2 per unit. “As of today the power from FBR costs Rs 3. 20 per unit. Our dream is to bring it down by a rupee,” he disclosed http://www.deccan.com/chennaichronicle/Home/HomeDetails.asp#1st thorium unit in India soon 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Mumbai, Sept. 3 (PTI): The importance of India in global nuclear renaissance is increasing as the country will be needed by the international community in the long run, Principal Scientific Advisor to Government of India Dr R Chidambaram said here today. Although India wants the world in the short-term in nuclear energy the world is going to need India in the long term, he said while inaugurating a day-long seminar on `Recycling for Electronic and automotive Industry at the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education. quot;This is what I say in my lectures abroadquot;, he said talking about the closed fuel cycle which is adopted by India which helps in a comprehensive nuclear waste management. In many countries, nuclear technology has stagnated and when nuclear technology stagnates, knowledge management becomes a problem, Chidambaram said. Whereas India and China are the two main countries where nuclear industry growth is seen due to surging energy demand, he added. The knowledge management in nuclear energy is booming and young people still take a lot of interest in joining the field in India while there is slow R and D growth in other parts of the world, including where there is stagnation, he said. So for us, nuclear knowledge management is not a problem, Chidambaram said. While talking about nuclear waste management, he said India uses closed fuel cycle and this is also required because the same amount of uranium, wh

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