R M SOC 15 3 06

50 %
50 %
Information about R M SOC 15 3 06
Entertainment

Published on November 21, 2007

Author: Ming

Source: authorstream.com

Tropical eddies in a future climate:  Tropical eddies in a future climate Lennart Bengtsson ESSC, University Reading Many thanks to Kevin Hodges How may anthropogenic climate change effect atmospheric vortices?:  How may anthropogenic climate change effect atmospheric vortices? There is a general expectation that climate change will imply more intense cyclones both in the extra-tropics and the tropics. And this is certainly the perception of media and the laymen that this is likely to happen in a future climate. And political decisions are driven by such perceptions. Intense storms even now are seen as being a consequence of greenhouse gases and only reduced CO2 emission will prevent future disaster storms. Slide3:  After Emanuel There are recent claims that there is an increase in hurricane intensity ( e.g. Emanuel (2005), Webster et al. (2005):  There are recent claims that there is an increase in hurricane intensity ( e.g. Emanuel (2005), Webster et al. (2005) Are these findings credible? They are generally not supported by operational meteorologists According to Knutson and Tuleya (2004) any changes are probably undetectable “for decades to come” Results from this study and some additional work will presumably reduce the likelihood of detection further There are structural problems in the detection of trends Changes in observing systems Difficulties to separate a genuine change in storms from societal causes behind the huge increase in damages and damage cost Tropical cyclones in a future climate what could be expected?:  Tropical cyclones in a future climate what could be expected? Higher SST and higher atmospheric moisture would generally favor more intense storms ( e.g. Emanuel 1988, 1999) This is supported by modeling results by Knutson and Tuleya (2004) driving an limited area model with CMIP2+ boundary data ( 9 different models). Increasing vertical wind-shear and reduced relative humidity would counteract this tendency. Such influences occur in the tropical N. Atlantic during El Nino. How will the number of storms change? What are the general conditions controlling the number of tropical storms? What are the critical conditions in modeling tropical storms? Are results from large scale models with limited resolution credible? Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity Knutson and Tuleya (2004, J of Climate):  Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity Knutson and Tuleya (2004, J of Climate) They used a high resolution limited area model driven by the SST and moisture of 9 CGCM from the CMIP 2+ project. CMIP2 uses 1%yr-1 increase over an 80-year period implying an increase by a factor of 2.2. Model calculations are undertaken in NW Pacific-, NE Pacific- and Atlantic basin Four different convective schemes are tested (no significant differences) RESULTS: Max. surface wind speed increases by 6% Min. central pressure by 14% Max. precipitation by 24% Hurricane increase by a factor of 1/2 in the Simpson-Saphire scale Intensification of hurricanes at 2xCO2 Knutson and Tuleya (2004):  Intensification of hurricanes at 2xCO2 Knutson and Tuleya (2004) Tropical eddies in GCMs Some previous work:  Tropical eddies in GCMs Some previous work Manabe et al., 1970 (J.Atmos. Sci.) Bengtsson et al., 1982 ( Tellus) Haarsma et al., 1993 (Climat. Dyn.) Bengtsson et al., 1995, 1997 (Tellus) Tsutsui and Kasahara, 1996 ( J. Geophys.Res.) Vitard et al., 1997, 1999, 2001 (J. Climate) Sugi et al.,2002 ( J. Meteor. Soc. Japan) Camargo and Sobel, 2005 (J. Climate) Slide9:  Early results, Bengtsson et al., 1995 (Tellus) Slide10:  Effect of 2xCO2 From Bengtsson et al., 1997 (Tellus) ( number of cyclones /basin) ECHAM 5:  ECHAM 5 Roeckner et al., (2003), MPI-Report 349( J of Clim. 2005) Resolution used T63L31 (top at 10hPa) Water vapour, cloud liquid water and cloud ice in semi-Lagrangian flux form-scheme How are transient eddies identified?:  How are transient eddies identified? Data sets are needed at least every 6 hour We use a method proposed by Hodges (Hodges, 1999, MWR) We use the vorticity at 850hPa (unit 10-5 s-1) A transient eddy must exist for >48hours and be extended over at least1000km Tropical storm tracks, 2005 MJJASO 850 hPa ( Courtesy ECMWF):  Tropical storm tracks, 2005 MJJASO 850 hPa ( Courtesy ECMWF) Tropical track density (MJJASO) ECHAM5 (top), ERA40 (bottom):  Tropical track density (MJJASO) ECHAM5 (top), ERA40 (bottom) Storm track intensity and density ECHAM5 and ERA 40 (MJJASO):  Storm track intensity and density ECHAM5 and ERA 40 (MJJASO) Number of tropical vortices ( max. intensity) ERA 40 and ECHAM5 (AMIP2), 3x:  Number of tropical vortices ( max. intensity) ERA 40 and ECHAM5 (AMIP2), 3x Extreme storms Summary of results for ECHAM5 AMIP runs, NH tropics:  Summary of results for ECHAM5 AMIP runs, NH tropics ECHAM5 has more eddy activity over the African continent with a slightly more northerly position In the Pacific ocean the eddy activity is less than in ERA40 except in the eastern Pacific. Some differences in the statistical distributing with more stronger storms in ECHAM5 except for a very few intense vortices ( less than one /year) where there some more in ERA40. Slide18:  Courtesy J. O’Brien Tropical vortices response to ENSO, track density top ERA40, below ECHAM5 (20 year, AMIP):  Tropical vortices response to ENSO, track density top ERA40, below ECHAM5 (20 year, AMIP) ECHAM5, TRD Tropical vortices response to ENSO, storm intensity top ERA40, below ECHAM5 (20 year, AMIP):  Tropical vortices response to ENSO, storm intensity top ERA40, below ECHAM5 (20 year, AMIP) Storm track and ENSO:  Storm track and ENSO There is a good agreement between ECHAM5 and ERA40 in the response to ENSO (using SST in NINO3 as a measure) Most marked is the storm track enhancement over southern US stretching into the Atlantic and the storm track enhancement in the northeast Pacific There is a weakening of the tropical Atlantic storm track and a southward transition of the Pacific storm track The Climate change experiment The coupled model:  The Climate change experiment The coupled model Ocean Model (MPI-OM):  Ocean Model (MPI-OM) Marsland et al., 2003: Ocean Modelling, 5(2), 91-127 40 levels, bottom topography, partial grid cells 1.5° resolution, grid poles over land areas Parameterization include isopycnal diffusion, horizontal tracer mixing, vertical eddy mixing, convective overturning, slope convection Climate change experiment:  Climate change experiment Coupled model was run with pre-industrial forcing for 500 years ( negligible drift) 20th century runs 1860-2000 with observed anthropogenic forcing including CFCs, ozone and sulphate aerosols ( direct and indirect) 3 runs from different ocean and atmospheric states The runs were continued until 2100 using IPCC SRES scenario A1B What is A1B?:  What is A1B? Middle of the line scenario Carbon emission peaking in the 2050s (16 Gt/year) CO2 reaching 450 ppm. in 2030 CO2 reaching 700 ppm. in 2100 SO2 peaking in 2020 then coming done to 20% thereof in 2100 SST changes 21C - 20 C:  SST changes 21C - 20 C How will climate change affects the storm tracks?:  How will climate change affects the storm tracks? We compare three 30 year periods of 1961-1990 (20C) and 2071-2100 (21C) The 20C run agrees closely with the AMIP run Two different kinds of changes stand out: (a) A broad conservation of the total number of storms tracks except a minor reduction of the weaker storms (b) Geographical changes in the storm tracks Changes in storm track density (top) and intensity(bottom) (21C-20C), MJJASO Tropics:  Changes in storm track density (top) and intensity(bottom) (21C-20C), MJJASO Tropics Changes in storm track density (21C-20C) MJJASO:  Changes in storm track density (21C-20C) MJJASO Tropical storm tracks at 20C and 21(NH) Number/month as a function of max. intensity:  Tropical storm tracks at 20C and 21(NH) Number/month as a function of max. intensity Extreme storms Total nr (90 y) Tropical vortices NH(0, 35N, gen. 0, 20N) May through October:  Tropical vortices NH(0, 35N, gen. 0, 20N) May through October Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Atlantic sector: 8-35N, 50-85W:  Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Atlantic sector: 8-35N, 50-85W 20C 21C Unit: 10-5s-1 Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Eastern Pacific: 0-35N, 90-135W:  Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Eastern Pacific: 0-35N, 90-135W Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Western Pacific: 0-35N, 110-180E:  Number of eddies as a function of max. intensity, Western Pacific: 0-35N, 110-180E Changes in the NH Tropics:  Changes in the NH Tropics Slight reduction in the number of tropical storms No overall increase in intensity in spite of a SST warming by 2-3°C Reduced activity in the Atlantic sector and a southward movement of the east Pacific storm track Attempts towards an interpretation of the apparent contrary results between GCM results and theoretical assessments based on local conditions:  Attempts towards an interpretation of the apparent contrary results between GCM results and theoretical assessments based on local conditions Large scale effects: Increasing SSTs reduce the moist adiabatic lapse rate (because of more moisture) providing a larger warming in the upper troposphere This creates an enhanced northward temperature gradient through the troposphere. The effect of this is to increase (through the thermal wind equation) the vertical wind shear particular in the regions where tropical storm amplify High vertical wind shear counteracts tropical storm amplification SST changes 21C - 20 C:  SST changes 21C - 20 C Attempts towards an interpretation of the apparent contrary results between GCM results and theoretical assessments based on local conditions:  Attempts towards an interpretation of the apparent contrary results between GCM results and theoretical assessments based on local conditions Large scale effects: Increasing SSTs reduce the moist adiabatic lapse rate (because of more moisture) providing a larger warming in the upper troposphere This creates an enhanced northward temperature gradient through the troposphere. The effect of this is to increase (through the thermal wind equation) the vertical wind shear particular in the regions where tropical storm amplify High vertical wind shear counteracts tropical storm amplification Tropical storm tracks (modelled and observed)at higher resolution (T159) Number/month as a function of max. intensity:  Tropical storm tracks (modelled and observed)at higher resolution (T159) Number/month as a function of max. intensity Comparison with T159 resolution Extreme tropical storm tracks (modelled and observed)) Number/month as a function of max. intensity:  Extreme tropical storm tracks (modelled and observed)) Number/month as a function of max. intensity Comparison with T159 END:  END

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

BSG, 24.05.2006 - B 3 KR 15/05 R - dejure.org

... die Akte des Bundessozialgerichts B 3 KR 15/05 R sowie die Verfahrensakte haben vorgelegen. ... aA LSG Rheinland-Pfalz 12.2.2007, L 4 B 246/06 R, ...
Read more

On-line Forms and Publications Q - T - CDSS

On-line Forms and Publications M - P; On-line Forms and Publications U - Z; Right Column. On-line Forms and Publications Q ... SOC 341 (3/15 ...
Read more

Liste der Intel-Pentium-4-Mikroprozessoren – Wikipedia

Hyper-Threading wird nur vom 3,06 GHz-Modell unterstützt; Transistoren: ... Pentium 4-M Northwood (130 ... 15× 1,3 V: 26,9 W: Sockel 478: 23.
Read more

MEU(SOC) pistol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

... /USMC Precision Weapons Shop [3] Designed: 1986 [4] Specifications; ... (SOC) pistol, officially ... (SOC) forces. [15]
Read more

Alleh hopp! (Närrische Wochen im Südwesten), Sa. 06.02 ...

Alleh hopp! (Närrische Wochen im Südwesten) "Prunksitzung der Saarbrücker Karnevalsgesellschaft "M'r sin nit so"" Sa. 06.02. 180 Min. bzw. 3 Std., bis ...
Read more

Intel Celeron M – Wikipedia

Intel Celeron M ist die Bezeichnung der preisgünstigen Varianten der Intel-Mobilprozessoren, ... 1,3 GHz; 330: 1,4 GHz; 340: ... 1,06–2,00 GHz;
Read more

Fernsehprogramm heute abend 20:15 Uhr - TV heute Abend ...

Fernsehprogramm heute abend 20:15 Uhr: Was heute Abend im TV ... 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; weiter. TV Programm heute Abend für weitere Sender. Das ...
Read more

Intel Mobile Pentium 4 3.06 GHz - RK80532GE083512

Intel Mobile Pentium 4 3.06 GHz notebook CPU: ... (R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.06GHz: ... related to Intel Mobile Pentium 4 RK80532GE083512 (3.06 GHz)
Read more

TV-Programm: Heute 20.15 Uhr im Fernsehen

Das läuft heute um 20.15 Uhr im TV: Wir zeigen Ihnen, welche Sendungen zur besten Sendezeit auf welchem Sender laufen. ... 3.26 / 5 0. Lesermeinung. Danach.
Read more

M. J. McClain; A. E. Schlather; E. Ringe; N. S. King; L ...

... 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2015.06.023. (3) I. Kumar ... R. M.; Thurston, J ... Thurston, J. H.; Whitmire, K. H.; Khokhar, A. R. "Synthesis and ...
Read more