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Radiotherapy eb dosimetry mrp005

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Information about Radiotherapy eb dosimetry mrp005
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Published on March 9, 2014

Author: mtv243

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Radiotherapy and dosimetry by Ossama Anjaq
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‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪Calibration of Radiotherapy‬‬ ‫‪py‬‬ ‫‪Equipments‬‬ ‫ﺠﻖ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﻣﺔ أﻧﺠﻖ‬ ‫هﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺬرﻳﺔ اﻟﺴﻮرﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮ اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ وﺁﻣﺎن اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎء - آﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم - ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ دﻣﺸﻖ‬ ‫1102-0102‬ ‫1‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿﺮة‬ ‫:‪Today‬‬ ‫‪The radiation‬‬ ‫‪Protection‬‬ ‫‪Programme‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓ ‪Objectives‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ.‬ ‫اﻷدوات اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ ‫اﻹدراك اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻤﻮاﺿﻴﻊ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ اﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﺎهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻳﺾ ﺧﻼل ﺟﻠﺴﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ.‬ ‫2‬

10/04/1432 1890’s ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻊ اآﺘﺸﺎف أﺷﻌﺔ اﻟﺴﻴﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﺒﻴﻦ أﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ :‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻦ‬ :‫اﻟﺘﺤﺮي ﻋﻦ اﻹﺷﻌﺎع ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻦ‬ Film (photographic) ‫أﻓﻼم اﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬ Electrical (‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻇﺎهﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ‬ Marie Curie, 1899: “ The electric method is based upon the measurement of the conductivity acquired by … fast and provides quantitative results that may be compared with one another.” Nobel Prize in Physics 1903 1890’s ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ 1899 Ernest Rutherford, Rutherford, “Radiation may be investigated by two methods: - one depending upon the action of the photographic plate and the other - depending on the discharge of electrification… electrification… much more rapid than the h t th th photographic method and hi th d d admits of fairly accurate quantitative determination Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908 3

10/04/1432 ‫א‬ IAEA [CoP] TRS’s series ‫א‬ The First International Dosimetry protocol, 1970 2000 1997 1994 1987 1979 1987 1997 NK-Based IAEA TRS-277 2000 Update of TRS-277 TRS 277 IAEA TRS381 2011? ND,w-based IAEA International Codes of Practice for Radiotherapy Dosimetry 4 IAEA TRS-398 Small beam

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻴﻞ اﻷول ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت اﻟﻤﺠﺮاﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮ ﻲ ﻬﻮ ء‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫‪First generation of dosimetry protocols‬‬ ‫‪chamber exposure calibration factors NX‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺠﺪاول ﻟﺤﺴﺎب اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ ‪nominal energy‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺰﻣﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰم اﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻧﺎت واﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت.‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻧﻮع ﺣﺠﻴﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ.‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪.Beam Quality‬‬ ‫…‪Uncertainty of about 5% or more‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت اﻟﻤﺠﺮاﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Second generation of dosimetry‬‬ ‫‪protocols‬‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺠﺮات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﻮاء، اﻟﺘﻌﺮض )12‪ NX(TG‬أو آﻴﺮﻣﺎ اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫)12‪(TG‬‬ ‫)772-‪NK (TRS‬‬ ‫)772-‪(TRS‬‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﺠﻴﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ.‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻣﻌﻘﺪة ﻟﺤﺴﺎب اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ارﺗﻜﺎب اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺧﻄﺎء ﺧﻼل ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ.‬ ‫%5.3 ~ ‪Uncertainty of about of‬‬ ‫772-‪IAEA TRS‬‬ ‫5‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت اﻟﻤﺠﺮاﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Third generation of dosimetry protocols‬‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺠﺮات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎء )15-‪ND,W (TRS-398, TG‬‬ ‫)15-‪(TRS-398, TG‬‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺤﺠﻴﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ اﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻧﺎت واﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ.‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺷﺮح ﻣﻔﺼﻞ وﺧﻄﻮات ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ اﻹﺟﺮاءات اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ واﻟﺨﺮج اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ أﺧﻄﺎء أﻗﻞ.‬ ‫)‪Uncertainty of about 2% (beam quality‬‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Dose in‬‬ ‫‪radiotherapy‬‬ ‫هﻞ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ أداة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻹ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫هﻞ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ اﻟﻬﺪف إﻟﻰ أﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺮﻋﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل إﻟﻴﻬﺎ )54-07 ﻏﺮي(.‬ ‫ﻳﺮاﻓﻖ ذﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ.‬ ‫6‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻲ اﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ.‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق ﺑﻤﻘﺪار %5 ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻳﺆدي ﻓﺮق‬ ‫%51 ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ أورام اﻟﺮأس‬ ‫%51‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻨﻖ ﻟﺪى اﻟﻤﺮﺿﻰ – هﺬا ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪراﺳﺎت ﺳﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ.‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻰ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺠﺎل ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻرﺗﻴﺎب ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫%5±‬ ‫‪Sources of uncertainty‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ / اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة.‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ )ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺨﺮج، % اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻖ،‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ‪.( ..... profiles‬‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ )ﻳﻘﺪر اﻻرﺗﻴﺎب ﺑﺤﺪود % 2±(.‬ ‫أداء اﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮم ﻵﺧﺮ )# % 2±(.‬ ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﻳﺾ واﻟﺤﺮآﺔ )# % 3±(.‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺠﺎل واﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت.‬ ‫...‪Not much room for error in dosimetry‬‬ ‫7‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ‬ ‫‪Absolute and relative dosimetry‬‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ‪ :Absolute dosimetry‬هﻮ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻲ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﻖ ‪y‬‬ ‫ﻴ س ﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻣﻘﺪرة ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮي ‪.Gy‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﺮى ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ اﻟﺼﺎدرة ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﻤﺸﻊ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺷﺮوط ﻣﺤﺪدة ﺑﺪﻗﺔ.‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﺗﻜﻮن أداة اﻟﻘﻴﺎس )ﺣﺠﻴﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ( ﻣﺰودة ﺑﺸﻬﺎدة ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻲ.‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫آﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻷﺧﺮى ﺗﺮﺟﻊ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ( ﺗﺪﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺮ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺮى ﺮ ﻊ إ ﻰ ﻮ ﻴ ﻴ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎت ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ ‪.relative dosimetry‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ﻧﺤﺘﺎج ﻷﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ هﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺮاءﺗﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ أﺟﺮي أﺣﺪاهﻤﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻟﺸﺮوط‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ.‬ ‫1.‬ ‫‪ Calibration‬א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮي ‪ Gy‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ زﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ أو ﻋﺪد وﺣﺪات اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ ‪monitor units‬‬ ‫)‪ (MU‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮل إﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ.‬ ‫هﺬا اﻹﺟﺮاء هﺎم ﺟﺪا )إذا ﺣﺪث ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈن آﻞ ﺷﻲء ﻳﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮن ﺧﺎﻃﺊ(.‬ ‫(‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ اﻵﻣﺎن ‪ BSS‬ﺗﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺮض‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻲ.‬ ‫8‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺮض اﻟﻌﻼﺟﻲ‬ ‫‪Optimization of protection in therapeutic exposure‬‬ ‫.81.‪ :BSS appendix II‬ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ‬ ‫ﻳﻠ :‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ:‬ ‫أ( اﻹﺑﻘﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮض اﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ اﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ أﺛﻨﺎء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﻌﺎع ﻋﻨﺪ أدﻧﻰ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮل وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻠﻌﻼج ، واﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺗﺪرﻳﻊ اﻷﻋﻀﺎء آﻠﻤﺎ آﺎن ذﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫وﻣﻼﺋﻤﺎ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ب( .......‬ ‫ب(‬ ‫هـ( إﺑﻼغ اﻟﻤﺮﻳﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ.‬ ‫א א‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫א‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪EBT‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪Calibration of beams‬‬ ‫ادث ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺗ ﺪ ﺪ ﻣﻌﺪل اﻟ ﻋﺔ أدت إﻟﻰ ز ﺎدة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إﻟ زﻳﺎدة ﻓ‬ ‫ﻓ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺪل اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮادث‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ 511، 702، 624 ﻣﺮﻳﺾ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ﻳﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ 06% ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ.‬ ‫هﻨﺎك ﺣﻮادث ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ اﺳﺎءة ﻓﻬﻢ ﺷﻬﺎدة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ، أو ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ، اﺳﺘﺒﺪال اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺄﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻪ اﻟﺨﺒﺮة اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ، اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺧﺎﻃﺊ ﻟﺤﺠﻴﺮة ﺗﺄﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ.‬ ‫9‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪Accidents due to calibration mistakes‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﻓﻲ إﺣﺪى اﻟﺤﻮادث: ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة 22 ﺷﻬﺮ، ﺣﻴﺚ أن اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ آﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮس وﻗﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎز اﻟﻤﺴﺮع اﻟﻠﺬي رآﺐ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻣﺘﺠﺎهﻼ ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻜﻮﺑﺎﻟﺖ-06. ﻧﻼﺣﻆ هﻨﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻘﺼﻴﺮ ﺑﺈﻋﺎدة اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺎﻗﻢ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ وأن هﻨﺎك ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎدة ﻋﺪد اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ.‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ-91: ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ً‬ ‫)أ( إﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﺳﻨﺎد ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﺿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎري ﻟﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت ‪Standards‬‬ ‫‪.dosimetry laboratory‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ .91.‪ II‬ﻣﻦ ‪BSS‬‬ ‫01‬

10/04/1432 ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﳐﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ IAEA/WHO SSDL Network ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs 1976 ‫ﺗﺄﺳﺴﺖ ﻋﺎم‬ Established in 1976 80 members in 67 IAEA Member States 20 affiliated members (BIPM, PSDLs, ICRU, etc) : Goals ‫اﻟﻬﺪف ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ •i t international consistency i d i t standards ti l i t in dosimetry t d d calibration of dosimeters (national references) labs quality audits and inter-comparisons • support national QA programmes (radiotherapy & imaging) 11

10/04/1432 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ The IAEA / WHO Network of SSDLs The members of the IAEA/WHO Network: 80 Member States Provisional SSDL member SSDL network member SSDL member and affiliated PSDL PSDL affiliated member ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎس واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ The International Measurement System for Radiation Dosimetry ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ‬ BIPM PSDLs QA QA SSDLs IAEA ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‬ QA QA QA SSDLs ‫ﺍﺍﻟ ﺘ ﺍﻟ ﻘﻠ‬ ‫ﺍﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻠﻲ‬ Users QA QA Users Traceability of calibration 12 Users Users ‫א‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫‪The aim‬‬ ‫‪The dose at reference conditions should be the same all over‬‬ ‫‪the world‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1G‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1G‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫‪1Gy‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫:‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ-91: ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ً‬ ‫)ب( ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎع أو ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻪ واﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ أو ﻣﻌﺪل اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺪدة ﺳﻠﻔﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ، ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎع اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت اﻟﻮاردة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ رﻗﻢ 772‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪرهﺎ اﻟﻮآﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺬرﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل، .....‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ .91.‪ II‬ﻣﻦ ‪:BSS‬‬ ‫31‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﻤﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ؟؟‬ ‫؟؟‬ ‫‪CTV dose 2Gy‬‬ ‫‪CTV‬‬ ‫‪dose 2Gy‬‬ ‫‪CTV dose 2Gy‬‬ ‫‪CTV‬‬ ‫‪dose 2Gy‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Calibration of dosimeters used in radiotherapy‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﻌﻤﻞ آﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ‪ SSDLs‬وهﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﻮن اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮن ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻗﺴﺎم اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ )اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻄﺒﻲ ‪ (medical physicist‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋ اﻟﻄﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ أن ﺣﺠﻴﺮات اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺮى ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺗﻬﺎ وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪ ‪ Code of Practice‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ:‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺣﺪوث اﻷﺧﻄﺎء.‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻋ ﻠ ﺔ اﻟ ﺎ ة إ ا ات ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟ ﻋﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟﺘ ﺎﻧ ﻓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة وإﺟﺮاءات ﻗ ﺎ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫41‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫‪Calibration of dosimeters used in‬‬ ‫893-‪radiotherapy: after TRS‬‬ ‫‪Most SSDLs are now‬‬ ‫‪providing absorbed dose to‬‬ ‫‪water calibrations (ND,W) at‬‬ ‫‪60Co, with an uncertainty‬‬ ‫%1 & %4.0 ‪between‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ:‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ- ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ زﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ أو وﺣﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ ‪ MU‬ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻟ ﻄﻠﻘﺔ:‬ ‫ﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ = ﺛﺎﺑﺖ * إﺷﺎرة اﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ: ﻳﺠﺐ ان ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ:‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارﻳﺔ ‪.Calorimetry‬‬ ‫‪y‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ ‪.Ionometry W/e‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪.Chemical dosimetry g‬‬ ‫51‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫893‪IAEA TRS‬‬ ‫מא‬ ‫א א‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل واﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ اﻻ ﺘ ﺎل اﻟﺘﻄ ﻖ‬ ‫א‬ ‫/‪The exposure‬‬ ‫‪KERMA way‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﺪد أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت.‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ NDw‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة –‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﺎج ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪beam‬‬ ‫‪.quality‬‬ ‫61‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:Calibration protocols‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻹﺟﺮاءات اﻟﻤﻌﻘﺪة ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ إﺟﺮاءهﺎ ﺧﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎء واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪد ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت ﻟﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮع اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺰودﻧﺎ ﺑﻄﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة:‬ ‫دوﻟﻴﺔ: )893 ‪(eg IAEA TRS 277 or TRS‬‬ ‫)893‬ ‫وﻃﻨﻴﺔ: )ﻋﺎدة ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎء‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ... ,86 ‪(AAPM TG 21, AAPM TG 51, DIN‬‬ ‫,‬ ‫71‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪:Calibration protocols‬‬ ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻴ ﺒ ﻉ ﺒﺭﻭ ﻭ ﻭل ﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ.‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺜﻕ – ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻨﺘﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل ﻟﻠﺨﻁﺄ.‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل‬ ‫893-‪STRUCTURE OF THE CoP IAEA TRS‬‬ ‫6‬ ‫7‬ ‫01‬ ‫5‬ ‫11‬ ‫9‬ ‫8‬ ‫81‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪة ﺟﺪا وﺗﻌﺪ آﻤﺮﺷﺪ أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ.‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮة ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎرة اﻟﻤﺮﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﺄﺧﻮذة ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﻮآﺎﻟﺔ ‪IAEA TRS‬‬ ‫893‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ أداء ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺒﺪء ﺑﺈﺟﺮاء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ ‫اﻟ ﺎ ة‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء آﺎﻓﺔ اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫83‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫91‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ واﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫1102/51/3‬ ‫93‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ 2: ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﺮﺑﻂ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ وﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫)‬ ‫מ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫(‬ ‫02‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫.91.‪II‬‬ ‫‪:BSS‬‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ-91: ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ً‬ ‫)...( ....‬ ‫)هـ( إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮات ﻋﻘﺐ اﺳﺘﻼم ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ وﺑﻌﺪ أي إﺟﺮاء ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة، وﺗﻜﺮار اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺮهﺎ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟ ﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫14‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺤﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﺤﺘﺎج إﻟﻰ ﺣﺠﻴﺮة ﺗﺄﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮذج ﻓﺎرﻣﺮ –ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء ‪ – 0.6cc‬ﻹﺟﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻟﺤﺰم اﻟﻔﻮﺗﻮﻧﺎت واﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ.‬ ‫‪Farmer I.C., 0.6cc‬‬ ‫24‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫12‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺤﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻮم ﻣﺎﺋﻲ ‪Water Phantom‬‬ ‫34‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫44‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫22‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫54‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪chamber‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫‪Plane parallel‬‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﺎج إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﺣﺰم اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫وﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﺣﺰم اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت ذات ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻻﻧﺤﺪار اﻟﺤﺎد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫‪PTW Markus chamber‬‬ ‫64‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫32‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫‪chamber‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫‪Plane parallel‬‬ ‫‪2mm‬‬ ‫74‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫:‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﻬﻮاء ‪:Air pressure‬‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ ‪ 10 mbar‬ﺳﻴﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ 1% ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﻴﺆ ي إ ﻰ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة.‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة ‪:Temperature‬‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ 3 درﺟﺎت ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﻴﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻘﺪارﻩ 1% ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة.‬ ‫3.101‬ ‫2 372 + )‪101 3 t( o c‬‬ ‫2.372 )‬ ‫=‬ ‫×‬ ‫)‪P(kPa‬‬ ‫2.392‬ ‫84‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫‪K t.p‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫42‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫‪Electron‬‬ ‫‪22MeV‬‬ ‫‪Photon‬‬ ‫‪25MV‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟ ﺰ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎب اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫94‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت:‬ ‫‪16 MeV‬‬ ‫‪10 MeV‬‬ ‫‪5 MeV‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ.‬ ‫اﻟ ﺰ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻖ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫05‬ ‫‪Ossama Anjak‬‬ ‫1102 ‪15 March‬‬ ‫52‬

10/04/1432 (Absolute Dosimetry) ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎء‬ TECHNICAL REPORTS SERIES No. 398 Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water Sponsored by the IAEA, WHO, PAHO and ESTRO INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, VIENNA, 2000 51 3/15/2011 15/ Absorbed dose-to-water-based protocols dose-toThe absorbed dose-to-water at the reference dose-todepth z Dw, Qoref in water for a reference beam of quality Qo and in the absence of the chamber is directly given by: D w,Qo = M Qo x N D,w,Qo 3/15/2011 15/ 26 52

10/04/1432 Absolute dose calibration Provide cGy/MU: dose delivered by a 10×10cm 10 10cm field at dmax, for SSD = 100cm when monitor chamber indicated1MU Adjust monitor chamber so that output is 1cGy/MU S Monitor Chamber SSD 10x10cm dmax calibration chamber Water Absorbed dose-to-water-based dose-toprotocols Where: MQo is the fully corrected chamber reading under the reference conditions used in the standards laboratory and ND,w,Qo is the calibration coefficient in terms of the absorbed d b b d dose-to-water of the chamber obtained t t f th h b bt i d from the standards laboratory. 3/15/2011 15/ 27 54

10/04/1432 Absorbed dose-to-water-based dose-toprotocols When a chamber is used in a beam of quality Q that differs from the quality Qo that was used in its calibration, the absorbed dose-to-water is given by: dose-to- D w,Q = M Q × N D,w,Qo × k Q,Qo where the factor kQ,Qo corrects for the differences between the reference beam quality Qo and the actual user quality Q. 55 3/15/2011 15/ Absorbed dose-to-water-based protocols dose-to- Values for kQ,Qo 3/15/2011 15/ 28 56

10/04/1432 PDD20/10 Measurement Careful: The ratio of doses is measured in an SSD setup, where the surface of phantom is set at the isocenter; SSD= 100 cm SSD= 100 cm PDD20 /10 = Dd = 20 cm Dd =10 cm 10x10 cm d=10 cm d=20 cm TMR20/10 Measurement Careful: The ratio of doses is measured in an isocentric setup, where the chamber is set at the isocenter; SAD= 100 cm SAD= 100 cm d=20 cm d=10 cm 10x10 cm 29 TMR20 /10 = Dd = 20 cm Dd =10 cm

10/04/1432 Absorbed dose-to-water-based protocols dose-toMQ: corrected chamber reading 3/15/2011 15/ 59 6.9. Worksheet Determination of the absorbed dose to water in a high-energy photon beam 30

10/04/1432 ‫א‬ IAEA TECHNICAL REPORTS SERIES No. 398 Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water Sponsored by the IAEA, WHO, PAHO and ESTRO INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, VIENNA, 2000 ‫א‬ Calibration Records ‫ : ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ، ﺣﺴﺐ‬BSS ‫ ﻣﻦ‬II.32. ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻖ‬ II.32. ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ، ﺑﺎﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ وﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮات واﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﺪورﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎرﻣﺘﺮات اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ واﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ ذات اﻟﺼﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ .‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎرهﺎ أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﻌﻼج‬ 31

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻊ‬ ‫أدوات اﻟﻘﻴﺎس:‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻴﺮة اﻟﺘﺄﻳﻦ اﻟﺒﺌﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ.‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺒﻊ )دﻟﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ(.‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎس اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ.‬ ‫اﻟ ﻘ ﺎ اﻹﻟﻜ‬ ‫23‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫‪Brachytherapy Source‬‬ ‫‪Calibrators‬‬ ‫‪Well type‬‬ ‫‪ionization‬‬ ‫‪chamber‬‬ ‫‪Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة وﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﻼم اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ.‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ ذات ﻧﺼﻒ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ) 731-‪.( .... Cs‬‬ ‫‪Cs‬‬‫ﻳﺠﺐ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ.‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ذات ﻧﺼﻒ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺼﻴﺮ )521-‪ .( ... Ir-193, I‬إذا آﺎن‬ ‫‪Ir-193, I‬‬‫ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺠﺮى اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ.‬ ‫إذا آﺎن ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ آﺒﻴﺮ )ﺑﺬور 521-‪ I‬ﻟ ﺎﻟ ﺔ اﻟﺒﺮوﺳﺘﺎت( ﺗﺠﺮى‬ ‫ﺘﺎ ﺗ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟ‬ ‫ﺬ‬ ‫اﻟ ﻨﺎ آ‬ ‫آﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ ) 01% ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ(.‬ ‫33‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫وﺣﺪات ﻗﻴﺎس ﺷﺪة اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ ’‪‘source strength‬‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫‪ :mgRa‬وﺣﺪة ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺔ اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ وﺗﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮادﻳﻮم. ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﺪم اﺳﺘﺨﺪام هﺬﻩ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﻮﺣﺪة ‪ Bq‬أو ‪(The SI unit Bq) Ci‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻒ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ارﺑﺎك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ واﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﻈﺎهﺮي )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎص اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ واﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺢ(.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل آﻴﺮﻣﺎ اﻟﻬﻮاء )1-‪ (Gy.hr‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺪد )‪ (1 m‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﻊ.: وهﻲ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺪة ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺒﻊ‪source strength‬‬ ‫91.‪BSS appendix II‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة:‬ ‫‪ 19.II‬ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﻮن واﻟﻤﺮﺧﺺ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ:‬ ‫ﺎ ﻠ‬ ‫اﻟ ﺧ ﻟ‬ ‫‪ 19.II‬ﺘ ﻘ اﻟ ﻠ‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫أ( إﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﺳﻨﺎد ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﺿﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺨﺒﺮ ﻋﻴﺎري ﻟﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت.‬ ‫ب( ......‬ ‫ج( ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻮﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻼج اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮب ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ واﻟﻤﻌﺪل اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﺮﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﻮاء وﻣﻌﺪل اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ وﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ، وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ، واﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻲ.‬ ‫د( ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻮﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ إﺟﺮاءات اﻟﻄﺐ اﻟﻨﻮوي ........‬ ‫هـ( إﺟﺮاءات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﻋﻨﺪ :‬ ‫ه إﺟ اءات اﻟ ﻌﺎﻳ ة‬ ‫ إﻋﺪاد اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪.Commissioning‬‬‫ وﻋﻘﺐ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة .‬‫- وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﺘﺮات اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺮهﺎ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﻴﺔ.‬ ‫43‬

10/04/1432 Calibration chain (ICRU 58) SECOND. STANDERD SOURCE SECONDARY LEVL WELLWELL-TYPE Ionization Chamber WELLWELL-TYPE Ionization Chamber USERS ‫א‬ WHO/IAEA 35 PRIMARY STANDERD SOURCE Ref. Ionization f Chamber PRIMARY LEVL USER’s SOURCE KR ‫א‬

10/04/1432 Aim: The dose at reference conditions should be the same all over the world 1Gy y 1Gy 1Gy 1Gy 1Gy 1Gy 1Gy 1Gy WHO/IAEA 1Gy ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮع ﺑﺈﺷﺮاف‬ TLD capsules ‫ﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ FS: 10x10cm, d=5cm 36 1Gy

10/04/1432 TLD Quality Audit Water Phantom CoCo-60 TLD & Holder TLD Quality Audit Water Phantom CoCo-60 TLD & Holder 37 Ion Chamber

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮع‬ ‫‪TLD Quality Audit‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ )ﻋﺪد وﺣﺪات اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ ‪ ( MU‬اﻟﻼزم ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫إﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺪارهﺎ ‪.2Gy‬‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺾ آﺒﺴﻮﻻت اﻟـ ‪.TLD‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪوﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎرة اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ.‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ اﻟـ ‪ TLD‬ﻣﻊ اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎرة إﻟﻰ اﻟﻮآﺎﻟﺔ.‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮع‬ ‫‪TLD Quality Audit‬‬ ‫‪IAEA mean dose‬‬ ‫00.1 =‬ ‫‪User stated dose‬‬ ‫83‬

10/04/1432 ‫ - ﺳﻮرﻳﺎ‬SSDL ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮع اﻟﻤﺨﺒﺮ اﻟﻌﻴﺎري‬ ٍ Co-60 ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ آﻮﺑﺎﻟﺖ‬ Results of TLD Measurements at Syrian SSDL (1992-2003) IAEA/WHO TLD Postal Dose Quality Audit for Co-60 Beam 1.06 IAEA mean dose/User steted dos 1.04 1.02 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 15/07/1992 07/03/1994 28/10/1995 19/06/1997 09/02/1999 01/10/2000 24/05/2002 14/01/2004 TLD date ‫ﺑﺮ ﺞ ﻴﻖ ﻴ س ﺠﺮع ﺑﺈ ﺮ‬ WHO/IAEA X-ray – ‫ - ﺳﻮرﻳﺎ‬SSDL ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺒﺮ اﻟﻌﻴﺎري‬ ٍ 18MV Results of TLD Measurements at Syrian SSDL (1994-1998) IAEA/WHO TLD Postal Dose Quality Audit for 18MV X-Ray Beam 1.04 + 3.5% IAEA me dose/User steted dose ean 1.02 1.00 0.98 - 3.5% 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.88 23/09/1994 20/07/1995 15/05/1996 11/03/1997 Date of TLD Irradiation 39 05/01/1998 01/11/1998 28/08/1999

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ‪ :III‬ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺎت ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻮم ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺤﻴﺎ ﻟﺠﺴﻢ اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ً‬ ‫‪‘anthropomorphic’ phantom‬‬ ‫‪anthropomorphic‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄآﺪ ﻣﻦ أن ﺧﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺗﺠﺮي ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ.‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺎت ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪Dosimetric Intercomparison‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ‪ :I‬ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ‪(eg‬‬ ‫)‪IAEA/WHO postal TLD ser ice‬‬ ‫)‪service‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ‪ : II‬إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻮم ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎرآﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻣﺜﻞ: )‪(eg. wedge factors, %DD, profiles‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ‪ : III‬اﺧﺘﺒﺎر آﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻮم‬ ‫‪Anthropomorphic‬‬ ‫04‬

‫2341/40/01‬ ‫...‪Anthropomorphic phantom CAN travel‬‬ ‫‪ART‬‬ ‫‪radiotherapy‬‬ ‫‪phantom in‬‬ ‫‪TROG‬‬ ‫‪study‬‬ ‫‪(Kron et al‬‬ ‫)2002 ‪IJROBP‬‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ ‪Summary‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻷﺟﻞ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎرﺗﻴﺎب ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ %5.‬ ‫ﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮة ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ.‬ ‫وﻳﺠﺐ أن ﺗﺠﺮى ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺧﺒﻴﺮ وﻣﺆهﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ وأن ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻮآﻮﻻت اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪة ﻓﻲ هﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺎل.‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺠﺎل واﺳﻊ وﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت ﻋﺪﻳﺪة ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ إﺟﺮاء ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮﻳﺔ ‪Clinical Dosimetry‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪ In-Vivo Dosimetry‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ ذات ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮاآﺰ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫14‬

10/04/1432 ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ Radiotherapy textbooks IAEA Calibration protocols. C lib ti t l www.IAEA.org, www.IAEA.org, www.ESTRO.be …… etc. 15 March 2011 42 Ossama Anjak 83

10/04/1432 Ossama Anjak AECS, Department of Protection & Safety PO Box 6091 Damascus Syria E-mail: oanjaq@gmail.com 43

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