R08 B

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Information about R08 B

Published on November 6, 2007

Author: ozturk



15-213 Recitation 8: 10/28/02:  15-213 Recitation 8: 10/28/02 Outline Processes Signals Racing Hazard Reaping Children Annie Luo e-mail: Office Hours: Thursday 6:00 – 7:00 Wean 8402 Reminder L5 due: Halloween night, 11:59pm How Programmers Play with Processes:  How Programmers Play with Processes Process: executing copy of program Basic functions fork()spawns new process group exit()terminates own process wait()and waitpid() wait for and reap terminated children execl()and execve() run a new program in an existing process kill()send arbitrary signal to process or process group kill(-pid, SIGINT)sends SIGINT to every process in pg “pid” Process IDs and Process Groups:  Process IDs and Process Groups Each process has its own, unique process ID pid_t getpid(); Each process belongs to exactly one process group pid_t getpgid(); Which process group does a new process belong to? Its parent’s process group pid_t getppid(); A process can make a process group for itself and its children setpgid(pid, pgid); Use setpgid(0,0)to put the child in a new pgroup other than the shell Process Groups:  Fore- ground job Back- ground job #1 Back- ground job #2 Shell Child Child pid=10 pgid=10 Foreground process group 20 Background process group 32 Backgroud process group 40 pid=20 pgid=20 pid=32 pgid=32 pid=40 pgid=40 pid=21 pgid=20 pid=22 pgid=20 Process Groups Signals:  Signals Section 8.5 in text book Read at least twice, really! Used to reap background jobs waitpid() alone is not enough Background jobs become zombies A signal tells our process that some event has occurred in the system Can we use signal to count events? No Important Signals:  Important Signals SIGINT Interrupt signal from keyboard (ctrl-c), terminates the current foreground job SIGTSTP Stop signal from keyboard (ctrl-z), suspends current job until next SIGCONT SIGCHLD A child process has terminated (becomes a zombie) or stopped Look at Figure 8.23 for a complete list of Linux signals Signals – Sending:  Signals – Sending A signal is sent through the kernel to a process When does the kernel send a signal? The kernel detects a system event, e.g.: Divide-by-zero (SIGFPE) Termination of a child process (SIGCHLD) Another process invokes a system call, e.g.: kill(pid_t pid, int SIGINT) alarm(unsigned int secs) Signals – Receiving:  Signals – Receiving A process receives a signal when the kernel forces it to react to the signal Three default ways to react to a signal The process ignores the signal The process terminates (and dump core) The process stops until next SIGCONT Can modify the default action (except SIGSTOP and SIGKILL) by executing signal handler functions signal(SIGINT, sigint_handler) Signal Handling Issues:  Signal Handling Issues Subtle when deal with multiple signals Pending signals are blocked and not queued Same type of signal currently being processed by handler Not received until after the current handler returns At most ONE pending signal of the same type at any time pending bit vector: bit k is set when signal type k is delivered, clear when signal received blocked bit vector: can be set by the program using the sigprocmask function Synchronizing Parent and Children:  Synchronizing Parent and Children Preemptive scheduler run multiple programs “concurrently” by time slicing How does time slicing work? The scheduler can stop a program at any point Signal handler code can run at any point, too Program behaviors depend on how the scheduler interleaves the execution of processes Racing condition between parent and child! Why? Slide11:  sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } void eval() { pid = fork(); if(pid == 0){ /* child */ execve(…); } /* parent */ /* signal handler might run BEFORE addjob() */ addjob(…); } Parent & Children Racing Hazard Slide12:  An Okay Schedule Shell Signal Handler Child fork() addjob() execve() exit() sigchld_handler() deletejobs() time Slide13:  A Problematic Schedule Shell Signal Handler Child fork() execve() exit() sigchld_handler() deletejobs() time addjob() Slide14:  sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } void eval() { sigprocmask(SIG_BLOCK, …); pid = fork(); if(pid == 0){ /* child */ sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …); execve(…); } /* parent */ /* signal handler might run BEFORE addjob() */ addjob(…); sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …); } Solution to P&C Racing Hazard More details see section 8.5.6 (p.633) Waiting for Foreground Child Process:  Waiting for Foreground Child Process What’s the parent’s behavior for foreground child? It is blocked: In eval()the parent uses a busy loop checking foreground child pid Parent pauses if fg child processes is still alive Slide16:  void eval() { … … /* parent */ addjob(…); sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …); while (fg process still alive) pause(); } sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } Busy Loop: Pause vs. Sleep? pause() causes the invoking process to sleep until a signal is received. What’s the problem here? If signal is handled before pause is called, then it will not return when fg process sends SIGCHLD Slide17:  void eval() { … … /* parent */ addjob(…); sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, …); while (fg process still alive) sleep(1); } sigchld_handler() { pid = waitpid(…); deletejob(pid); } Busy Loop: Pause vs. Sleep? Use sleep instead Reaping Child Process:  Reaping Child Process Child process becomes zombie when terminates Still consume system resources Parent performs reaping on terminated child Where to wait children processes to terminate? Suggested solution: In sigchld_handler()use waitpid(), detecting any terminated or stopped jobs and reaping them Waitpid:  Waitpid Called in signal handler of SIGCHLD Reaps all available zombie children Does not wait for any other currently running children Waitpid in detail: pid_t waitpid(pid_t pid, int *status, int options) pid: child process ID being waited to terminate pid = -1: wait for any child process status: tells why child terminated options: WNOHANG: return immediately if no children has exited (zombied) WUNTRACED: return for stopped children (status not reported) Status in Waitpid:  Status in Waitpid int status; waitpid(pid, &status, NULL) Macros to evaluate status: WIFEXITED(status): child exited normally WEXITSTATUS(status): return code when child exits WIFSIGNALED(status): child exited because of a signal not caught WTERMSIG(status): gives the number of the term. signal WIFSTOPPED(status): child is currently stopped WSTOPSIG(status): gives the number of the stop signal Summary:  Summary Process provides applications with the illusions of: Exclusively use of the processor and the main memory At the interface with OS, applications can: Creating child processes Run new programs Catch signals from other processes Use man if anything is not clear! Coding style issues

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