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Rahman PPT

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Published on January 23, 2008

Author: Urania

Source: authorstream.com

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Distributed Generation Technologies A Global Perspective :  Distributed Generation Technologies A Global Perspective NSF Workshop on Sustainable Energy Systems Professor Saifur Rahman Director Alexandria Research Institute Virginia Tech November 2000 Slide2:  Nuclear Power Plant Slide3:  Central Station Thermal Power Plant Slide4:  Central Station Thermal Power Plant Slide5:  Concerns about High Voltage lines Slide6:  Transition from Central to Distributed Slide7:  Wind Energy Based Power Plant Slide8:  Distributed Capacity Distributed generation reduces the capital investment and improves the overall conversion efficiency of fuel to end use electricity by reducing transmission losses. In high growth or remotely located load demands, distributed generation could reduce or eliminate transmission and distribution problems by reducing the need for new capacity or siting new lines. Presently at least 8-10 percent of the generated electrical power is also lost between the generating station and the end user. Distributed generation will result in many smaller units distributed throughout the system resulting in a statistically more reliable system. Slide9:  Distributed Generation Technologies Solar Energy Systems Wind Energy Systems Mini-hydro Power Plants Geothermal Power Plants Biomass-based Electricity Fuel Cells Opportunities from Renewables:  Opportunities from Renewables Major contributions from large-scale hydropower is uncertain Low-head hydropower may be easier to develop Geothermal energy is a small local contributor Biomass will present modest opportunities Wind and solar will play more important roles Hydropower Development :  Hydropower Development Large scale hydropower development in the industrialized world has almost come to a halt. China, India, Turkey, Brazil, Nepal and some African countries have ongoing programs of large hydro projects, but significant environmental concerns. Large areas are inundated requiring huge population movements. Concerns about ecological damage and loss of biodiversity. Small scale hydropower :  Small scale hydropower   Generally up to 25 MW, Mostly low head, Does not require large dams, Flooding impacts are minimal, Does not impact the watershed, Equipment is less expensive, widely available Geothermal Electricity:  Geothermal Electricity   Site-specific Land-use effects can be significant Potential for environmentally-damaging discharge Equipment cost can be high Conversion efficiency may be low Not all geothermal wells are suitable for electricity production Solar Energy:  Solar Energy Solar Thermal (heating/drying applications) Solar Thermal Electricity Solar Photovoltaics Slide20:  FUEL CELLS Fuel cells are an environmentally clean, quiet, and highly efficient method for generating electricity and heat from natural gas and other fuels. They are vastly different from other power systems. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to usable energy - electricity and heat - without combustion. The fuel cell works by processing a hydrogen-rich fuel - usually natural gas or methanol - into hydrogen, which, when combined with oxygen, produces electricity and water. A fuel cell has few moving parts, and produces very little waste heat or gas. :  The fuel cell works by processing a hydrogen-rich fuel - usually natural gas or methanol - into hydrogen, which, when combined with oxygen, produces electricity and water. A fuel cell has few moving parts, and produces very little waste heat or gas. Slide22:  Fuel cells are the ideal technology for small power plants 200 kW to 2 MW, serving an emerging distributed generation market. Larger advanced, ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine sizes (1-100+MW) is designed to serve industrial and new, more central, or repowering units. Slide23:  Today's natural gas-fueled fuel cell power plants operate with an electrical conversion efficiency of 40 to 50 percent and are predicted to climb to the 50 to 60 percent in the near future. Fuel cells operate at high efficiency, regardless of size and load. In comparison, high efficiency gas turbines operate at efficiencies of 33 to 35 percent. Slide24:  Wind Energy: Cost of Wind-Generated Electricity 1980 to 2005 Levelized Cents/kWh Fastest Growing Energy Source in the World:  Fastest Growing Energy Source in the World Global % Growth by Energy Source, Annual Average,1990-98 Slide30:  Comparing American and European Growth megawatts Bar Graphs Represent new MW Capacity Each Year Worldwide Wind Energy:  Worldwide Wind Energy Megawatts Cumulative Wind Capacity 1994-1998 Technology Trends— Improved Reliability:  Technology Trends— Improved Reliability Average Percent of Turbines Available for Operation at Any Given Time Source: PG&E Key Market Strategies:  Key Market Strategies Pricing Support/Policies Tax Subsidies Min Fixed Payment Prices Mandates Cost Reductions/ Technology Advances New Applications Cost Reductions:  Cost Reductions Financing Strategies Manufacturing Economy of Scale Better Sites and “Tuning” Turbines for Site Conditions Technology Improvements New Applications:  New Applications Offshore Installations Cold Climates Low Wind Turbine Designs High Wind, Turbulence Weak Grids Slide36:  Market Barriers Public Acceptance/ Siting Issues - Noise - Aesthetics Transmission and Intermittence Knowledge of Wind Resource Familiarity with the Technology Projected Wind Growth Worldwide through 2007:  Projected Wind Growth Worldwide through 2007 W. & N. Europe +20275 MW Asia +10195 MW U.S & Canada + 7260 MW Lat. Am. & Caribb. +5665 MW Other +5080 MW Source: AWEA Electricity Consumptions per Person per Year:  Electricity Consumptions per Person per Year United States: 12,000 kWhr China: 1,200 kWhr India: 550 kWhr Over 2 billion out of 6 billion people have no access to electricity Remaining Fuels for Electricity and other Energy Uses:  Remaining Fuels for Electricity and other Energy Uses Oil: 20-30 years Natural Gas: 30-50 years Coal: 100 years or less Resources are located in a few selected countries NSF Workshop on Sustainable Energy Systems ??:  NSF Workshop on Sustainable Energy Systems ?? So, what sources are left? Hydropower? $2 trillion has been invested 80 million people have been displaced 25% of GHG has been emitted by vegetation rotting in hydro reservoirs Sustainable Energy Systems ??:  Sustainable Energy Systems ?? Wind? Small, but meaningful Solar? High potential with inexpensive storage Fossil fuel? Highly efficient plants Nuclear? Yet to be determined form

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