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Radiolabeled PET imaging tracers for in vivo detection of pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's disease

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Information about Radiolabeled PET imaging tracers for in vivo detection of...
Health & Medicine

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: lorentonarelli

Source: slideshare.net

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Radiolabeled PET imaging tracers for in vivo detection of pre-symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease [EXCERPT] Copyright © by Lorena Tonarelli, M.Sc. 2014 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive 18F-(2-(1-{6-[(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)(methyl)a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile)( by the formation, in the brain, of extracellu- 18F-FDDNP). [4,5,6] Another 18F-labeled lar β-amyloid deposits and intraneuronal τ- PET β-amyloid tracer under study is 18F- protein tangles, which correlate to cogni- AV-45 (florbetapir F18). [7] tive decline. [1,2] Patients undergo PET imaging after receiv- Currently, the diagnosis of AD is based on ing an intravenous injection of the selected clinical criteria. However, these have low biomarker. This travels to the brain, where sensitivity and specificity, and only allow it binds uniquely to β-amyloid (11C-PIB making a diagnosis of probable or possible and florbetapir F18) or to β-amyloid and τ Alzheimer’s disease. Conventional mag- (18F-FDDNP). [4,5,6,7] Amyloid aggre- netic resonance (MR) and computed tomo- gates become apparent in the scans within graphy (CT) imaging also have low sensitiv- as little as 30 minutes. [8] ity and specificity. They are primarily used as adjuncts to clinical diagnosis to help exclude other types of dementia, and to assess the degree of brain atrophy. Consequently, a definite diagnosis of AD can be Both qualitative and quantitive β-amyloid pathology data obtained with radio-labeled PET imaging correlate well with visual observations at autopsy. [9] To date, no ad- achieved only at autopsy. [3] verse events have been reported, in stud- Non-invasive radio-labeled positron emis- tracers. [8] sion tomography (PET) imaging tracers have been developed in the past 20 years, which can detect, in vivo, β-amyloid and τprotein deposits, well before AD symptoms become apparent. The most widely studied of these tracers are the 11CPittsburgh Compound B (11C-PIB) and ies, following the use of radiolabeled PET Clinically relevant advantages An advantage of 18F-labeled PET amyloidβ imaging tracers over conventional diagnostic methods is the possibility of reaching a diagnosis in vivo. Other benefits include: 2

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